Carapichea ipecacuanha is a species of flowering plant in the Rubiaceae family. It is native to Costa Rica, Panama and Brazil, its common name, ipecacuanha, is derived from the Tupi ipega'kwãi, or "road-side sick-making plant". The plant has been discussed under a variety of synonyms over the years by various botanists; the roots were used to make syrup of ipecac, a powerful emetic, a longtime over the counter medicine no longer approved for medical use in the west, for lack of evidence of safety and efficacy. An example of emetic compound from the roots is emetine. Carapichea ipecacuanha is a species of flowering plant in the Rubiaceae family, it is native to Costa Rica, Panama and Brazil. Its common name, ipecacuanha, is derived from the Tupi ipega'kwãi, or "road-side sick-making plant"; the plant has been discussed under a variety of synonyms over the years by various botanists. The roots were used to make syrup of a powerful emetic. Ipecacuanha is a slow-growing plant, it is cultivated in South America but it has been cultivated in India and elsewhere.
The root of ipecacuanha has been used in preparation of the medicament, the syrup, is simple or divided into a few branches and composed of rings of various size. It is somewhat fleshy when fresh, appearing as if strung on a central woody cord; the different kinds known in commerce are all produced by the same plant, the differences arising from the age of the plant, the mode of drying, etc. Various other plants can be used as substitutes for it. Ipecacuanha was known to Europe by the mid 17th century. Nicholas Culpeper, an English botanist and physician, compared Ipecacuanha to the herb Orach in his book, Complete Herbal & English Physician, published in 1653. One of the first recorded shipments of Ipecacuanha to Europe was in 1672, by a traveler named Legros, who imported a quantity of the root to Paris from South America. In 1680, a Parisian merchant named Garnier possessed some 68 kilograms of the substance and informed the physician Jean Claude Adrien Helvetius of its power in the treatment of dysentery.
Helvetius was granted sole right to vend the remedy by Louis XIV, but sold the secret to the French government, who made the formula public in 1688. Ipecacuanha has a long history of use as an emetic, for emptying the stomach in cases of poisoning, a use, discontinued in medical settings, it has been used as a nauseant and diaphoretic, was prescribed for conditions such as bronchitis. The most common and familiar preparation is syrup of ipecac, recommended as an emergency treatment for accidental poisoning until the final years of the 20th century. Ipecacuanha was traditionally used to induce sweating. A common preparation for this purpose was Dover's powder. In the 19th Century, women prisoners at the Cascades Female Factory, were given "a grain or so of ipecacuanha" as a precaution "upon ladies with gross health and fiery temperaments." Ipecacuanha contains the alkaloids cephaeline. It contains the pseudo-tannin ipecacuanhic acid or cephaëlic acid. R05CA04 Therapeutic classification "Ipecacuanha".
Encyclopædia Britannica. 1911. "Ipecacuanha". New International Encyclopedia. 1905
Mucus is a polymer. It is a slippery aqueous secretion produced by, covering, mucous membranes, it is produced from cells found in mucous glands, although it may originate from mixed glands, which contain both serous and mucous cells. It is a viscous colloid containing inorganic salts, antiseptic enzymes and glycoproteins such as lactoferrin and mucins, which are produced by goblet cells in the mucous membranes and submucosal glands. Mucus serves to protect epithelial cells in the respiratory, urogenital and auditory systems. Most of the mucus produced is in the gastrointestinal tract. Bony fish, snails and some other invertebrates produce external mucus. In addition to serving a protective function against infectious agents, such mucus provides protection against toxins produced by predators, can facilitate movement and may play a role in communication. In the human respiratory system, mucus known as airway surface liquid, aids in the protection of the lungs by trapping foreign particles that enter them, in particular, through the nose, during normal breathing.
