Brodmann area 5
Brodmann area 5 is one of Brodmann's cytoarchitectural defined regions of the brain. It is involved in somatosensory association. Brodmann area 5 is a subdivision of part of the cortex in the human brain. BA5 is the superior parietal part of the postcentral gyrus, it is situated posterior to the primary somatosensory cortex. It is bounded cytoarchitecturally by Brodmann area 2, Brodmann area 7, Brodmann area 4, Brodmann area 31. In guenon Brodmann area 5 is a subdivision of the parietal lobe defined on the basis of cytoarchitecture, it occupies the superior parietal lobule. Brodmann-1909 considered it topologically and cytoarchitecturally homologous to the preparietal area 5 of the human. Distinctive features: compared to area 4 of Brodmann-1909 area 5 has a thick self-contained internal granular layer. In the macaque monkey the area PE corresponds to BA5. Brodmann area List of regions in the human brain Visit BrainInfo for Neuroanatomy of this area Brodmann area 5 in the Brede Database at the Technical University of Denmark
Anatomical terminology is a form of scientific terminology used by anatomists and health professionals such as doctors. Anatomical terminology uses many unique terms and prefixes deriving from Ancient Greek and Latin; these terms can be confusing to those unfamiliar with them, but can be more precise, reducing ambiguity and errors. Since these anatomical terms are not used in everyday conversation, their meanings are less to change, less to be misinterpreted. To illustrate how inexact day-to-day language can be: a scar "above the wrist" could be located on the forearm two or three inches away from the hand or at the base of the hand. By using precise anatomical terminology such ambiguity is eliminated. An international standard for anatomical terminology, Terminologia Anatomica has been created. Anatomical terminology has quite regular morphology, the same prefixes and suffixes are used to add meanings to different roots; the root of a term refers to an organ or tissue. For example, the Latin names of structures such as musculus biceps brachii can be split up and refer to, musculus for muscle, biceps for "two-headed", brachii as in the brachial region of the arm.
The first word describes what is being spoken about, the second describes it, the third points to location. When describing the position of anatomical structures, structures may be described according to the anatomical landmark they are near; these landmarks may include structures, such as the umbilicus or sternum, or anatomical lines, such as the midclavicular line from the centre of the clavicle. The cephalon or cephalic region refers to the head; this area is further differentiated into the cranium, frons, auris, nasus and mentum. The neck area is called cervical region. Examples of structures named according to this include the frontalis muscle, submental lymph nodes, buccal membrane and orbicularis oculi muscle. Sometimes, unique terminology is used to reduce confusion in different parts of the body. For example, different terms are used when it comes to the skull in compliance with its embryonic origin and its tilted position compared to in other animals. Here, Rostral refers to proximity to the front of the nose, is used when describing the skull.
Different terminology is used in the arms, in part to reduce ambiguity as to what the "front", "back", "inner" and "outer" surfaces are. For this reason, the terms below are used: Radial referring to the radius bone, seen laterally in the standard anatomical position. Ulnar referring to the ulna bone, medially positioned when in the standard anatomical position. Other terms are used to describe the movement and actions of the hands and feet, other structures such as the eye. International morphological terminology is used by the colleges of medicine and dentistry and other areas of the health sciences, it facilitates communication and exchanges between scientists from different countries of the world and it is used daily in the fields of research and medical care. The international morphological terminology refers to morphological sciences as a biological sciences' branch. In this field, the form and structure are examined as well as the changes or developments in the organism, it is functional.
It covers the gross anatomy and the microscopic of living beings. It involves the anatomy of the adult, it includes comparative anatomy between different species. The vocabulary is extensive and complex, requires a systematic presentation. Within the international field, a group of experts reviews and discusses the morphological terms of the structures of the human body, forming today's Terminology Committee from the International Federation of Associations of Anatomists, it deals with the anatomical and embryologic terminology. In the Latin American field, there are meetings called Iberian Latin American Symposium Terminology, where a group of experts of the Pan American Association of Anatomy that speak Spanish and Portuguese and studies the international morphological terminology; the current international standard for human anatomical terminology is based on the Terminologia Anatomica. It was developed by the Federative Committee on Anatomical Terminology and the International Federation of Associations of Anatomists and was released in 1998.
