Canadian Register of Historic Places
The Canadian Register of Historic Places known as Canada's Historic Places, is an online directory of historic sites in Canada which have been formally recognized for their heritage value by a federal, territorial and/or municipal authority. The Canadian Register of Historic Places was created as part of Canada's "Historic Places Initiative". Commencing in 2001, the Historic Places Initiative was a collaboration between the federal and territorial governments to improve protection of the country's historic sites and to "promote and foster a culture of heritage conservation in Canada"; the CRHP and the Standards and Guidelines for the Conservation of Historic Places in Canada are the two major tools developed to assist in achieving the initiative's main objectives. The CRHP was launched in May 2004 as a single access point for members of the public to learn about historic sites across Canada, it is a work in progress, as of 2011, the CHRP included 12,300 of the country's estimated 17,000 designated historic sites.
The directory was designed to be both flexible, in order to accommodate information from the wide range of heritage authorities across the country, as well as uniform, so as to provide a consistent means of searching and a consistent form of documentation for sites regardless of location or heritage designation. Historic sites that have been recognized by more than one level of government for differing reasons, are linked in the directory. For example, the CRHP contains two listings for the Halifax Public Gardens in Nova Scotia, these two listings in the CRHP are connected in order to highlight the many heritage values that have been ascribed to this particular site; the Canadian Register of Historic Places does not have its own criteria for inclusion in the directory, but relies on federal, provincial and local designations of historic sites. A site must be designated by one or more of these levels of government in order to be eligible for inclusion in the CRHP; the CRHP does not replace existing heritage designation programs in place across the country, nor does it replace local, provincial and federal databases, some of which are available online.
The CRHP is not a designatory or regulatory mechanism. Inclusion in the directory does not confer historic or legal status, nor does it impose legal restrictions or obligations. Inclusion does not affect how the designating level of government manages its own heritage designations or policies. Given that the CRHP is publicly available on the internet and provides locations details for historic sites, a number of sensitive and/or sacred First Nations sites have not been included in the directory in order to lessen the likelihood of vandalism and other forms of damage by visitors; the CRHP partner governments are working on other tools through the Historic Places Initiative in order to recognize sites related to Aboriginal peoples in Canada. Heritage conservation in Canada Lists of historic places in Canada Official website
Cycling called biking or bicycling, is the use of bicycles for transport, exercise or sport. People engaged in cycling are referred to as "cyclists", "bikers", or less as "bicyclists". Apart from two-wheeled bicycles, "cycling" includes the riding of unicycles, quadracycles and similar human-powered vehicles. Bicycles were introduced in the 19th century and now number one billion worldwide, they are the principal means of transportation in many parts of the world. Cycling is regarded as a effective and efficient mode of transportation optimal for short to moderate distances. Bicycles provide numerous benefits in comparison with motor vehicles, including the sustained physical exercise involved in cycling, easier parking, increased maneuverability, access to roads, bike paths and rural trails. Cycling offers a reduced consumption of fossil fuels, less air or noise pollution, much reduced traffic congestion; these lead to less financial cost to the user as well as to society at large. By fitting bicycle racks on the front of buses, transit agencies can increase the areas they can serve.
Among the disadvantages of cycling are the requirement of bicycles to be balanced by the rider in order to remain upright, the reduced protection in crashes in comparison to motor vehicles longer travel time, vulnerability to weather conditions, difficulty in transporting passengers, the fact that a basic level of fitness is required for cycling moderate to long distances. Cycling became an activity after bicycles were introduced in the 19th century. Today, over 50 percent of the human population knows. In many countries, the most used vehicle for road transport is a utility bicycle; these have frames with relaxed geometry, protecting the rider from shocks of the road and easing steering at low speeds. Utility bicycles tend to be equipped with accessories such as mudguards, pannier racks and lights, which extends their usefulness on a daily basis; as the bicycle is so effective as a means of transportation various companies have developed methods of carrying anything from the weekly shop to children on bicycles.
