The Home Office is a ministerial department of Her Majesty's Government of the United Kingdom, responsible for immigration and law and order. As such it is responsible for policing in England and Wales and rescue services in England, visas and immigration and the Security Service, it is in charge of government policy on security-related issues such as drugs, counter-terrorism and ID cards. It was responsible for Her Majesty's Prison Service and the National Probation Service, but these have been transferred to the Ministry of Justice; the Cabinet minister responsible for the department is the Home Secretary. The remit of the Home Office was reduced in 2007 when, after Home Secretary John Reid had declared the Home Office "not fit for purpose", the Prime Minister Tony Blair separated a new Ministry of Justice from the reduced Home Office, its culpability in the Windrush scandal involving the illegal deportation and harassment of legal British residents is an example of a more recent failure. The Home Office continues to be known in official papers and when referred to in Parliament, as the Home Department.
The Home Office is headed by the Home Secretary, a Cabinet minister supported by the department's senior civil servant, the Permanent Secretary. As of October 2014, the Home Office comprises the following organisations: National Crime Agency HM Inspectorate of Constabulary Independent Chief Inspector of Borders and Immigration Independent Office for Police Conduct and other oversight bodies Home Affairs Select Committee HM Chief Inspector of Fire Services Border Force HM Passport Office Immigration Enforcement Corporate Services UK Visas and Immigration Police Services Fire and Rescue Services Office for Security and Counter-Terrorism Advisory Council on the Misuse of Drugs Animals in Science Committee Disclosure and Barring Service Gangmasters Licensing Authority Independent Police Complaints Commission Investigatory Powers Tribunal Migration Advisory Committee National DNA Database Ethics Group Office of Surveillance Commissioners Office of the Immigration Services Commissioner Police Advisory Board for England and Wales Police Discipline Appeals Tribunal Police Remuneration Review Body Security Industry Authority Technical Advisory Board In October 2012, a number of functions of the National Policing Improvement Agency were transferred to the Home Office ahead of the future abolition of the agency.
These included: Use of the Airwave communications system by police forces The Police National Database The National DNA Database Legislative powers regarding police employment Forensics policy The National Procurement Hub for information technology The Home Office Ministers are as follows: The Department outlined its aims for this Parliament in its Business Plan, published in May 2011 and superseded its Structural Reform Plan. The plan said the department will: 1. Empower the public to hold the police to account for their role in cutting crime Introduce directly elected Police and Crime Commissioners and make police actions to tackle crime and anti-social behaviour more transparent 2. Free up the police to fight crime more and efficiently Cut police bureaucracy, end unnecessary central interference and overhaul police powers in order to cut crime, reduce costs and improve police value for money. Simplify national institutional structures and establish a National Crime Agency to strengthen the fight against organised crime 3.
Create a more integrated criminal justice system Help the police and other public services work together across the criminal justice system 4. Secure our borders and reduce immigration Deliver an improved migration system that commands public confidence and serves our economic interests. Limit non-EU economic migrants, introduce new measures to reduce inflow and minimise abuse of all migration routes, for example the student route. Process asylum applications more and end the detention of children for immigration purposes 5. Protect people's freedoms and civil liberties Reverse state interference to ensure there is not disproportionate intrusion into people‟s lives 6. Protect our citizens from terrorism Keep people safe through the Government‟s approach to counter-terrorism 7. Build a fairer and more equal society Help create a fair and flexible labour market. Change culture and attitudes. Empower individuals and communities. Improve equality structures, frontline services and support. On 27 March 1782, the Home Office was formed by renaming the existing Southern Department, with all existing staff transferring.