It supersedes Nomina Anatomica. Terminologia Anatomica contains terminology for about 7500 human gross anatomical structures. For microanatomy, known as histology, a similar standard exists in Terminologia Histologica, for embryology, the study of development, a standard exists in Terminologia Embryologica; these standards specify accepted names that can be used to refer to histological and embryological structures in journal articles and other areas. As of September 2016, two sections of the Terminologia Anatomica, including central nervous system and peripheral nervous system, were merged to form the Terminologia Neuroanatomica; the Terminologia Anatomica has been perceived with a considerable criticism regarding its content including coverage and spelling mistakes and errors. Anatomical terminology is chosen to highlight the relative location of body structures. For instance, an anatomist might describe one band of tissue as "inferior to" another or a physician might describe a tumor as "superficial to" a deeper body structure.
Anatomical terms used to describe location
Brodmann area 12
Brodmann area 12 is a subdivision of the cerebral cortex of the guenon defined on the basis of cytoarchitecture. It occupies the most rostral portion of the frontal lobe. Brodmann-1909 did not regard it as homologous, either topographically or cytoarchitecturally, to rostral area 12 of the human. Distinctive features: a quite distinct internal granular layer separates slender pyramidal cells of the external pyramidal layer and the internal pyramidal layer, it is indirectly connected to the global palladius as well as the substantia nigra, due to efferents to the striatum. Glutaminergic input is turned into GABAergic input there, which allows the frontal lobes to exhibit some control over basal ganglia activity. Brodmann area List of regions in the human brain For Neuroanatomy of this area see BrainInfo
Brodmann area 47
Brodmann area 47, or BA47, is part of the frontal cortex in the human brain. Curving from the lateral surface of the frontal lobe into the ventral frontal cortex, it is below areas BA10 and BA45, beside BA11. This cytoarchitectonic region most corresponds to the gyral region the orbital part of inferior frontal gyrus, although these regions are not equivalent. Pars orbitalis is not based on cytoarchitectonic distinctions, rather is defined according to gross anatomical landmarks. Despite a clear distinction, these two terms are used liberally in peer-reviewed research journals. BA47 is known as orbital area 47. In the human, on the orbital surface it surrounds the caudal portion of the orbital sulcus from which it extends laterally into the orbital part of inferior frontal gyrus. Cytoarchitectonically it is bounded caudally by the triangular area 45, medially by the prefrontal area 11 of Brodmann-1909, rostrally by the frontopolar area 10, it incorporates the region that Brodmann identified as "Area 12" in the monkey, therefore, following the suggestion of Michael Petrides, some contemporary neuroscientists refer to the region as "BA47/12".
BA47 has been implicated in the processing of syntax in oral and sign languages, musical syntax, semantic aspects of language. Brodmann area List of regions in the human brain Petrides, M. "Comparative cytoarchitectonic analysis of the human and the macaque ventrolateral prefrontal cortex and corticocortical connection patterns in the monkey". European Journal of Neuroscience. 16: 291–310. Doi:10.1046/j.1460-9568.2001.02090.x. PMID 12169111. Levitin, DJ. "Musical structure is processed in "language" areas of the brain: A possible role for Brodmann Area 47 in temporal coherence". NeuroImage. 20: 242–252. Archived from the original on 2007-04-27. For Neuroanatomy of this area visit BrainInfo
Brodmann area 11
Brodmann area 11 is one of Brodmann's cytologically defined regions of the brain. It is in the orbitofrontal cortex, above the eye sockets, it is involved in decision making and processing rewards, encoding new information into long-term memory, reasoning. Brodmann area 11, or BA11, is part of the frontal cortex in the human brain. BA11 is the part of the orbitofrontal cortex that covers the medial portion of the ventral surface of the frontal lobe. Prefrontal area 11 of Brodmann-1909 is a subdivision of the frontal lobe in the human defined on the basis of cytoarchitecture. Defined and illustrated in Brodmann-1909, it included the areas subsequently illustrated in Brodmann-10 as prefrontal area 11 and rostral area 12. Area 11 is a subdivision of the cytoarchitecturally defined frontal region of cerebral cortex of the human; as illustrated in Brodmann-10, It constitutes most of the orbital gyri, gyrus rectus and the most rostral portion of the superior frontal gyrus. It is bounded medially by the inferior rostral sulcus and laterally by the frontomarginal sulcus.