Certain countries rely on bicycles and their culture has developed around the bicycle as a primary form of transport. In Europe and the Netherlands have the most bicycles per capita and most use bicycles for everyday transport. Road bikes tend to have a more upright shape and a shorter wheelbase, which make the bike more mobile but harder to ride slowly; the design, coupled with low or dropped handlebars, requires the rider to bend forward more, making use of stronger muscles and reducing air resistance at high speed. The price of a new bicycle can range from US$50 to more than US$20,000, depending on quality and weight. However, UCI regulations stipulate. Being measured for a bike and taking it for a test ride are recommended before buying; the drivetrain components of the bike should be considered. A middle grade dérailleur is sufficient for a beginner, although many utility bikes are equipped with hub gears. If the rider plans a significant amount of hillclimbing, a triple-chainrings crankset gear system may be preferred.
Otherwise, the lighter and less expensive double chainring may be better. Much simpler fixed wheel bikes are available. Many road bikes, along with mountain bikes, include clipless pedals to which special shoes attach, via a cleat, enabling the rider to pull on the pedals as well as push. Other possible accessories for the bicycle include front and rear lights, bells or horns, child carrying seats, cycling computers with GPS, bar tape, baggage racks, baggage carriers and pannier bags, water bottles and bottle cages. For basic maintenance and repairs cyclists can carry a pump, a puncture repair kit, a spare inner tube, tire levers and a set of allen keys. Cycling can be more efficient and comfortable with special shoes and shorts. In wet weather, riding can be more tolerable with waterproof clothes, such as cape, jacket and overshoes and high-visibility clothing is advisable to reduce the risk from motor vehicle users. Items required in some jurisdictions, or voluntarily adopted for safety reasons, include bicycle helmets, generator or battery operated lights and audible signalling devices such as a bell or horn.
Extras include a bicycle computer. Bikes can be customized, with different seat designs and handle bars, for example. Many schools and police departments run educational programs to instruct children in bicycle handling skills and introduce them to the rules of the road as they apply to cyclists. In different countries these may be known as bicycle rodeos or operated as schemes such as Bikeability. Education for adult cyclists is available from organizations such as the League of American Bicyclists. Beyond riding, another skill is riding efficiently and safely in traffic. One popular approach to riding in motor vehicle traffic is vehicular cycling, occupying road space as car does. Alternately, in countries such as Denmark and the Netherlands, where cycling is popular, cyclists are segregated into bike lanes at the side of, or more separate from, main highways and roads. Many primary schools participate in the national road test in whi
An aquarium is a vivarium of any size having at least one transparent side in which aquatic plants or animals are kept and displayed. Fishkeepers use aquaria to keep fish, amphibians, aquatic reptiles such as turtles, aquatic plants; the term "aquarium", coined by English naturalist Philip Henry Gosse, combines the Latin root aqua, meaning water, with the suffix -arium, meaning "a place for relating to". The aquarium principle was developed in 1850 by the chemist Robert Warington, who explained that plants added to water in a container would give off enough oxygen to support animals, so long as the numbers of animals did not grow too large; the aquarium craze was launched in early Victorian England by Gosse, who created and stocked the first public aquarium at the London Zoo in 1853, published the first manual, The Aquarium: An Unveiling of the Wonders of the Deep Sea in 1854. An aquarium is a water-filled tank. Small aquariums are kept in the home by hobbyists. There are larger public aquariums in many cities.
This kind of aquarium is other aquatic animals in large tanks. A large aquarium may have otters, turtles and other sea animals. Most aquarium tanks have plants. An aquarist owns fish or maintains an aquarium constructed of glass or high-strength acrylic. Cuboid aquaria are known as fish tanks or tanks, while bowl-shaped aquaria are known as fish bowls. Size can range from a small glass bowl, under a gallon in volume, to immense public aquaria of several thousand gallons. Specialized equipment maintains appropriate water quality and other characteristics suitable for the aquarium's residents. In 1369, the Hongwu Emperor of China established a porcelain company that produced large porcelain tubs for maintaining goldfish. Leonhard Baldner, who wrote Vogel-, Fisch- und Tierbuch in 1666, maintained weather loaches and newts, it is sometimes held that the aquarium was invented by the Romans, who are said to have kept sea barbels in marble-and-glass tanks, but this is unlikely to be true. In 1832, Jeanne Villepreux-Power, a pioneering French marine biologist, became the first person to create aquaria for experimenting with aquatic organisms.