Further distinction exists between the superficial and cell-lining layers of ASL, which are known as mucus layer and pericilliary liquid layer, respectively. "Phlegm" is a specialized term for mucus, restricted to the respiratory tract, whereas the term "nasal mucus" describes secretions of the nasal passages. Nasal mucus is produced by the nasal mucosa. Small particles such as dust, particulate pollutants, allergens, as well as infectious agents and bacteria are caught in the viscous nasal or airway mucus and prevented from entering the system; this event along with the continual movement of the respiratory mucus layer toward the oropharynx, helps prevent foreign objects from entering the lungs during breathing. This explains why coughing occurs in those who smoke cigarettes; the body's natural reaction is to increase mucus production. In addition, mucus aids in moisturizing the inhaled air and prevents tissues such as the nasal and airway epithelia from drying out. Nasal and airway mucus is produced continuously, with most of it swallowed subconsciously when it is dried.
Increased mucus production in the respiratory tract is a symptom of many common illnesses, such as the common cold and influenza. Hypersecretion of mucus can occur in inflammatory respiratory diseases such as respiratory allergies and chronic bronchitis; the presence of mucus in the nose and throat is normal, but increased quantities can impede comfortable breathing and must be cleared by blowing the nose or expectorating phlegm from the throat. In general, nasal mucus is thin, serving to filter air during inhalation. During times of infection, mucus can change color to yellow or green either as a result of trapped bacteria or due to the body's reaction to viral infection; the green color of mucus comes from the heme group in the iron-containing enzyme myeloperoxidase secreted by white blood cells as a cytotoxic defense during a respiratory burst. In the case of bacterial infection, the bacterium becomes trapped in already-clogged sinuses, breeding in the moist, nutrient-rich environment. Sinusitis is an uncomfortable condition.
A bacterial infection in sinusitis will cause discolored mucus and would respond to antibiotic treatment. All sinusitis infections are viral and antibiotics are ineffective and not recommended for treating typical cases. In the case of a viral infection such as cold or flu, the first stage and the last stage of the infection cause the production of a clear, thin mucus in the nose or back of the throat; as the body begins to react to the virus, mucus may turn yellow or green. Viral infections cannot be treated with antibiotics, are a major avenue for their misuse. Treatment is symptom-based. Increased mucus production in the upper respiratory tract is a symptom of many common ailments, such as the common cold. Nasal mucus may be removed by using nasal irrigation. Excess nasal mucus, as with a cold or allergies, due to vascular engorgement associated with vasodilation and increased capillary permeability caused by histamines, may be treated cautiously with decongestant medications. Thickening of mucus as a "rebound" effect following overuse of decongestants may produce nasal or sinus drainage problems and circumstances that promote infection.
During cold, dry seasons, the mucus lining nasal passages tends to dry out, meaning that mucous membranes must work harder, producing more mucus to keep the cavity lined. As a result, the nasal cavity can fill up with mucus. At the same time, when air is exhaled, water vapor in breath condenses as the warm air meets the colder outside temperature near the nostrils; this causes an excess amount of water to build up inside nasal cavities. In these cases, the excess fluid spills out externally through the nostrils. Excess mucus production in the bronchi and bronchioles, as may occur in asthma, bronchitis or influenza, results from chronic airway inflammation, hence may be treated with anti-inflammatory medications. Impaired mucociliary clearance due to conditions such as primary ciliary dyskinesia may result in its accumulation in the bronchi; the dysregulation of
The respiratory system is a biological system consisting of specific organs and structures used for gas exchange in animals and plants. The anatomy and physiology that make this happen varies depending on the size of the organism, the environment in which it lives and its evolutionary history. In land animals the respiratory surface is internalized as linings of the lungs. Gas exchange in the lungs occurs in millions of small air sacs called alveoli in mammals and reptiles, but atria in birds; these microscopic air sacs have a rich blood supply, thus bringing the air into close contact with the blood. These air sacs communicate with the external environment via a system of airways, or hollow tubes, of which the largest is the trachea, which branches in the middle of the chest into the two main bronchi; these enter the lungs where they branch into progressively narrower secondary and tertiary bronchi that branch into numerous smaller tubes, the bronchioles. In birds the bronchioles are termed parabronchi.