Cytoarchitecturally it is bounded on the rostral and lateral aspects of the hemisphere by the frontopolar area 10, the orbital area 47, the triangular area 45. In an earlier map, the area labeled i.e. prefrontal area 11 of Brodmann-1909, was larger. Brodmann area 11 is a subdivision of the frontal lobe of the guenon monkey defined on the basis of cytoarchitecture. Distinctive features: area 11 lacks an internal granular layer. Brodmann area List of regions in the human brain For Neuroanatomy of this area in guenon see BrainInfo For Neuroanatomy of this area in human see BrainInfo
Brodmann area 10
Brodmann area 10 is the anterior-most portion of the prefrontal cortex in the human brain. BA10 was defined broadly in terms of its cytoarchitectonic traits as they were observed in the brains of cadavers, but because modern functional imaging cannot identify these boundaries, the terms anterior prefrontal cortex, rostral prefrontal cortex and frontopolar prefrontal cortex are used to refer to the area in the most anterior part of the frontal cortex that covers BA10—simply to emphasize the fact that BA10 does not include all parts of the prefrontal cortex. BA10 is the largest cytoarchitectonic area in the human brain, it has been described as "one of the least well understood regions of the human brain". Present research suggests that it is involved in strategic processes in memory recall and various executive functions. During human evolution, the functions in this area resulted in its expansion relative to the rest of the brain; the volume of the human BA10 is about 14 cm3 and constitutes 1.2% of total brain volume.
This is twice. By comparison, the volume of BA10 in bonobos is about 2.8 cm3, makes up only 0.74% of its brain volume. In each hemisphere, area 10 contains an estimated 250 million neurons. BA10 is a subdivision of the cytoarchitecturally defined frontal region of cerebral cortex, it occupies the most rostral portions of the middle frontal gyrus. In humans, on the medial aspect of the hemisphere it is bounded ventrally by the superior rostral sulcus, it does not extend as far as the cingulate sulcus. Cytoarchitecturally it is bounded dorsally by the granular frontal area 9, caudally by the middle frontal area 46, ventrally by the orbital area 47 and by the rostral area 12 or, in an early version of Brodmann's cortical map, the prefrontal Brodmann area 11-1909. Area 10 lies on top of a bony air sinus. In humans the frontal pole area of the prefrontal cortex includes not only area 10 but part of BA 9. BA 10 extends beyond the pole area into its ventromedial side. In Guenon monkeys, the pole area is filled by BA 12.
In humans the six cortical layers of area 10 have been described as having a "remarkably homogeneous appearance". All of them are identified. Relative to each other, layer I is thin to medium in width making up 11% of the depth of area 10. Layer II is thin and contains small granular and pyramidal medium to dark staining cells which colors RNA and DNA; the widest layer is III. Its pyramidal neurons are smaller nearer the above layer II than the below layer IV. Like layer II its cells are medium to dark. Layers II and III make up 43% of the cortex depth. Layer IV has clear borders with layers III above and V below and it is thin, its cells are pale to medium in staining. Layer V contains two distinct sublayers, Va and Vb; the density of cells Va have darker staining. Layers IV and V make up 40% of cortical thickness. Layer VI below layer V and above the white matter contains dark fusiform neurons, it contributes 6% of area 10 thickness. Area 10 differs from the adjacent Brodmann 9 in that the latter has a more distinct layer Vb and more prominent layer II.
Neighbouring Brodmann area 11 compared to area 10 has a thinner layer IV with more prominent layers Va, Vb and II. Area 10 in humans has the lowest neuron density among primate brains, it is unusual in that its neurons have extensive dendritic arborization and are dense with dendritic spines. This situation has been suggested to enable integration of inputs from multiple areas. BA 10 is divided into 10p, 10m and 10r. 10p occupies the frontal pole while the other two cover the ventromedial part of the prefrontal cortex. Area 10m has thin layers II and IV and a more prominent layer V. In contrast, area 10r has a prominent layer II and a thicker layer IV. Large pyramidal cells are present in 10r layer III and more so in area 10p, but it is noted that the "differences between the three areas are gradual, it is difficult to draw sharp boundaries between them". Research upon primates suggests that area 10 has inputs and output connections with other higher-order association cortex areas in the prefrontal cortex while having few with primary sensory or motor areas.
Its connections through the extreme capsule link it to the auditory and multisensory areas of the superior temporal sulcus. They continue in the medial longitudinal fasciculus in the white matter of the superior temporal gyrus areas on the superior temporal gyrus and nearby multisensory areas on the upper bank of the superior temporal sulcus. Another area connected through the extreme capsule is the ventral region of the insula. Connections through the cingulate fasciculus link area 10 to the anterior, posterior cingulate cortex, retrosplenial cortex; the uncinate fasciculus connects it with the amygdala, temporopolar proisocortex and anterior most part of the superior temporal gyrus. There are no connections to the parietal cortex, occipital cortex nor inferotemporal cortexIts connections have been summarized as "it seems not to be interconnected with ‘downstream’ areas in the way that other prefrontal areas are... it is the only prefrontal region, predominantly interconnected with supramodal cortex in the PFC, anterior temporal cortex and cingulate cortex."