In 1836, soon after his invention of the Wardian case, Dr. Nathaniel Bagshaw Ward proposed to use his tanks for tropical animals. In 1841 he did so, though only with toy fish. However, he soon housed real animals. In 1838, Félix Dujardin noted owning a saltwater aquarium. In 1846, Anne Thynne maintained stony corals and seaweed for three years, was credited as the creator of the first balanced marine aquarium in London. English chemist Robert Warington experimented with a 13-gallon container, which contained goldfish and snails, creating one of the first stable aquaria; the aquarium principle was developed by Warington, explaining that plants added to water in a container would give off enough oxygen to support animals, so long as their numbers do not grow too large. He published his findings in 1850 in the Chemical Society's journal; the keeping of fish in an aquarium spread quickly. In the United Kingdom, it became popular after ornate aquaria in cast-iron frames were featured at the Great Exhibition of 1851.
In 1853, the aquarium craze was launched in England by Philip Henry Gosse who created and stocked the first public aquarium in the London Zoo which came to be known as the Fish House. Gosse coined the word "aquarium", opting for this term in 1854 in his book The Aquarium: An Unveiling of the Wonders of the Deep Sea. In this book, Gosse discussed saltwater aquaria. In the 1850s, the aquarium became a fad in the United Kingdom. Tank designs and techniques for maintaining water quality were developed by Warington cooperating with Gosse until his critical review of the tank water composition. Edward Edwards developed these glass-fronted aquaria in his 1858 patent for a "dark-water-chamber slope-back tank", with water circulating to a reservoir beneath. Germans soon rivaled the British in their interest. In 1854, an anonymous author had two articles published about the saltwater aquaria of the United Kingdom: Die Gartenlaube entitled Der Ocean auf dem Tische. However, in 1856, Der See im Glase was published, discussing freshwater aquaria, which were much easier to maintain in landlocked areas.
In 1862 William Alford Lloyd bankrupt because of the craze in England being over, moved to Grindel Dammthor, Hamburg, to supervise the installation of the circulating system and tanks at the Hamburg Aquarium. During the 1870s, some of the first aquarist societies were appearing in Germany; the United States soon followed. Published in 1858, Henry D. Butler's The Family Aquarium was one of the first books written in the United States about the aquarium. According to the July issue of The North American Review of the same year, William Stimson may have owned some of the first functional aquaria, had as many as seven or eight; the first aquarist society in the United States was founded in New York City in 1893, followed by others. The New York Aquarium Journal, first published in October 1876, is considered to be the world's first aquarium magazine. In the Victorian era in the United Kingdom, a common design for the home aquarium was a glass front with the other sides made of wood; the bottom would be heated from below.
More advanced systems soon began to be introduced, along with tanks of
Historic house museum
A historic house museum is a house, transformed into a museum. Historic furnishings may be displayed in a way that reflects their original placement and usage in a home. Historic house museums are held to a variety of standards, including those of the International Council of Museums; the International Council of Museums defines a museum as: "A museum as a non profit-making, permanent institution in the service of society and of its development, open to the public, which acquires, researches and exhibits, for purpose of study and enjoyment, the tangible and intangible evidence of people and their environment." Houses are transformed into museums for a number of different reasons. For example, the homes of famous writers are turned into writer's home museums to support literary tourism. Known as a ‘memory museum’, a term used to suggest that historic house museum contains a collection of the traces of memory of the people who once lived there, it is made up of the inhabitants’ belongings and objects – this approach is concerned with authenticity.
Some museums are organised around the social role the house had. Other historic house museums may be or reconstructed in order to tell the story of a particular area, social-class or historical period; the ‘narrative’ of the people who lived there guides this approach, dictates the manner in which it is completed. In each kind of museum visitors learn about the previous inhabitants through an explanation and exploration of Social History; the idea of a historic house museum derives from a branch of history called Social History, based on people and their way of living. It became popular in the mid-twentieth century among scholars who were interested in the history of people, as opposed to political and economical issues. Social history remains an influential branch of history. Philip J. Ethington is a Professor of history and political science, further adds to social history and its relationship to locations by saying – "All human action takes and makes place; the past is the set of places made by human action.