On the same day, the Northern Department was renamed the Foreign Office. To match the new names, there was a transferring of responsibilities between the two Departments of State. All domestic responsibilities were moved to the Home Office, all foreign matters became the concern of the Foreign Office. Most subsequently created domestic departments have been formed by splitting responsibilities away from the Home Office; the initial responsibilities were: Answering petitions and addresses sent to the King Advising the King on Royal grants Warrants and commissions The exercise of Royal Prerogative Issuing instructions on behalf of the King to officers of the Crown, lords-lieutenant and magistrates concerning law and order Operation of the secret service within the UK Protecting the public Safeguarding the rights and liberties of individualsResponsibilities were subsequently changed over the years that follo
A jump cut is a cut in film editing in which two sequential shots of the same subject are taken from camera positions that vary only if at all. This type of edit gives the effect of jumping forwards in time, it is a manipulation of temporal space using the duration of a single shot, fracturing the duration to move the audience ahead. This kind of cut abruptly communicates the passing of time as opposed to the more seamless dissolve used in films predating Jean-Luc Godard's Breathless, when jump cuts were first used extensively. For this reason, jump cuts, while not seen as inherently bad, are considered a violation of classical continuity editing, which aims to give the appearance of continuous time and space in the story-world by de-emphasizing editing. Jump cuts, in contrast, draw attention to the constructed nature of the film. Continuity editing uses; the 30 degree rule advises that for consecutive shots to appear seamless, the camera position must vary at least 30 degrees from its previous position.
Some schools would call for a change in framing as well. If the camera position changes less than 30 degrees, the difference between the two shots will not be substantial enough, the viewer will experience the edit as a jump in the position of the subject, jarring, draws attention to itself. Although jump cuts can be created through the editing together of two shots filmed non-continuously, they can be created by removing a middle section of one continuously filmed shot. Jump cuts can add a sense of speed to the sequence of events. Georges Méliès is known as the father of the jump cut as a result of having discovered it accidentally, using it to simulate magical tricks. Dziga Vertof's avant-garde Russian film Man With a Movie Camera is entirely composed of jump cuts. Contemporary use of the jump cut stems from its appearance in the work of Jean-Luc Godard and other filmmakers of the French New Wave of the late 1950s and 1960s. In Godard's ground-breaking Breathless, for example, he cut together shots of Jean Seberg riding in a convertible in such a way that the discontinuity between shots is emphasized and its jarring effect deliberate.
In the screen shots to the right, the first image comes from the end of one shot and the second is the beginning of the next shot—thus emphasizing the gap in action between the two. The jump cut has been used in films like Snatch, by Guy Ritchie, Run Lola Run, by Tom Tykwer, it is used in TV editing, in documentaries produced by Discovery Channel and National Geographic Channel, for example. It is noticeable in Universal Monsters films and music videos; the jump cut has sometimes served a political use in film. It has been used as an alienating Brechtian technique that makes the audience aware of the unreality of the film experience, in order to focus the audience's attention on the political message of a film rather than the drama or emotion of the narrative—as may be observed in some segments of Sergei Eisenstein's The Battleship Potemkin, it was used in Alexander Dovzhenko's Arsenal, where a close-up shot of a character's face cuts closer and closer a total of nine times. Mark Cousins comments that this "fragmentation captured his indecision... and confusion", adding that "Although the effect jars, the idea of visual conflict was central to Soviet montage cinema of that time".
Jump cuts are sometimes used to show a nervous searching scene, as is done in the 2009 science fiction film Moon in which the protagonist, Sam Bell, is looking for a secret room on a moon base, District 9 in which the protagonist, searches for illegal objects in the house of Christopher's friend. In television, Rowan & Martin's Laugh-In editor Arthur Schneider won an Emmy Award in 1968 for his pioneering use of the jump cut. Jump cutting remained an uncommon TV technique until shows like Homicide: Life on the Street popularized it on the small screen in the 1990s; the well-remembered music video for "Everybody Have Fun Tonight" has a jump cut for every frame. Other uses of the jump cuts include Vincent Gallo's short "Flying Christ" in which various shots of "Christ" jumping are cut together as he is in mid jump, creating the illusion of flight, in many vlogs online, as popularized by the show with zefrank. British comedian Russell Kane has produced a series of comic, satirical videos, named "Kaneings", in response to current events.
