West Side Highway
The West Side Highway is a surface section of New York State Route 9A that runs from West 72nd Street along the Hudson River to the southern tip of Manhattan in New York City. It replaced the West Side Elevated Highway, built between 1929 and 1951, shut down in 1973 due to neglect and lack of maintenance, was dismantled by 1989; the term "West Side Highway" is mistakenly used to include the roadway north of 72nd Street, properly known as the Henry Hudson Parkway. The current highway was complete by 2001, but required some reconstruction due to damage sustained in the 9/11 attacks, it uses the surface streets that existed before the elevated highway was built: West Street, Eleventh Avenue and Twelfth Avenue. A short section of 12th Avenue still runs between 125th and 138th Streets, under the Riverside Drive Viaduct. Eleventh Avenue is a separate street north of 22nd Street; the portion between West 42nd Street and Canal Street is part of the Lincoln Highway. The highway is a six-to-eight lane urban boulevard, with the northernmost section, from 59th Street to 72nd Street, elevated above a former rail yard adjacent to tracks still used by Amtrak.
Trucks and buses are allowed only on the surface section. The West Side Highway's surface section takes three names: West Street from the Battery Park Underpass north to Tenth Avenue 11th Avenue to 22nd Street, 12th Avenue to 59th Street; the highway begins from Battery Park close to the mouth of the Brooklyn Battery Tunnel where it accepts traffic from the southern terminus of the Franklin D. Roosevelt East River Drive. From there, the route passes close to the site of the World Trade Center at Vesey Street; the route continues with this name passing by numerous piers along the Hudson River until Gansevoort Street in the Meatpacking District where it becomes Eleventh Avenue. Eleventh Avenue begins just north of the intersection with Tenth Avenue; the highway is concurrent with Eleventh Avenue north of this point, passing by the 14th Street Park at 14th Street. The highway continues with this name alongside the Chelsea Piers until it reaches 22nd Street where the highway branches off from Eleventh Avenue onto Twelfth Avenue.
At 22nd Street, the highway continues as Twelfth Avenue passing by the Chelsea Waterside Park. It passes just west of the Javits Center from 34th Street to 38th Street and over the Lincoln Tunnel at 39th Street; the road continues past the Intrepid Sea, Air & Space Museum and Piers 84 to 92, a major cruise ship terminal building. At 54th Street, 12th Avenue attains a highway with service roads character, with the service roads running as far as 59th Street. From there, Twelfth Avenue becomes elevated and at 72nd Street, the highway becomes the Henry Hudson Parkway. Various proposals circulated in the 1920s to build an expressway on the west side. Among the proposals: Rail/Highway Double Decker – The New York Central Railroad proposed building a highway/rail double decked highway from 72nd Street to Canal Street, which would be constructed at no cost to the city, it would eliminate 106 grade crossings over 84 blocks. It ran into opposition because of fears. Hencken's Ten-story Train/Car/Office/People Mover – Engineer John Hencken proposed an exotic ten-story complex with a rail line underground, a road at street level, a people mover built above that, topped by ten stories of apartments and offices.
The highway would run on top of the ten-story buildings. A similar alternative was offered by Benjamin Battin. Manhattan borough president Julius Miller said that something had to be done right away and pushed through the plan for the West Side Elevated Highway, to bear his name; the proposal ran into stiff opposition. The City Club and New York City Mayor James J. Walker objected to the highway on the grounds that it would block waterfront-bound freight traffic. At the time, West Street exhibited a "daily avalanche of freight and passengers in traffic", was "walled by an unbroken line of bulkhead sheds and dock structures" blocking the view not only of the river, but of the ships being serviced, the commerce carried out on those piers and slips was vital to the economic health of the city, they believed that the plans should wait until the surface railroad tracks were removed in the area, at which point the elevated highway might not be necessary. Many objected. In 1929, construction started, the section between Canal Street and West 72nd Street was completed in 1937, with a "Southern Extension" to the Brooklyn–Battery Tunnel completed in 1951.
