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SUMMARY / RELATED TOPICS

Bronchus

A bronchus is a passage or airway in the respiratory system that conducts air into the lungs. The first bronchi to branch from the trachea are the right main bronchus and the left main bronchus known as the primary bronchi; these are the widest and enter the lungs at each hilum, where they branch into narrower secondary bronchi or lobar bronchi, these branch into narrower tertiary bronchi or segmental bronchi. Further divisions of the segmental bronchi are known as 4th order, 5th order, 6th order segmental bronchi, or grouped together as subsegmental bronchi; the bronchi when too narrow to be supported by cartilage are known as bronchioles. No gas exchange takes place in the bronchi; the trachea divides at the carina into two main or primary bronchi, the left bronchus and the right bronchus. The carina of the trachea is located at the level of the sternal angle and the fifth thoracic vertebra; the right main bronchus is wider and more vertical than the left main bronchus, its mean length is 1.09 cm.

It enters the root of the right lung at the fifth thoracic vertebra. The right main bronchus subdivides into three secondary bronchi, which deliver oxygen to the three lobes of the right lung—the superior and inferior lobe; the azygos vein arches over it from behind. About 2 cm from its commencement it gives off a branch to the superior lobe of the right lung, called the eparterial bronchus. Eparterial refers to its position above the right pulmonary artery; the right bronchus now passes below the artery, is known as the hyparterial branch which divides into the two lobar bronchi to the middle and lower lobes. The left main bronchus is longer than the right, being 5 cm long, it enters the root of the left lung opposite the sixth thoracic vertebra. It passes beneath the aortic arch, crosses in front of the esophagus, the thoracic duct, the descending aorta, has the left pulmonary artery lying at first above, in front of it; the left bronchus has no eparterial branch, therefore it has been supposed by some that there is no upper lobe to the left lung, but that the so-called upper lobe corresponds to the middle lobe of the right lung.

The left main bronchus divides into two secondary bronchi or lobar bronchi, to deliver air to the two lobes of the left lung—the superior and the inferior lobe. The secondary bronchi divide further into tertiary bronchi, each of which supplies a bronchopulmonary segment. A bronchopulmonary segment is a division of a lung separated from the rest of the lung by a septum of connective tissue; this property allows a bronchopulmonary segment to be surgically removed without affecting other segments. There are ten segments in each lung, but during development with the left lung having just two lobes, two pairs of segments fuse to give eight, four for each lobe; the tertiary bronchi divide further in another three branchings known as 4th order, 5th order and 6th order segmental bronchi which are referred to as subsegmental bronchi. These branch into many smaller bronchioles which divide into terminal bronchioles, each of which gives rise to several respiratory bronchioles, which go on to divide into two to eleven alveolar ducts.

There are six alveolar sacs associated with each alveolar duct. The alveolus is the basic anatomical unit of gas exchange in the lung; the main bronchi have large lumens that are lined by respiratory epithelium. This cellular lining has cilia departing towards the mouth which removes dust and other small particles. There is a smooth muscle layer below the epithelium arranged as two ribbons of muscle that spiral in opposite directions; this smooth muscle layer contains seromucous glands, in its wall. Hyaline cartilage is present in the bronchi, surrounding the smooth muscle layer. In the main bronchi, the cartilage forms C-shaped rings like those in the trachea, while in the smaller bronchi, hyaline cartilage is present in irregularly arranged crescent-shaped plates and islands; these plates keep the airway open. The bronchial wall has a thickness of 10% to 20% of the total bronchial diameter; the cartilage and mucous membrane of the primary bronchi are similar to those in the trachea. They are lined with respiratory epithelium, classified as ciliated pseudostratified columnar epithelium.