These make extensive use of jump cut-style editing. Vernacular use of the term jump cut can describe any noticeable edit in a film. However, many such over-broad usages are incorrect. In particular, a cut between two different subjects is not a true jump cut, no matter how jarring. A match cut may be abrupt, but the viewer is meant to see the similarity between two scenes with disparate subjects rather than experience the discontinuity between the two shots. A well-known example is found at the end of the "Dawn of Man" sequence in the film 2001: A Space Odyssey. A primitive hominid throws it into the air; when the bone reaches its highest point, the shot cuts to that of a shaped space station in orbit above the earth. This edit has been described as a jump cut by those unfamiliar with film editing terminology, but it is properly termed a graphic match or a match cut. Jump cuts are distinguishab
Turkey the Republic of Turkey, is a transcontinental country located in Western Asia, with a smaller portion on the Balkan Peninsula in Southeast Europe. East Thrace, located in Europe, is separated from Anatolia by the Sea of Marmara, the Bosphorous strait and the Dardanelles. Turkey is bordered by Bulgaria to its northwest. Istanbul is the largest city. 70 to 80 per cent of the country's citizens identify as Turkish. Kurds are the largest minority. At various points in its history, the region has been inhabited by diverse civilizations including the Assyrians, Thracians, Phrygians and Armenians. Hellenization continued into the Byzantine era; the Seljuk Turks began migrating into the area in the 11th century, their victory over the Byzantines at the Battle of Manzikert in 1071 symbolizes the start and foundation of Turkey. The Seljuk Sultanate of Rûm ruled Anatolia until the Mongol invasion in 1243, when it disintegrated into small Turkish principalities. Beginning in the late 13th-century, the Ottomans started uniting these Turkish principalities.
After Mehmed II conquered Constantinople in 1453, Ottoman expansion continued under Selim I. During the reign of Suleiman the Magnificent the Ottoman Empire encompassed much of Southeast Europe, West Asia and North Africa and became a world power. In the following centuries the state entered a period of decline with a gradual loss of territories and wars. In an effort to consolidate the weakening social and political foundations of the empire, Mahmut II started a period of modernisation in the early 19th century, bringing reforms in all areas of the state including the military and bureaucracy along with the emancipation of all citizens. In 1913, a coup d'état put the country under the control of the Three Pashas. During World War I, the Ottoman government committed genocides against its Armenian and Pontic Greek subjects. Following the war, the conglomeration of territories and peoples that comprised the Ottoman Empire was partitioned into several new states; the Turkish War of Independence, initiated by Mustafa Kemal Atatürk and his colleagues against occupying Allied Powers, resulted in the abolition of monarchy in 1922 and the establishment of the Republic of Turkey in 1923, with Atatürk as its first president.
Atatürk enacted numerous reforms, many of which incorporated various aspects of Western thought and customs into the new form of Turkish government. The Kurdish–Turkish conflict, an armed conflict between the Republic of Turkey and Kurdish insurgents, has been active since 1984 in the southeast of the country. Various Kurdish groups demand separation from Turkey to create an independent Kurdistan or to have autonomy and greater political and cultural rights for Kurds in Turkey. Turkey is a charter member of the UN, an early member of NATO, the IMF and the World Bank, a founding member of the OECD, OSCE, BSEC, OIC and G-20. After becoming one of the first members of the Council of Europe in 1949, Turkey became an associate member of the EEC in 1963, joined the EU Customs Union in 1995 and started accession negotiations with the European Union in 2005 which have been stopped by the EU in 2017 due to "Turkey's path toward autocratic rule". Turkey's economy and diplomatic initiatives led to its recognition as a regional power while its location has given it geopolitical and strategic importance throughout history.
Turkey is a secular, unitary parliamentary republic which adopted a presidential system with a referendum in 2017. Turkey's current administration headed by president Recep Tayyip Erdoğan of the AKP has enacted measures to increase the influence of Islam, undermine Kemalist policies and freedom of the press; the English name of Turkey means "land of the Turks". Middle English usage of Turkye is evidenced in an early work by Chaucer called The Book of the Duchess; the phrase land of Torke is used in the 15th-century Digby Mysteries. Usages can be found in the Dunbar poems, the 16th century Manipulus Vocabulorum and Francis Bacon's Sylva Sylvarum; the modern spelling "Turkey" dates back to at least 1719. The Turkish name Türkiye was adopted in 1923 under the influence of European usage; the Anatolian peninsula, comprising most of modern Turkey, is one of the oldest permanently settled regions in the world. Various ancient Anatolian populations have lived in Anatolia, from at least the Neolithic period until the Hellenistic period.