History is a map of these places." Following this historical movement, the concept of ‘Open Air Museums’ became prominent. These particular types of museums had interpreters in costume re-enact the lives of communities in earlier eras, which would be performed to modern audiences, they occupied large wooden architecture buildings or outdoor sites and landscapes, that were true to the era adding to authenticity. Collective memory is sometimes used in the resurrection of historic house museums; the notion of Collective Memory originated from philosopher and sociologist Maurice Halbwachs, in ‘La memoire collective’. This extended thesis examines the role of people and place, how collective memory is not only associated with the individual but is a shared experience, it focused on the way individual memory is influenced by social structures, as a way of continuing socialisation by producing memory as collective experience. "Each aspect, each detail, of this place has a meaning intelligent only to members of the group, for each portion of its space corresponds to various and different aspects of the structure and life of their society, at least of what is stable in it."An example of a site that utilizes collective memory is the Hiroshima Peace Memorial Park in Japan.
It was restored and is based on the dialectics of memory, however it has the inclusion of joyous festivals to mask the turmoil. The ‘Hiroshima Traces’ text takes a look the importance of collective memory and how it is embedded in culture and place. Thus, collective memory does not only reside in a house or building, but it resonates in outdoor space – when a monumental event has occurred, such as war. "The taming of memory that can be observed in the city’s redevelopment projects reveals local mediations and manifestations of transnational as well as national structural forces."Problematic creation of collective memory occurs within historic house museums when the narrative of non-family members is dismissed, ignored, or rejected. Within the Southern United States, Plantation Museums constitute a significant portion of the museum community and contribute to the racialized collective memory of the United States; because museums are responsible for “the building of identity, cultural memory and community,” neglecting to include the narrative of ALL people who lived there is dangerous.
While some Plantation museum narratives have changed following an outcry from the public and the academy, “plantation museums reflect and contribute to racialized ways of understanding and organizing the world,” by eliminating and limiting the narrative of the enslaved inhabitants. A degree of authenticity is to be considered in the restoration and creation of a historic house museum; the space must be authentic in terms of replicating and representing the way it once stood in its original form and appear to be untouched and left in time. There are three steps when declaring if a space is authentic: Proof of identity must be presented and certified by a credible individual The attributes of the object or person must be compared to the existing knowledge about it Documentation and credentials must be used to support it and thus declare if it is authentic. There are a number of Organizations around the world that dedicate themselves to the preservation, resurrection or promotion of historic house museums.
They include: Historic Houses Trust of New South Wales Historic Houses Association The Historic House Trust
A provincial park is a park administered by one of the provinces of a country, as opposed to a national park. They are similar to state parks in other countries, they are open to the public for recreation. Their environment may be more or less protected. Argentina, Belgium and South Africa are among the countries that have provincial parks. Provincial parks in the Misiones Province of Argentina include the Urugua-í Provincial Park and Esmeralda Provincial Park; the Ischigualasto Provincial Park called Valle de la Luna, due to its otherworldly appearance, is a provincial protected area in the north-east of San Juan Province, north-western Argentina. The Aconcagua Provincial Park is in Mendoza Province; the highest point is the north summit of the Cerro Aconcagua at 6,962 metres. The Parque Provincial Pereyra Iraola is the largest urban park in the Buenos Aires Province, it is the richest center of biodiversity in the province. Provincial parks in Belgium include Bois des Chevetogne, Hélécine, Palogne and Wégimont.
These are public areas administered by the province for outdoor recreation such as swimming, canoeing and camping, with few or no protected portions. Provincial parks in Canada are protected areas of land and/or water designated by one of the provincial governments to protect nature or historical sites and to support recreation and education; the first provincial park, created in 1885, was the Queen Victoria Park at Niagara Falls, The largest is the 24,087-hectare Polar Bear Provincial Park on Hudson Bay. Although provincial parks in Canada are not the same as national parks, their structures and purposes are similar; the provincial and territorial parks systems have various park categories. Parks may be ecological reserves without facilities for use by the general public, day use parks or recreational parks that offer many services to visitors including bicycle, canoe, or kayak rentals, camping sites, hiking trails and beaches. In the province of Quebec, the provincial parks are labelled "national parks" and are all IUCN category II protected areas, are managed by Société des établissements de plein air du Québec.