Before the West Side Highway was built, the road along the Hudson River was a busy one, with significant cross traffic going to docks and ferries. At 22nd Street, most traffic continued north along Eleventh Avenue, along which the New York Central Railroad's West Side Line ran; the first official proposal for an elevated highway along Manhattan's west side was made by Police Commissioner Richard Edward Enright on January 12, 1924, in a letter to the New York City Board of Estimate. The highway was to be 100 feet wide, running north from the Battery to 72nd Street at Riverside Drive, West End Avenue, or Amsterdam Avenue. According to Enright, "During business hours West Street the most congested thoroughfare in the city. Vast quantities of the city's foodstuffs handled in the territory adjacent to West Street." He cited traffic congestion as an extra cost of doing a blockage for fire engines. On February 2, 1925, it was announced that the railroad would bu
Construction of One World Trade Center
Construction of One World Trade Center was deferred until 2006 because of disputes between the Port Authority of New York and New Jersey and the developer. Tishman Realty & Construction is the selected builder; the building reached ground level on May 17, 2008, was topped out on May 10, 2013. One World Trade Center opened to tenants on November 3, 2014, One World Observatory opened to the public on May 28, 2015. One World Trade Center is considered the first major building whose construction is based upon a three-dimensional Building Information Model; the symbolic cornerstone of One World Trade Center was laid down in a ceremony on July 4, 2004, but further construction of the tower was stalled until 2006. The cornerstone was temporarily removed from the site on June 23, 2006; the project was delayed due to disputes over money and design but the last major issues were resolved on April 26, 2006 with a deal between developer Larry Silverstein and the Port Authority of New York and New Jersey.
During the summer of 2006, explosives were detonated at the World Trade Center construction site, testing the use of charges to clear bedrock for the building's foundation. Controlled explosions continued for two months thereafter. On November 18, 2006, 400 cubic yards of concrete were poured onto the foundation of the One World Trade Center, carried by as many as 40 trucks. On December 17, 2006, a ceremony was held in Battery Park City, with the public invited to sign a 30-foot steel beam; this beam, the first to be installed, was welded onto the building's base on December 19, 2006. On January 9, 2007, a second set of beams was welded to the top of the first set. February 2007 estimates put the cost for construction of 1 WTC at $3 billion, or $1,150 per square foot. $1 billion of insurance money recouped by Silverstein in connection with the September 11 attacks is being used for construction of the new One World Trade Center. The State of New York is expected to provide $250 million toward construction costs, the Port Authority agreed to finance another $1 billion through bonds.
In 2007, Tishman Construction Corporation of New York completed a row of steel columns at the perimeter of the construction site. Two tower crane bases were erected. By the end of 2007, the tower's footings and foundations were nearly complete. In January 2008, two construction cranes were moved into the construction site; the tower's concrete core began rising in the first months of 2008. By February 22, 2008, 9,400 of the nearly 50,000 short tons of steel necessary had been ordered. By March 13, 2008, the steel for the tower had reached 10 feet below street level. From late March through early April, a 40-foot tall mockup of a section of the tower's wall with twenty-four windows was tested by Construction Consulting Laboratory West in Ontario, California; the purpose of the testing was to ensure that the all-glass exterior of the tower will be able to withstand earthquakes and extreme weather conditions. Testing took place on another full-scale mockup south of Albuquerque, New Mexico. Both mockups passed the tests.
In mid-April, a batch of concrete had to be replaced. On May 17, 2008, the tower's steel reached street level when new sections were bolted to two of the twenty-four jumbo steel columns marking the building's footprint; the new column sections brought the height of the structure up to 15 feet above street level. In June, the chamfered steel skeleton of the tower's concrete base had begun to take shape. By the end of the month, the concrete had been poured for the floor of the tower's basement level B3. In his June 30, 2008 World Trade Center Rebuilding Assessment to New York Governor David Paterson, Port Authority executive director Chris Ward noted that 90 percent of the construction contracts had been bid. By August, 1 WTC had reached 25 feet above street level. During its September 16 meeting, the Port Authority board approved contracts for security and building management systems, 95% of the contracts needed to complete the tower had been signed; the $20 million security contract includes sophisticated video analysis in which computers would alert security personnel to abnormal situations automatically.