Many of these peoples spoke the Anatolian languages, a branch of the larger Indo-European language family. In fact, given the antiquity of the Indo-European Hittite and Luwian languages, some scholars have proposed Anatolia as the hypothetical centre from which the Indo-European languages radiated; the European part of Turkey, called Eastern Thrace, has been inhabited since at least forty thousand years ago, is known to have been in the Neolithic era by about 6000 BC. Göbekli Tepe is the site of the oldest known man-made religious structure, a temple dating to circa 10,000 BC, while Çatalhöyük is a large Neolithic and Chalcolithic settlement in southern Anatolia, which existed from approximately
O. J. Simpson
Orenthal James Simpson, nicknamed The Juice, is an American former running back, actor, advertising spokesman, convicted robber and kidnapper. Simpson attended the University of Southern California, where he played football for the USC Trojans and won the Heisman Trophy in 1968, he played professionally as a running back in the NFL for 11 seasons with the Buffalo Bills from 1969 to 1977. He played for the San Francisco 49ers from 1978 to 1979. In 1973, he became the first NFL player to rush for more than 2,000 yards in a season, he holds the record for the single season yards-per-game average, which stands at 143.1. He was the only player to rush for over 2,000 yards in the 14-game regular season NFL format. Simpson was inducted into the College Football Hall of Fame in 1983 and the Pro Football Hall of Fame in 1985. After retiring from football, he began new careers in football broadcasting. In 1994, Simpson was arrested and charged with the murders of his ex-wife, Nicole Brown Simpson, her friend, Ron Goldman.
He was acquitted by a jury after a internationally publicized trial. The families of the victims subsequently filed a civil suit against him, in 1997 a civil court awarded a $33.5 million judgment against him for the victims' wrongful deaths. In 2000, he moved to Florida to avoid settling in Miami. In 2007, Simpson was arrested in Las Vegas and charged with the felonies of armed robbery and kidnapping. In 2008, he was convicted and sentenced to 33 years imprisonment, with a minimum of nine years without parole, he served his sentence at the Lovelock Correctional Center near Nevada. Simpson was granted parole on July 20, 2017, he was eligible for release from prison on October 1, 2017, was released on that date. Born and raised in San Francisco, Simpson is a son of Eunice, a hospital administrator, Jimmy Lee Simpson, a chef and bank custodian, his father was a well-known drag queen in the San Francisco Bay Area. In life, Jimmy Simpson announced that he was gay and died of AIDS in 1986. Simpson's maternal grandparents were from Louisiana, his aunt gave him the name Orenthal, which she said was the name of a French actor she liked.
Simpson has one brother, Melvin Leon "Truman" Simpson, one living sister, Shirley Simpson-Baker, one deceased sister, Carmelita Simpson-Durio. As a child, Simpson developed rickets and wore braces on his legs until the age of five, giving him his bowlegged stance, his parents separated in 1952, Simpson was raised by his mother. Simpson grew up in San Francisco and lived with his family in the housing projects of the Potrero Hill neighborhood. In his early teenage years, he joined a street gang called the Persian Warriors and was incarcerated at the San Francisco Youth Guidance Center. Future wife Marquerite, his childhood sweetheart, described Simpson as "really an awful person then". At Galileo High School in San Francisco, Simpson played for the school football team, the Galileo Lions. Although Simpson was an All-City football player at Galileo, his mediocre high-school grades prevented him from attracting the interest of many college recruiters. After a childhood friend's injury in the Vietnam War influenced Simpson to stay out of the military, he enrolled at City College of San Francisco in 1965.