It has been proposed that due to this connectivity that it can "play a major role in the high
A Brodmann area is a region of the cerebral cortex, in the human or other primate brain, defined by its cytoarchitecture, or histological structure and organization of cells. Brodmann areas were defined and numbered by the German anatomist Korbinian Brodmann based on the cytoarchitectural organization of neurons he observed in the cerebral cortex using the Nissl method of cell staining. Brodmann published his maps of cortical areas in humans and other species in 1909, along with many other findings and observations regarding the general cell types and laminar organization of the mammalian cortex; the same Brodmann area number in different species does not indicate homologous areas. A similar, but more detailed cortical map was published by Constantin von Economo and Georg N. Koskinas in 1925. Brodmann areas have been discussed, debated and renamed exhaustively for nearly a century and remain the most known and cited cytoarchitectural organization of the human cortex. Many of the areas Brodmann defined based on their neuronal organization have since been correlated to diverse cortical functions.
For example, Brodmann areas 3, 1 and 2 are the primary somatosensory cortex. Higher order functions of the association cortical areas are consistently localized to the same Brodmann areas by neurophysiological, functional imaging, other methods. However, functional imaging can only identify the approximate localization of brain activations in terms of Brodmann areas since their actual boundaries in any individual brain requires its histological examination. Different parts of the cerebral cortex are involved in different cognitive and behavioral functions; the differences show up in a number of ways: the effects of localized brain damage, regional activity patterns exposed when the brain is examined using functional imaging techniques, connectivity with subcortical areas, regional differences in the cellular architecture of the cortex. Neuroscientists describe most of the cortex—the part they call the neocortex—as having six layers, but not all layers are apparent in all areas, when a layer is present, its thickness and cellular organization may vary.
Scientists have constructed maps of cortical areas on the basis of variations in the appearance of the layers as seen with a microscope. One of the most used schemes came from Korbinian Brodmann, who split the cortex into 52 different areas and assigned each a number. For example, Brodmann area 1 is the primary somatosensory cortex, Brodmann area 17 is the primary visual cortex, Brodmann area 25 is the anterior cingulate cortex. Many of those brain areas defined by Brodmann have their own complex internal structures. In a number of cases, brain areas are organized into topographic maps, where adjoining bits of the cortex correspond to adjoining parts of the body, or of some more abstract entity. A simple example of this type of correspondence is the primary motor cortex, a strip of tissue running along the anterior edge of the central sulcus. Motor areas innervating each part of the body arise from a distinct zone, with neighboring body parts represented by neighboring zones. Electrical stimulation of the cortex at any point causes a muscle-contraction in the represented body part.
This "somatotopic" representation is not evenly distributed, however. The head, for example, is represented by a region about three times as large as the zone for the entire back and trunk; the size of any zone correlates to the precision of motor control and sensory discrimination possible. The areas for the lips and tongue are large, considering the proportional size of their represented body parts. In visual areas, the maps are retinotopic. In this case too, the representation is uneven: the fovea—the area at the center of the visual field—is overrepresented compared to the periphery; the visual circuitry in the human cerebral cortex contains several dozen distinct retinotopic maps, each devoted to analyzing the visual input stream in a particular way. The primary visual cortex, the main recipient of direct input from the visual part of the thalamus, contains many neurons that are most activated by edges with a particular orientation moving across a particular point in the visual field. Visual areas farther downstream extract features such as color and shape.
In auditory areas, the primary map is tonotopic. Sounds are parsed according to frequency by subcortical auditory areas, this parsing is reflected by the primary auditory zone of the cortex; as with the visual system, there are a number of tonotopic cortical maps, each devoted to analyzing sound in a particular way. Within a topographic map there can sometimes be finer levels of spatial structure. In the primary visual cortex, for example, where the main organization is retinotopic and the main responses are to moving edges, cells that respond to different edge-orientations are spatially segregated from one another. Areas 3, 1 and 2 – Primary somatosensory cortex in the postcentral gyrus Area 4– Primary motor cortex Area 5 – Superior parietal lobule Area 6 – Premotor cortex and Supplementary Motor Cortex Area 7 – Visuo-Motor Coordination Area 8 – Includes Frontal eye fields