It is the bronchioles, or parabronchi that open into the microscopic alveoli in mammals and atria in birds. Air has to be pumped from the environment into the alveoli or atria by the process of breathing which involves the muscles of respiration. In most fish, a number of other aquatic animals the respiratory system consists of gills, which are either or external organs, bathed in the watery environment; this water flows over the gills by a variety of passive means. Gas exchange takes place in the gills which consist of thin or flat filaments and lammelae which expose a large surface area of vascularized tissue to the water. Other animals, such as insects, have respiratory systems with simple anatomical features, in amphibians the skin plays a vital role in gas exchange. Plants have respiratory systems but the directionality of gas exchange can be opposite to that in animals; the respiratory system in plants includes anatomical features such as stomata, that are found in various parts of the plant.
In humans and other mammals, the anatomy of a typical respiratory system is the respiratory tract. The tract is divided into a lower respiratory tract; the upper tract includes the nose, nasal cavities, sinuses and the part of the larynx above the vocal folds. The lower tract includes the lower part of the larynx, the trachea, bronchi and the alveoli; the branching airways of the lower tract are described as the respiratory tree or tracheobronchial tree. The intervals between successive branch points along the various branches of "tree" are referred to as branching "generations", of which there are, in the adult human about 23; the earlier generations, consisting of the trachea and the bronchi, as well as the larger bronchioles which act as air conduits, bringing air to the respiratory bronchioles, alveolar ducts and alveoli, where gas exchange takes place. Bronchioles are defined as the small airways lacking any cartilagenous support; the first bronchi to branch from the trachea are the right and left main bronchi.
Second only in diameter to the trachea, these bronchi enter the lungs at each hilum, where they branch into narrower secondary bronchi known as lobar bronchi, these branch into narrower tertiary bronchi known as segmental bronchi. Further divisions of the segmental bronchi are known as 4th order, 5th order, 6th order segmental bronchi, or grouped together as subsegmental bronchi. Compared to the, on average, 23 number of branchings of the respiratory tree in the adult human, the mouse has only about 13 such branchings; the alveoli are the dead end terminals of the "tree", meaning that any air that enters them has to exit via the same route. A system such as this creates dead space, a volume of air that fills the airways after exhalation and is breathed back into the alveoli before environmental air reaches them. At the end of inhalation the airways are filled with environmental air, exhaled without coming in contact with the gas exchanger; the lungs contract during the breathing cycle, drawing air in and out of the lungs.
The volume of air moved in or out of the lungs under normal resting circumstances, volumes moved during maximally forced inhalation and maximally forced exhalation are measured in humans by spirometry. A typical adult human spirogram with the names given to the various excursions in volume the lungs can undergo is illustrated below: Not all the air in the lungs can be expelled during maximally forced exhalation; this is the residual volume of about 1.0-1.5 liters. Volumes that include the residual volume can therefore not be measured by spirometry, their measurement requires special techniques. The rates at which air is breathed in or out, either through the mouth or nose, or into or out of the alveoli are tabulated below, together with how they are calculated; the number of breath cycles per minute is known as the respiratory rate. In mammals, inhalation at rest is due to the contraction of the diaphragm; this is an upwardly domed sheet of muscle that separates the thoracic cavity from the abdominal cavity.