He played football both ways as a running back and defensive back and was named to the Junior College All-American team as a running back. City College won the Prune Bowl against Long Beach State, many colleges sought Simpson as a transfer student for football. Simpson chose to attend the University of Southern California, which he had admired as a young football fan, over the University of Utah and played running back for head coach John McKay in 1967 and 1968. Simpson led the nation in rushing both years under McKay: in 1967 with 1,543 yards and 13 touchdowns, in 1968 with 1,880 yards on 383 carries; as a junior in 1967, Simpson was a close runner-up in the Heisman Trophy balloting to quarterback Gary Beban of UCLA. In that year's Victory Bell rivalry game between the teams, USC was down by six points in the fourth quarter with under eleven minutes remaining. On their own 36, USC backup quarterback Toby Page called an audible on seven. Simpson's 64-yard touchdown run tied the score, the extra point provided a 21–20 lead, the final score.
This was the biggest play in what is regarded as one of the greatest football games of the 20th century. Another dramatic touchdown in the same game is the subject of the Arnold Friberg oil painting, O. J. Simpson Breaks for Daylight. Simpson won the Walter Camp Award in 1967 and was a two-time consensus All-American. Simpson was an aspiring track athlete. Prior to playing football at Southern Cal, he ran in the USC sprint relay quartet that broke the world record in the 4 x 110-yard relay at the NCAA track championships in Provo, Utah on June 17, 1967; as a senior in 1968, Simpson rushed for 1,709 yards and 22 touchdowns in the regular season, earning the Heisman Trophy, the Maxwell Award, Walter Camp Award. He still holds the record for the Heisman's largest margin of victory, defeating runner-up Leroy Keyes by 1,750 points. In the Rose Bowl on New Year's Day, #2 USC faced top-ranked Ohio State; the first selection 1969 AFL-NFL Common Draft was held by the AFL's Buffalo Bills, after finishing 1–12–1
Bolivia the Plurinational State of Bolivia is a landlocked country located in western-central South America. The capital is Sucre; the largest city and principal industrial center is Santa Cruz de la Sierra, located on the Llanos Orientales a flat region in the east of Bolivia. The sovereign state of Bolivia is a constitutionally unitary state, divided into nine departments, its geography varies from the peaks of the Andes in the West, to the Eastern Lowlands, situated within the Amazon Basin. It is bordered to the north and east by Brazil, to the southeast by Paraguay, to the south by Argentina, to the southwest by Chile, to the northwest by Peru. One-third of the country is within the Andean mountain range. With 1,098,581 km2 of area, Bolivia is the fifth largest country in South America, the 27th largest in the world and the largest landlocked country in the Southern Hemisphere; the country's population, estimated at 11 million, is multiethnic, including Amerindians, Europeans and Africans.
The racial and social segregation that arose from Spanish colonialism has continued to the modern era. Spanish is the official and predominant language, although 36 indigenous languages have official status, of which the most spoken are Guarani and Quechua languages. Before Spanish colonization, the Andean region of Bolivia was part of the Inca Empire, while the northern and eastern lowlands were inhabited by independent tribes. Spanish conquistadors arriving from Cuzco and Asunción took control of the region in the 16th century. During the Spanish colonial period Bolivia was administered by the Royal Audiencia of Charcas. Spain built its empire in large part upon the silver, extracted from Bolivia's mines. After the first call for independence in 1809, 16 years of war followed before the establishment of the Republic, named for Simón Bolívar. Over the course of the 19th and early 20th century Bolivia lost control of several peripheral territories to neighboring countries including the seizure of its coastline by Chile in 1879.
Bolivia remained politically stable until 1971, when Hugo Banzer led a coup d'état which replaced the socialist government of Juan José Torres with a military dictatorship headed by Banzer. Banzer's regime cracked down on leftist and socialist opposition and other forms of dissent, resulting in the torture and deaths of a number of Bolivian citizens. Banzer was ousted in 1978 and returned as the democratically elected president of Bolivia from 1997 to 2001. Modern Bolivia is a charter member of the UN, IMF, NAM, OAS, ACTO, Bank of the South, ALBA and USAN. For over a decade Bolivia has had one of the highest economic growth rates in Latin America, it is a developing country, with a medium ranking in the Human Development Index, a poverty level of 38.6%, one of the lowest crime rates in Latin America. Its main economic activities include agriculture, fishing and manufacturing goods such as textiles, refined metals, refined petroleum. Bolivia is rich in minerals, including tin and lithium. Bolivia is named after Simón Bolívar, a Venezuelan leader in the Spanish American wars of independence.