Many parks in the other provinces have the IUCN designation. Nwanedi Provincial Park is a scenic nature and game reserve on the foothills of the Venda mountains in the northern part of the Limpopo province of South Africa. Mokolo Dam Provincial Park surrounds the Mokolo Dam on the Mokolo River, it is located 32 km south of Lephalale, just northeast of the Marakele National Park and not far from the Lapalala Game Reserve. Letaba Ranch Provincial Park in Limpopo Province is north of Phalaborwa, next to the Kruger Park and has an area of about 42,000 ha; the Letaba River, runs through the park
Lake Superior National Marine Conservation Area
Lake Superior National Marine Conservation Area is a National Marine Conservation Area on the north shore of Lake Superior in Ontario, is a unit of the national park system. Established on September 1, 2015, it is the largest freshwater marine protected area in the world. Although national marine parks and a reserve had been created and managed as NMCAs, this was the first area in Canada to be designated a "National Marine Conservation Area" as defined by the Marine Conservation Areas Act. Plans to create it were first announced by Canadian Prime Minister Stephen Harper on October 25, 2007, in Nipigon, Ontario; the area is a unit of Canada's national park system administered by Parks Canada. The conservation area extends 140 kilometres eastward from Thunder Bay, from Thunder Cape in the west, at the tip of Sleeping Giant Provincial Park, to Bottle Point in the east, stretches southward to the Canada-US border, linking with Isle Royale National Park; the Nipigon River and Lake Nipigon lie to the north.
Proposals to protect the area were first suggested in the mid-1990s, formal plans were first announced in 2002. The marine conservation area was proposed after discussion with provincial and First Nations representatives; the First Nations in the area, represented by Wilfred King, the regional grand chief of the northern Superior region, endorsed the proposal once they were satisfied that it respected the Robinson Superior Treaty of 1850. Parks Canada distributed questionnaires to local residents as a public consultation. 67% of respondents supported the "largest possible designation area," with 13% opposing any NMCA designation, the remaining supporting some form of NMCA. In June 2015, the federal government introduced a bill to create the NMCA, which received royal assent on June 24; the law specified that the NMCA would come into force on either the day of approval or on September 1, 2015—whichever came latest. With approval given in June, the park was created on September 1. Lake Superior National Marine Conservation Area covers 10,000 km2 of lakebed, its overlaying freshwater, associated shoreline on 60 km2 of islands and mainland.
The area is home to numerous species including herons, peregrine falcons, bald eagles. The spawning and schooling waters of deep coldwater fish, such as whitefish, lake herring and lake trout will be protected by this zone. Caribou foraging and calving areas are located on shore. Lake Superior is home to about 70 fish species; the official designation prevents resource extraction or other operations which may damage the aquatic or terrestrial ecosystems in the conservation area. However, per the agreement with the First Nations, it does not exclude all commercial marine activity, such as shipping, commercial and sport fishing. In 2009 the Wilson Islands were purchased from private owners; these eight untouched islands lie off Rossport in Ontario waters. The acquisition was made by the governments of Canada and Ontario, the Nature Conservancy of both Canada and the United States, with donated funds, much of which were contributed by U. S. donors. The acquisition had substantial support from the Pays Plat First Nation, which will cooperate in stewardship of the islands.