When it contracts the sheet flattens. The contracting diaphragm pushes, but because the pelvic floo
Australia the Commonwealth of Australia, is a sovereign country comprising the mainland of the Australian continent, the island of Tasmania and numerous smaller islands. It is the world's sixth-largest country by total area; the neighbouring countries are Papua New Guinea and East Timor to the north. The population of 25 million is urbanised and concentrated on the eastern seaboard. Australia's capital is Canberra, its largest city is Sydney; the country's other major metropolitan areas are Melbourne, Brisbane and Adelaide. Australia was inhabited by indigenous Australians for about 60,000 years before the first British settlement in the late 18th century, it is documented. After the European exploration of the continent by Dutch explorers in 1606, who named it New Holland, Australia's eastern half was claimed by Great Britain in 1770 and settled through penal transportation to the colony of New South Wales from 26 January 1788, a date which became Australia's national day; the population grew in subsequent decades, by the 1850s most of the continent had been explored and an additional five self-governing crown colonies established.
On 1 January 1901, the six colonies federated. Australia has since maintained a stable liberal democratic political system that functions as a federal parliamentary constitutional monarchy, comprising six states and ten territories. Being the oldest and driest inhabited continent, with the least fertile soils, Australia has a landmass of 7,617,930 square kilometres. A megadiverse country, its size gives it a wide variety of landscapes, with deserts in the centre, tropical rainforests in the north-east and mountain ranges in the south-east. A gold rush began in Australia in the early 1850s, its population density, 2.8 inhabitants per square kilometre, remains among the lowest in the world. Australia generates its income from various sources including mining-related exports, telecommunications and manufacturing. Indigenous Australian rock art is the oldest and richest in the world, dating as far back as 60,000 years and spread across hundreds of thousands of sites. Australia is a developed country, with the world's 14th-largest economy.
It has a high-income economy, with the world's tenth-highest per capita income. It is a regional power, has the world's 13th-highest military expenditure. Australia has the world's ninth-largest immigrant population, with immigrants accounting for 26% of the population. Having the third-highest human development index and the eighth-highest ranked democracy globally, the country ranks in quality of life, education, economic freedom, civil liberties and political rights, with all its major cities faring well in global comparative livability surveys. Australia is a member of the United Nations, G20, Commonwealth of Nations, ANZUS, Organisation for Economic Co-operation and Development, World Trade Organization, Asia-Pacific Economic Cooperation, Pacific Islands Forum and the ASEAN Plus Six mechanism; the name Australia is derived from the Latin Terra Australis, a name used for a hypothetical continent in the Southern Hemisphere since ancient times. When Europeans first began visiting and mapping Australia in the 17th century, the name Terra Australis was applied to the new territories.
Until the early 19th century, Australia was best known as "New Holland", a name first applied by the Dutch explorer Abel Tasman in 1644 and subsequently anglicised. Terra Australis still saw occasional usage, such as in scientific texts; the name Australia was popularised by the explorer Matthew Flinders, who said it was "more agreeable to the ear, an assimilation to the names of the other great portions of the earth". The first time that Australia appears to have been used was in April 1817, when Governor Lachlan Macquarie acknowledged the receipt of Flinders' charts of Australia from Lord Bathurst. In December 1817, Macquarie recommended to the Colonial Office. In 1824, the Admiralty agreed that the continent should be known by that name; the first official published use of the new name came with the publication in 1830 of The Australia Directory by the Hydrographic Office. Colloquial names for Australia include "Oz" and "the Land Down Under". Other epithets include "the Great Southern Land", "the Lucky Country", "the Sunburnt Country", "the Wide Brown Land".