The leader of Venezuela, Antonio José de Sucre, had been given the option by Bolívar to either unite Charcas with the newly formed Republic of Peru, to unite with the United Provinces of Rio de la Plata, or to formally declare its independence from Spain as a wholly independent state. Sucre opted to create a brand new state and on 6 August 1825, with local support, named it in honor of Simón Bolívar; the original name was Republic of Bolívar. Some days congressman Manuel Martín Cruz proposed: "If from Romulus comes Rome from Bolívar comes Bolivia"; the name was approved by the Republic on 3 October 1825. In 2009, a new constitution changed the country's official name to "Plurinational State of Bolivia" in recognition of the multi-ethnic nature of the country and the enhanced position of Bolivia's indigenous peoples under the new constitution; the region now known as Bolivia had been occupied for over 2,500 years. However, present-day Aymara associate themselves with the ancient civilization of the Tiwanaku culture which had its capital at Tiwanaku, in Western Bolivia.
The capital city of Tiwanaku dates from as early as 1500 BC when it was a small, agriculturally based village. The community grew to urban proportions between AD 600 and AD 800, becoming an important regional power in the southern Andes. According to early estimates, the city covered 6.5 square kilometers at its maximum extent and had between 15,000 and 30,000 inhabitants. In 1996 satellite imaging was used to map the extent of fossilized suka kollus across the three primary valleys of Tiwanaku, arriving at population-carrying capacity estimates of anywhere between 285,000 and 1,482,000 people. Around AD 400, Tiwanaku went from being a locally dominant force to a predatory state. Tiwanaku expanded its reaches into the Yungas and brought its culture and way of life to many other cultures in Peru and Chile. Tiwanaku was not a violent culture in many respects. In order to expand its reach, Tiwanaku exercised great political astuteness, creating colonies, fostering trade agree
Benedict Timothy Carlton Cumberbatch is an English actor who has performed in film, television and radio. A graduate of the Victoria University of Manchester, he continued his training at the London Academy of Music and Dramatic Art, obtaining a Master of Arts in Classical Acting, he first performed at the Open Air Theatre, Regent's Park in Shakespearean productions and made his West End debut in Richard Eyre's revival of Hedda Gabler in 2005. Since he has starred in the Royal National Theatre productions After the Dance and Frankenstein. In 2015, he played William Shakespeare's Hamlet at the Barbican Theatre. Cumberbatch's television work includes appearances in Silent Witness and Fortysomething before playing Stephen Hawking in the television film Hawking in 2004, he has starred as Sherlock Holmes in the series Sherlock since 2010. He has headlined Tom Stoppard's adaptation of Parade's End, The Hollow Crown: The Wars of the Roses and Patrick Melrose. In film, Cumberbatch has starred in Amazing Grace as William Pitt the Younger, Star Trek Into Darkness as Khan, 12 Years a Slave as William Prince Ford, The Fifth Estate as Julian Assange and The Imitation Game as Alan Turing.
From 2012 to 2014, through voice and motion capture, he played the characters of Smaug and the Necromancer in The Hobbit film series. Cumberbatch portrays the Marvel Comics character Dr. Stephen Strange in the Marvel Cinematic Universe, appearing in Doctor Strange, Thor: Ragnarok and Avengers: Infinity War. Cumberbatch has received numerous awards and nominations for acting including three Laurence Olivier Award nominations, winning Best Actor in a Play for Frankenstein, he has received six Primetime Emmy Award nominations, winning Outstanding Lead Actor in a Miniseries or a Movie for Sherlock. His performance in The Imitation Game earned him an Academy Award nomination for Best Actor. In addition, he has received seven BAFTA nominations, five Screen Actors Guild Award nominations and two Golden Globe Award nominations among others. In 2014, Time magazine included him in its annual Time 100 as one of the "Most Influential People in the World", he was appointed with a Commander of the Order of the British Empire by Queen Elizabeth II in June 2015 for his services to the performing arts and to charity.