The islands include cliffs, both rocky and sandy shorelines, coastal wetlands, deep forests. Flora include northern woodsia fern, their habitat will now be protected from mining and other development. By this acquisition, the marine conservation area the largest freshwater protected area in the world and preserves over 4,700 acres of land in the heart of the preserve. Historic shipwrecks lie on the seabed of the Lake Superior National Marine Conservation Area, including the Gunilda at Rossport; the shores have two areas of First Nation pictographs and Sibley Peninsula has archaeological sites from Paleoindian and woodland settlements. National Marine Conservation Areas National Parks of Canada List of National Parks of Canada Parks Canada Lake Superior National Marine Conservation Area at Parks Canada
A national park is a park in use for conservation purposes. It is a reserve of natural, semi-natural, or developed land that a sovereign state declares or owns. Although individual nations designate their own national parks differently, there is a common idea: the conservation of'wild nature' for posterity and as a symbol of national pride. An international organization, the International Union for Conservation of Nature, its World Commission on Protected Areas, has defined "National Park" as its Category II type of protected areas. While this type of national park had been proposed the United States established the first "public park or pleasuring-ground for the benefit and enjoyment of the people", Yellowstone National Park, in 1872. Although Yellowstone was not termed a "national park" in its establishing law, it was always termed such in practice and is held to be the first and oldest national park in the world. However, the Tobago Main Ridge Forest Reserve, the area surrounding Bogd Khan Uul Mountain are seen as the oldest protected areas, predating Yellowstone by nearly a century.
The first area to use "national park" in its creation legislation was the U. S.'s Mackinac, in 1875. Australia's Royal National Park, established in 1879, was the world's third official national park. In 1895 ownership of Mackinac National Park was transferred to the State of Michigan as a state park and national park status was lost; as a result, Australia's Royal National Park is by some considerations the second oldest national park now in existence. Canada established Parks Canada in 1911, becoming the world's first national service dedicated to protecting and presenting natural and historical treasures; the largest national park in the world meeting the IUCN definition is the Northeast Greenland National Park, established in 1974. According to the IUCN, 6,555 national parks worldwide met its criteria in 2006. IUCN is still discussing the parameters of defining a national park. National parks are always open to visitors. Most national parks provide outdoor recreation and camping opportunities as well as classes designed to educate the public on the importance of conservation and the natural wonders of the land in which the national park is located.
In 1969, the IUCN declared a national park to be a large area with the following defining characteristics: One or several ecosystems not materially altered by human exploitation and occupation, where plant and animal species, geomorphological sites and habitats are of special scientific and recreational interest or which contain a natural landscape of great beauty. In 1971, these criteria were further expanded upon leading to more clear and defined benchmarks to evaluate a national park; these include: Minimum size of 1,000 hectares within zones in which protection of nature takes precedence Statutory legal protection Budget and staff sufficient to provide sufficient effective protection Prohibition of exploitation of natural resources qualified by such activities as sport, fishing, the need for management, etc. While the term national park is now defined by the IUCN, many protected areas in many countries are called national park when they correspond to other categories of the IUCN Protected Area Management Definition, for example: Swiss National Park, Switzerland: IUCN Ia - Strict Nature Reserve Everglades National Park, United States: IUCN Ib - Wilderness Area Victoria Falls National Park, Zimbabwe: IUCN III - National Monument Vitosha National Park, Bulgaria: IUCN IV - Habitat Management Area New Forest National Park, United Kingdom: IUCN V - Protected Landscape Etniko Ygrotopiko Parko Delta Evrou, Greece: IUCN VI - Managed Resource Protected AreaWhile national parks are understood to be administered by national governments, in Australia national parks are run by state governments and predate the Federation of Australia.
In Canada, there are both national parks operated by the federal government and provincial or territorial parks operated by the provincial and territorial governments, although nearly all are still national parks by the IUCN definition. In many countries, including Indonesia, the Netherlands, the United Kingdom, national parks do not adhere to the IUCN definition, while some areas which adhere to the IUCN definition are not designated as national parks. In 1810, the English poet William Wordsworth described the Lake District as a sort of national property, in which every man has a right and interest who has an eye to perceive and a heart to enjoy; the painter George Catlin, in his travels through the American West, wrote during the 1830s that the Native Americans in the United States might be preserved...in a magnificent park... A nation's Park, containing man and beast, in all the wild and freshness of their nature's beauty! The first effort by the U. S. Federal government to set aside such protected lands was on 20 April 1832, when President Andrew Jackson signed legislation that the 22nd United States Congress had enacted to set aside four sections of land around what is now Hot Springs, Arkansas, to protect the natural, thermal springs and adjoining mountainsides for the futur