The latter two both derive from Dorothea Mackellar's 1908 poem "My Country". Human habitation of the Australian continent is estimated to have begun around 65,000 to 70,000 years ago, with the migration of people by land bridges and short sea-crossings from what is now Southeast Asia; these first inhabitants were the ancestors of modern Indigenous Australians. Aboriginal Australian culture is one of the oldest continual civilisations on earth. At the time of first European contact, most Indigenous Australians were hunter-gatherers with complex economies and societies. Recent archaeological finds suggest. Indigenous Australians have an oral culture with spiritual values based on reverence for the land and a belief in the Dreamtime; the Torres Strait Islanders, ethnically Melanesian, obtained their livelihood from seasonal horticulture and the resources of their reefs and seas. The northern coasts and waters of Australia were visited s
The viscosity of a fluid is a measure of its resistance to deformation at a given rate. For liquids, it corresponds to the informal concept of "thickness": for example, syrup has a higher viscosity than water. Viscosity can be conceptualized as quantifying the frictional force that arises between adjacent layers of fluid that are in relative motion. For instance, when a fluid is forced through a tube, it flows more near the tube's axis than near its walls. In such a case, experiments show; this is because a force is required to overcome the friction between the layers of the fluid which are in relative motion: the strength of this force is proportional to the viscosity. A fluid that has no resistance to shear stress is known as an inviscid fluid. Zero viscosity is observed only at low temperatures in superfluids. Otherwise, the second law of thermodynamics requires all fluids to have positive viscosity. A fluid with a high viscosity, such as pitch, may appear to be a solid; the word "viscosity" is derived from the Latin "viscum", meaning mistletoe and a viscous glue made from mistletoe berries.
In materials science and engineering, one is interested in understanding the forces, or stresses, involved in the deformation of a material. For instance, if the material were a simple spring, the answer would be given by Hooke's law, which says that the force experienced by a spring is proportional to the distance displaced from equilibrium. Stresses which can be attributed to the deformation of a material from some rest state are called elastic stresses. In other materials, stresses are present which can be attributed to the rate of change of the deformation over time; these are called. For instance, in a fluid such as water the stresses which arise from shearing the fluid do not depend on the distance the fluid has been sheared. Viscosity is the material property which relates the viscous stresses in a material to the rate of change of a deformation. Although it applies to general flows, it is easy to visualize and define in a simple shearing flow, such as a planar Couette flow. In the Couette flow, a fluid is trapped between two infinitely large plates, one fixed and one in parallel motion at constant speed u.
If the speed of the top plate is low enough in steady state the fluid particles move parallel to it, their speed varies from 0 at the bottom to u at the top. Each layer of fluid moves faster than the one just below it, friction between them gives rise to a force resisting their relative motion. In particular, the fluid applies on the top plate a force in the direction opposite to its motion, an equal but opposite force on the bottom plate. An external force is therefore required in order to keep the top plate moving at constant speed. In many fluids, the flow velocity is observed to vary linearly from zero at the bottom to u at the top. Moreover, the magnitude F of the force acting on the top plate is found to be proportional to the speed u and the area A of each plate, inversely proportional to their separation y: F = μ A u y; the proportionality factor μ is the viscosity of the fluid, with units of Pa ⋅ s. The ratio u / y is called the rate of shear deformation or shear velocity, is the derivative of the fluid speed in the direction perpendicular to the plates.
If the velocity does not vary linearly with y the appropriate generalization is τ = μ ∂ u ∂ y, where τ = F / A, ∂ u / ∂ y is the local shear velocity. This expression is referred to as Newton's law of viscosity. In shearing flows with planar symmetry, it is what defines μ, it is a special case of the general definition of viscosity, which can be expressed in coordinate-free form. Use of the Greek letter mu for the viscosity is common among mechanical and chemical engineers, as well as physicists. However, the Greek letter eta is used by chemists and the IUPAC; the viscosity μ is sometimes referred to as the shear viscosity. However, at least one author discourages the use of this terminology, noting that μ can appear in nonshearing flows in addition to shearing flows. In general terms, the viscous stresses in a fluid are defined as those resulting from the relative velocity of different fluid particles; as such, the viscous stresses. If the velocity gradients are small to a first approximation the v
Regulation of therapeutic goods
The regulation of therapeutic goods, drugs and therapeutic devices, varies by jurisdiction. In some countries, such as the United States, they are regulated at the national level by a single agency. In other jurisdictions they are regulated at the state level, or at both state and national levels by various bodies, as is the case in Australia; the role of therapeutic goods regulation is designed to protect the health and safety of the population. Regulation is aimed at ensuring the safety and efficacy of the therapeutic goods which are covered under the scope of the regulation. In most jurisdictions, therapeutic goods must be registered. There is some degree of restriction of the availability of certain therapeutic goods depending on their risk to consumers. Modern drug regulation has historical roots in the response to the proliferation of universal antidotes which appeared in the wake of Mithridates' death. Mithridates had brought together physicians and shamans to concoct a potion that would make him immune to poisons.