Cumberbatch was born at Queen Charlotte's and Chelsea Hospital in the White City district of West London's Hammersmith and Fulham borough, to actors Timothy Carlton and Wanda Ventham. He grew up in the Royal Borough of Chelsea, he has Tracy Peacock, from his mother's first marriage. His grandfather, Henry Carlton Cumberbatch, was a submarine officer of both World Wars, a prominent figure of London high society, his great-grandfather, Henry Arnold Cumberbatch, was a diplomat who served as consul in Turkey and Lebanon. His great-great-grandfather, Robert William Cumberbatch was a British consul in Turkey and the Russian Empire. Cumberbatch is third cousin 16 times removed of King Richard III, whom he portrayed in The Hollow Crown. Motivated by this connection, he read a poem. Cumberbatch attended boarding schools from the age of 8, he was a member of The Rattigan Society, Harrow's principal club for the dramatic arts, named after Old Harrovian and playwright Terence Rattigan. He was involved in numerous Shakespearean works at school and made his acting debut as Titania, Queen of the Fairies, in A Midsummer Night's Dream when he was 12.
Cumberbatch's drama teacher, Martin Tyrell, called him "the best schoolboy actor" he had worked with. After leaving Harrow, Cumberbatch took a gap year to volunteer as an English teacher at a Tibetan monastery in Darjeeling, India, he attended the Victoria University of Manchester, where he studied Drama. He continued his training as an actor at the London Academy of Music and Dramatic Art graduating with an MA in Classical Acting. On 16 January 2018, it was announced that Cumberbatch would succeed Timothy West as President of LAMDA. On being appointed Cumberbatch stated it would be "an honour to watch the next generation of actors and technicians blossom". Since 2001, Cumberbatch has had major roles in a dozen classic plays at the Regent's Park Open Air, Royal Court and Royal National Theatres, he was nominated for an Olivier Award for Best Performance in a Supporting Role for his role as George Tesman in Hedda Gabler, which he performed at the Almeida Theatre on 16 March 2005 and at the Duke of York's Theatre when it transferred to the West End on 19 May 2005.
This transfer marked his first West End appearance. In June 2010, Cumberbatch led the revival of Terence Rattigan's After the Dance directed by Thea Sharrock at the Royal National Theatre, he played 1920s aristocrat David Scott-Fowler to critical success. The play won four Olivier Awards including Best Revival. Cumberbatch acted in Danny Boyle's The Children's Monologues, a theatrical charity event at London's Old Vic Theatre, on 14 November 2010; the show was produced by Dramatic Need. In February 2011, Cumberbatch began playing, on alternate nights, both Victor Frankenstein and his creature, opposite Jonny Lee Miller, in Danny Boyle's stage production of Mary Shelley's Frankenstein at the Royal National Theatre. Frankenstein was broadcast to cinemas as a part of National Theatre Live in March 2011. Cumberbatch achieved the "Triple Crown of London Theatre" in 2011 when he received the Olivier Award, Evening Standard Award and Critics' Circle Theatre Award for his perf
Sky Sports News
Sky Sports News is a British pay television sports news channel run by Sky, a division of Comcast. It is broadcast in the Republic of Ireland and Nordic countries; the channel reports on a range of sports. The programming is presented by two anchors in the studio who read the news or introduce short clips featuring highlights and interviews. Tabs at the bottom of the screen give unrelated information on other sports, while a sidebar shows unrelated league tables or other information; the content of the main studio feed repeats. The live programming is from 6:00am to midnight, it plays the replay edition of Through the Night continuously all night long. On 20 May 2007, SSN broadcast the Conference National play-off Final between Exeter City and Morecambe; this was the first live match to be shown on the channel since certain European games involving British teams were shown to provide exclusivity when competing with the operational OnSports as Sky Sports News was not available at that time via digital terrestrial platforms.