The epithelium in the main bronchi contains goblet cells, which are glandular, modified simple columnar epithelial cells that produce mucins, the main component of mucus. Mucus plays an important role in keeping the airways clear in the mucociliary clearance process; as branching continues through the bronchial tree, the amount of hyaline cartilage in the walls decreases until it is absent in the bronchioles. As the cartilage decreases, the amount of smooth muscle increases; the mucous membrane undergoes a transition from ciliated pseudostratified columnar epithelium to simple cuboidal epithelium to simple squamous epithelium. in the alveolar ducts and alveoli. In 0.1 to 5% of people there is a right superior lobe bronchus arising from the main stem bronchus prior to the carina. This is known as a tracheal bronchus, seen as an anatomical variation, it can have multiple variations and, although asymptomatic, it can be the root cause of pulmonary disease such as a recurrent infection. In such cases resection is curativeThe cardiac bronchus has a prevalence of ≈0.3% and presents as an accessory bronchus arising from the bronchus intermedius between the upper lobar bronchus and the origin of the middle and lower lobar bronchi of the right main bronchus

A Story of Children and Film

A Story of Children and Film is a 2013 documentary film directed by Mark Cousins. It features clips from movies from around the world that feature children, scenes featuring the director's niece and nephew; the 400 Blows, directed by François Truffaut Alyonka, directed by Boris Barnet An Angel at My Table, directed by Jane Campion Big Business, with Laurel and Hardy, directed by James W. Horne and Leo McCarey The Bill Douglas Trilogy: My Childhood, directed by Bill Douglas The Boot, directed by Mohammad-Ali Talebi Children in the Wind, directed by Hiroshi Shimizu Crows, directed by Dorota Kędzierzawska Curly Top, with Shirley Temple, directed by Irving Cummings Emil and the Detectives, directed by Gerhard Lamprecht E. T. the Extra-Terrestrial, directed by Steven Spielberg Fanny and Alexander, directed by Ingmar Bergman Finlandia, directed by Erkki Karu Forbidden Games, directed by René Clément Frankenstein, directed by James Whale Freedom Is Paradise, directed by Sergey Bodrov Gasman, directed by Lynne Ramsay Ghatashraddha, directed by Girish Kasaravalli Great Expectations, directed by David Lean A Hometown in Heart, directed by Yoon Yong-Kyu Hugo and Josephine, directed by Kjell Grede I Wish, directed by Hirokazu Koreeda An Inn in Tokyo, directed by Yasujirō Ozu Kauwboy, directed by Boudewijn Koole Kes, directed by Ken Loach The Kid, directed by Charlie Chaplin The Little Girl Who Sold the Sun, directed by Djibril Diop Mambéty Long Live the Republic, directed by Karel Kachyňa Meet Me in St. Louis, directed by Vincente Minnelli Melody for a Street Organ, directed by Kira Muratova Mirror, directed by Andrei Tarkovsky A Mouse in the House, with Tom and Jerry, directed by William Hanna and Joseph Barbera Moonrise Kingdom, directed by Wes Anderson Moving, directed by Shinji Sōmai The Newest City in the World, directed by Xhanfise Keko The Night of the Hunter, directed by Charles Laughton Nobody Knows, directed by Hirokazu Koreeda Los Olvidados, directed by Luis Buñuel Palle Alone in the World, directed by Astrid Henning-Jensen The Red Balloon, directed by Albert Lamorisse The Spirit of the Beehive, directed by Víctor Erice The Steamroller and the Violin, directed by Andrei Tarkovsky Ten Minutes Older, directed by Herz Frank Tomka and His Friends, directed by Xhanfise Keko Two Solutions for One Problem, directed by Abbas Kiarostami The Unseen, directed by Miroslav Janek The White Balloon, directed by Jafar Panahi Willow and Wind, directed by Mohammad-Ali Talebi Yaaba, directed by Idrissa Ouedraogo The Yellow Balloon, directed by J. Lee Thompson Yellow Earth, directed by Chen Kaige Zero for Conduct, directed by Jean Vigo A Story of Children and Film on IMDb