Following his death, the Romans became keen on further developing the Mithridates potion's recipe. Mithridatium re-entered western society through multiple means; the first was through the Leechbook of the Bald, written somewhere between 900 and 950, which contained a formula for various remedies, including for a theriac. Additionally, theriac became a commercial good traded throughout Europe based on the works of Greek and Roman physicians; the resulting proliferation of various recipes needed to be curtailed in order to ensure that people were not passing off fake antidotes, which led to the development of government involvement and regulation. Additionally, the creation of these concoctions took on ritualistic form and were created in public and the process was observed and recorded, it was believed that if the concoction proved unsuccessful, it was due to the apothecaries’ process of making them and they could be held accountable because of the public nature of the creation. In the 9th century, many Muslim countries established an office of the hisba, which in addition to regulating compliance to Islamic principles and values took on the role of regulating other aspects of social and economic life, including the regulation of medicines.
Inspectors were appointed to employ oversight on those who were involved in the process of medicine creation and were given a lot of leigh weigh to ensure compliance and punishments were stringent. The first official'act', the'Apothecary Wares and Stuffs' Act was passed in 1540 by Henry VIII and set the foundation for others. Through this act, he encouraged physicians in his College of Physicians to appoint four people dedicated to inspecting what was being sold in apothecary shops. In conjunction with this first piece of legislation, there was an emergence of standard formulas for the creation of certain ‘drugs’ and ‘antidotes’ through Pharmacopoeias which first appeared in the form of a decree from Frederick II of Sicily in 1240 to use consistent and standard formulas; the first modern pharmacopoeias were the Florence Pharmacopoeia published in 1498, the Spanish Pharmacopoeia published in 1581 and the London Pharmacopoeia published in 1618. In the United States, regulation of drugs was a state right, as opposed to federal right.
But with the increase in fraudulent practices due to private incentives to maximize profits and poor enforcement of state laws, increased the need for stronger federal regulation. President Roosevelt signed the Federal Food and Drug Act in 1906 which established stricter standards. A 1911 Supreme Court decision, United States vs. Johnson, established that misleading statements were not covered under the FFDA; this directly led to Congress passing the Sherley Amendment which established a clearer definition of ‘misbranded’. Another key catalyst for advances in drug regulation were certain catastrophes that served as calls to the government to step in and impose regulations that would prevent repeats of those instances. One such instance occurred in 1937 when more than a hundred people died from using sulfanilamide elixir which had not gone through any safety testing; this directly led to the passing of the Federal, Food and Cosmetic Act in 1938. One other major catastrophe occurred in the late 1950s when Thalidomide, sold in Germany and sold around the world, led to 100,000 babies being born with various deformities.
The UK's Chief Medical Officer had established a group to look into safety of drugs on the market in 1959 prior to the crisis and was moving in the direction of address the problem of unregulated drugs entering the market. The crisis created a greater sense of emergency to establish safety and efficacy standards around the world; the UK started a temporary Committee on Safety of Drugs while they attempted to pass more comprehensive legislation. Though compliance and submission of drugs to the Committee on Safety of Drugs was not mandatory after, the pharmaceutical industry larger complied due to the thalidomide situation; the European Economic Commission passed a directive in 1965 in order to impose greater efficacy standards before marketing a drug. The United States congress passed the Drug Amendments Act of 1962 The Drug Amendments Act required the FDA to ensure that new drugs being introduced to the market had passed certain tests and standards. Both the EU and US acts introduced the requirements to ensure efficacy.