This was due to all other Sky Sports channels being occupied by live sport. This enabled Freeview viewers to watch a live match on Sky Sports; the station had live coverage of Wales v New Zealand on 26 May 2007 and the La Liga tie between Espanyol and Barcelona in December 2007. Sky Sports News launched on 1 October 1998, the launch date of BSkyB's Digital Satellite service, was BSkyB's first digital only channel. On 10 April 2000, SSN relaunched as Sky Sports.com TV, to tie with the launch of the SkySports.com website. The channel scrapped its ".com TV" look, on 1 July 2001, Sky Sports News launched another graphics change. A major part of this was the standardisation; the channel scrapped its slogan and just paid attention to the fact of the news. From April 2002, Sky Sports News had another face-lift; the channel stayed in the same studio, but with a silver look replacing the old wooden bench, there was a promise of being first for breaking news, along with much more useful information. In 2004, Sky Sports News changed its image, with a more open blue look to the channel.
The titles featured players such as Frank Lampard, Tim Cahill, Thierry Henry and Ryan Giggs passing the football to each other and unveiling the Sky Sports News logo. Programmes such as Ford Sports Centre were dropped, replaced with shows such as Sky Sports Now, Sky Sports Today, Sports Saturday, Sports Sunday, Good Morning Sports Fans, Through the Night, News HQ at 5, News HQ at 6, Gillette Soccer Special, Goals Express, Today's Goals Now and Sky Sports News at Ten; the channel previously used a different piece of music for each news programme, the most well-known of these being Republica's "Ready to Go", "The Time Is Now" by Moloko, "Surface to Air" by The Chemical Brothers, "Shooting Star" by Deepest Blue, "Club Foot" by Kasabian. Sky Sports News was rebranded as Sky Sports News HQ on 12 August 2014; the new studio includes an 18 square-metre video wall. As part of the change the channel moved to Sky channel 401. New graphics were introduced, as part of the launch. Following the rebrand of the Sky Sports channels in July 2017, the channel was once again renamed Sky Sports News.
A new look for the channel was introduced at 07:00 on 5 August 2007, in time for the 2007–08 football season. The main presentation structure was retained, including the right-hand information box displaying transfers and league table; the ticker at the bottom of the screen was retained, however changed from white to red, with the yellow and black breaking news ticker being tweaked but is similar to before. A black and white bar was added, this is visible for when a sports personality has died; the news ticker changed from blue to white, had a tabbed effect showing the viewer what headlines are coming next. Along with the changes to on-screen presentation, the revamp included a new studio, new title sequences and a new theme tune. All of the old music was replaced and every show used the track "Requiem for a Tower, Movement 4" by Corner Stone Cues. On 5 August 2009, the channel received a small make-over with new music sequence and a new font used for all on-screen displays. On 6 January 2010, the channel underwent another slight revamp to the side graphics.
In August 2010, the channel received an updated graphics package including new titles and side graphics in-line with the launch of Sky Sports News HD. On 4 July 2011, Sky Sports News HD moved to a new studio in Sky Studios and with that came a minor change to on-screen graphics and side graphics. On 22 April 2013, Sky Sports News revamped their onscreen graphics setup, now using more red and white colours on the information displays; this graphic was started using in Sky Sport 24 in Italia and Sky Sport News HD in Germany. Both of these channels provide rolling sports news coverage. In August 2014, Sky Sports News was rebranded as Sky Sports News HQ and moved to Channel 401 to be at the forefront of Sky Sports channels. Within this introduction the channel introduced an updated studio including brand new features, overhauled graphics and a new theme. On 18 July 2017, Sky Sports News HQ reverted to Sky Sports News and moved to Channel 409 in line with the expansion and rebranding of all Sky Sports Channels.
Sky Sports News HD launched on 23 August 2010 on Sky channel 455, transferring to channel 405 several months later. The HD channel offered enhancements such as sharper graphics. A range of new p