Glycoside hydrolase family 13

In molecular biology, glycoside hydrolase family 13 is a family of glycoside hydrolases. Glycoside hydrolases EC 3.2.1. are a widespread group of enzymes that hydrolyse the glycosidic bond between two or more carbohydrates, or between a carbohydrate and a non-carbohydrate moiety. A classification system for glycoside hydrolases, based on sequence similarity, has led to the definition of >100 different families. This classification is available on the CAZy web site, discussed at CAZypedia, an online encyclopedia of carbohydrate active enzymes. Enzymes containing this domain belong to family 13 of the glycosyl hydrolases; the maltogenic alpha-amylase is an enzyme which catalyses hydrolysis of -alpha-D-glucosidic linkages in polysaccharides so as to remove successive alpha-maltose residues from the non-reducing ends of the chains in the conversion of starch to maltose. Other enzymes in this family include neopullulanase, which hydrolyses pullulan to panose, cyclomaltodextrinase, which hydrolyses cyclodextrins

Damselfish

Damselfishes comprise the family Pomacentridae except those of the genera Amphiprion and Premnas, which are the anemonefishes. The largest can grow up to 36 cm long. While most are marine, a few species inhabit the lower stretches of rivers in fresh water. Most damselfish species have bright colors or contrasting patterns. Many species live in tropical rocky or coral reefs, many of those are kept as marine aquarium pets, their diets include small crustaceans and algae. However, a few live in fresh and brackish waters, such as the freshwater damselfish, or in warm temperate climates, such as the large orange Garibaldi, which inhabits the coast of southern California and the Pacific Mexican coast; the domino damselfish. Larger individuals forage higher in a water column than do smaller ones. Damselfish of all sizes feed on caridea and copepods. Males have smaller stomach sizes during spawning season compared to females due to the allocation of resources for courtship and the guarding of nests; when current speeds are low, the damselfish forages higher in a water column where the flux of plankton is greater and they have a larger food source.

As current speeds increase, it forages closer to the bottom of the column. Feeding rates tend to be higher. Smaller fishes forage closer to their substrates than do larger ones in response to predation pressures; the threespot damselfish S. planifrons is territorial and defends its food and reproductive sites vigorously from intruders. Females leave their territories temporarily during spawning in order to deposit their eggs in male territories; this increased mobility subjects them to greater risks of predation, females exhibit higher turnover rates than males do. Male damselfish defend their clutches until the larvae hatch, they do so by continuously swimming in a circular pattern around their nests. Males compete against each other for reproductive territorial space. Smaller and less aggressive individuals are relegated to secondary or suboptimal habitats and therefore exhibit lesser reproductive success; some are excluded from establishing territories altogether and exist as a floating population.

These fish are at the greatest risk of predation. However, they may occupy territories; the dusky damselfish S. adustus spends the majority of its life within a territory, only about 0.6 m2 in area. These territories provide them with hiding spots, dietary needs, spawning sites. Individuals in suboptimal territories attempt to relocate, so those in optimal habitats must monitor territorial occupancy. Territorial aggression is proportional to territory quality. Movements outside of territorial borders, called forays, are common and may span distances of sixteen meters or more. Three types of forays exist; the shortest-distance ones are involved in foraging. Longer forays involve courtship activity and mating. Non-feeding and non-reproductive forays are associated with territorial reoccupation; the blue velvet damsel fish is aggressive against other male blue velvet damsels. In the species S. partitus, females do not choose to mate with males based on size. Though large male size can be advantageous in defending nests and eggs against conspecifics among many animals, nest intrusions are not observed in this damselfish species.

Females do not choose their mates based upon the brood sizes of the males. In spite of the increased male parental care, brood size does not affect egg survival, as eggs are taken during the night when the males are not defending their nests. Rather, female choice of mates is dependent on male courtship rate. Males signal their parental quality by the vigor of their courtship displays, females mate preferentially with vigorously courting males. Male damselfish perform a courtship behavior called the signal jump, in which they rise in a water column and rapidly swim back downward; the signal jump involves large amounts of rapid swimming, females choose mates based on the vigor with which males do so. Females determine the male courtship rates using sounds; as the male damselfish swims down the water column, it creates a pulsed sound. Male courtship varies in the number and rates of those pulses. In the beaugregory damselfish S. leucostictus males spend more time courting females that are larger in size.