Of note, increased regulations and standards for testing led to greater innovation in pharm
Polygala senega is a species of flowering plant in the milkwort family, Polygalaceae. It is native to North America, where it is distributed in southern Canada and the central and eastern United States, its common names include Seneca snakeroot, senega snakeroot, rattlesnake root, mountain flax. Its species name honors the Seneca people, a Native American group who used the plant to treat snakebite; this species is a perennial herb with multiple stems up to 50 centimeters tall. The stems are unbranched, but some old plants can have branching stems. A mature plant can have up to 70 stems growing from a hard, woody rootstock that spreads horizontally; the lance-shaped leaves are alternately arranged. The lower leaves are scale-like; the inflorescence is a spike of rounded greenish flowers. The fruit is a capsule containing two hairy black seeds; the root is twisted and conical, with a scent somewhat like wintergreen and a pungent taste. There are two root Polymorphisms; the plant grows in woods and wet shoreline and riverbank habitat.
It grows in thin, rocky calcareous soils. It occurs in disturbed habitat, such as roadsides; this plant had many uses among Native Americans. The Cherokee used it as an expectorant and a diuretic, for inflammation and common cold; the Chippewa used preparations of the root to treat bleeding wounds. The Cree chewed the root for sore toothache. According to Canadian botanist Frère Marie-Victorin, the Seneca may have been inspired to use the root to treat snakebite by its resemblance to the tail of a rattlesnake; the root was exported to Europe in the 1700s and was sold by pharmacists into the 1800s. It was marketed as a treatment for pneumonia, it is still in use as an herbal remedy. It is ground and made into patent medicines remedies for respiratory complaints, it is added to cough syrups, teas and gargles. It is toxic in large amounts, overdose causes such symptoms as diarrhea and "violent vomiting"; the powdered root can be sternutatory. The root product is called Senegae Radix, Radix Senegae, or senega.
Active compounds include saponins such as senegin, as well as phenolic acids, sorbitol derivatives, methyl salicylate, sterols. The expectorant property comes from the irritation of mucous membranes by the saponins, which causes an increase in respiratory secretions and a decrease in their viscosity, giving a productive cough; the root has economic value, so it is cultivated on a small scale in Japan and Brazil. Until the 1960s, Canada was the largest exporter of the product, but there the root was collected from the wild. Most came from Manitoba, it is still wild-harvested today, three quarters of the world's supply is taken from the wilds of the Interlake Region of Manitoba. Native peoples provide most of the labor, digging roots and selling them to drug companies. There is interest in turning the plant into a workable agricultural crop in Canada. Overexploitation of the native plant is a concern, there has been evidence of overharvest in some areas. At its peak in the year 1931, Canada exported about 781,000 pounds of dry senega root, which equals 2 million pounds of fresh plant.
More yet was supplied to the domestic market. Today about 100,000 pounds of fresh plant are harvested annually from the wild in Canada. Herbal remedies are becoming popular again, demand for senega grows an estimated 5% per year; the biggest importers of the Canadian product, as of the mid-90s, were Europe and the United States. The Cree and Métis people are the main collectors of the wild plant, they earned US$3.50 per pound of dry root in 1993, up to US$7.00 per pound in 1998. A government report noted the price was US$6.50-8.00 in 1995. The dry root brought C$28,000 per ton in 1997. In 1999, one company was selling bulk powdered senega for US$18 per pound. In cultivation the plant can be propagated by cuttings; the seeds require two months of cold stratification before use. A plant takes 4 years to produce a root large enough to harvest; the roots are dug up, dried, about 160 roots yield one kilogram of senega. The plant is distributed in Canada and is not considered endangered. In some more pristine and isolated regions the species can be common.
In general, it is experiencing a short-term decline of about 10 to 30%. Besides overexploitation, the plant has experienced loss of habitat to overgrazing and the conversion of land to urban and agricultural use. Polygala senega. USDA PLANTS