Female size is correlated with ovary weight, males intensify their courtship rituals for the more fecund females. Research has shown that males that mate with larger females do indeed receive and hatch greater numbers of eggs. Male bicolor damselfish, E. partitus, exhibit polygamy courting multiple females simultaneously. Among this species, evolutionary selection favors those males that begin mating as soon as possible during spawning seasons if the most favorable egg clutches are spawned at times. Females choose which males to mate with depending on the males’ territory quality. Shelter sites are essential for the bicolor damselfish in avoiding predation, females may evaluate the suitability of these sites at a male territory before depositing their eggs. In the species S. nigricans, females mate with a single male each morning during spawning seasons. At dawn, they visit males’ territories to spawn; the distance to the territory of a mate influences the number of visits that a female undergoes with a male.

At short distances, females make many repeated visits. At longer ones, they may spawn their entire clutch in one visit. This

Marcus Drum

Marcus James Drum is an Australian rules footballer who played in the Australian Football League for the Fremantle Football Club between 2006 and 2009 before he was traded to Geelong during the 2009 trade week. In July 2011 Geelong announced. In October 2013 he joined Port Adelaide as a player welfare manager. Recruited from the Murray Bushrangers, Drum is the nephew of former Geelong player, Fremantle coach and current Victorian Nationals MLC Damian Drum, he is a nephew of champion Richmond player and coach Francis Bourke and cousin of Richmond and North Melbourne player David Bourke. He is a cousin of Geelong and St Kilda player Steven King, through their mothers. In the 2005 National Draft, Drum was selected with the 10th overall draft pick. Drum played five games in the 2006 AFL season, won Fremantle's Beacon Award for the best up-and-coming player at the Club's Doig Medal dinner in October 2006, he did not play until round 16 in the 2007 AFL season, when new coach Mark Harvey chose him in the squad to take on Adelaide at AAMI Stadium.

In a win for Fremantle, he kicked 4 handy goals for the team. However, he only played two more matches for the season, against Geelong in round 17 and Port Adelaide in round 22. 2008 saw Drum play his highest annual tally to date, including the final four matches. After playing in the opening round of the 2009 AFL season, Drum didn't return to the AFL until Round 19, when he again played the final four games. During the season his form for Perth in the WAFL was poor, but despite this he was a surprise selection for the last four games. During the 2009 AFL trade week, Drum was traded to Geelong for a third round draft pick, number 49 overall. Due to a succession of injuries, including a detached retina and injuries to his Achilles tendon and hamstring, Drum struggled to play for Geelong's side in the Victorian Football League and never made his senior debut for Geelong in the AFL. In the middle of the 2011 AFL season he announced his retirement from AFL football after only playing 6 games in two seasons in the VFL.

Marcus Drum's playing statistics from AFL Tables WAFL profile

Gene Green (baseball)

Gene Leroy Green was a Major League Baseball outfielder and catcher. Born in Los Angeles, he was signed by the St. Louis Cardinals before the 1952 season, he played for the Cardinals, Baltimore Orioles, Washington Senators, Cleveland Indians, Cincinnati Reds. A right-handed batter and thrower, he weighed 200 lb. Acquired by the Senators through the expansion draft, Green led the first-year club in home runs and slugging percentage, he started 75 games at catcher and 21 more in right field. He was traded to the Indians shortly after the end of the season. In 1962, he hit 11 home runs in just 143 at bats for Cleveland, one for every 13 ABs. Other career highlights include one 4-hit game — two doubles and two singles vs. the Philadelphia Phillies, thirteen 3-hit games, with the most impressive being two home runs and a single, good for 5 RBI vs. the Cleveland Indians, two home runs vs. his old team, the Washington Senators, good for 4 RBI. Green was adequate at catcher, he was used as a pinch hitter during his career.

His career totals include 408 games played, 307 hits, 46 home runs, 160 RBI, a.441 slugging percentage, a lifetime batting average of.267. Gene Green died in St. Louis, Missouri at the age of 47. Career statistics and player information from Baseball-Reference Retrosheet Gene Green at Find a Grave