On October 10, Collavino Construction poured an additional 520 cubic yards of concrete for the tower's concrete core, raising it to just above street level. By February 11, 2009, the tower was 105 feet above street level. On July 2, 2009, over 1,200 cubic yards of concrete were poured to form parts of the street-level plaza. On August 13, the builders of 1 WTC set a 70 short tons piece of steel into place—the largest column installed yet at the building; each steel column, made at a factory in Luxembourg, was about 60 feet long. The columns at the bottom of the tower's foundation were about 35 feet long. By November 1, 2009, the twenty-four perimeter columns of 1 WTC were all erected, construction of the second floor was nearly complete. In addition, The Port Authority of New York and New Jersey reported in their 2009 Q3 Annual Report that steel erection should commence by January 2010, that the typical floor construction could begin. Steel and concrete installation continued in 2010; the fifth floor was finished on January 16.
In February, construction began on the sixth floor, the last floor of 1 WTC's base, the Port Authority announced that the tower's steel superstructure had reached 200 feet above street level. By the end of March 2010, steel beams began to be erected for the second office
200 Liberty Street
200 Liberty Street known as One World Financial Center, is a skyscraper in Lower Manhattan, New York City. It is located at 200 Liberty Street between South End West Street, it was built in 1985 as part of the World Financial Center complex. It is a 40-story building reaching the height of 577 feet, it has a leasable area of 1,628,000 square feet. To other WFC buildings it has a unique roof, a truncated square pyramid, it is connected to the rest of the complex by a skybridge over Liberty Street. The building is located across the street from the World Trade Center site and was damaged in the September 11 attacks; the initial dust cloud and other explosions shattered many windows damaging nearby Winter Garden Atrium and other buildings of the World Financial Center complex. It was reopened in 2002 after extensive restoration, it was renamed 200 Liberty Street when the rest of the complex became Brookfield Place in 2014. Associated Press Cadwalader, Wickersham & Taft Deloitte and Touche Dow Jones & Co.
Fidelity Investments Financial Industry Regulatory Authority GfK National Financial Services Royal Alliance Santander Bank The Wall Street Journal Willis Towers Watson List of tallest buildings in New York City Official website Emporis database
Winter Garden Atrium
The Winter Garden Atrium is a 10-story glass-vaulted pavilion on Vesey Street in New York City's Brookfield Place office complex. Designed by Diana Balmori, the Atrium was constructed in 1988, rebuilt in 2002, the Atrium houses various plants and flowers, shops; the rear of the building opens onto the World Financial Center Plaza and the North Cove Yacht Harbor on the Hudson River. The Winter Garden Atrium, along with the rest of the Brookfield Place, was designed by architect César Pelli in 1985. Completed in 1988 at a cost of $60 million, the Atrium was connected to the World Trade Center via a 400 ft pedestrian bridge that spanned West Street; the Atrium was damaged in the September 11, 2001 attacks as all the glass panes were blown out by the dust clouds and debris caused by the collapse of the Twin Towers, but was rebuilt during the first year of the Financial Center's recovery. Reconstruction of the Winter Garden required 2,000 panes of glass, 60,000 square feet of marble flooring and stairs, sixteen 40 ft Washingtonia robusta palm trees at a cost of $50 million.
Reopened on September 17, 2002, the Winter Garden was the first major structure to be restored following the attacks. President George W. Bush was present at the reopening ceremony; the pedestrian bridge was destroyed in the same attacks and was replaced by windows facing the former site of the World Trade Center. Since its construction, the Winter Garden Atrium has hosted concerts and symphonies as part of the World Financial Center Series. Upon its reopening in 2002, the atrium held ballets, concerts, a performance by the Big Apple Circus, a production of The Downtown Messiah, a modern interpretation of Handel's classical oratorio, directed by Richard Barone. In the spring of 2003, an exhibit documenting the recovery process of the World Trade Center was installed by the Lower Manhattan Development Corporation in the Winter Garden; the exhibit included early designs of Libeskind's Freedom Tower. That year, the eight finalists in the competition for the new buildings had their designs unveiled and displayed in the atrium.
The Winter Garden continues to serve as a venue for art exhibits and shows, as well as hosting movie screenings during the TriBeCa Film Festival. World Trade Center Media related to Winter Garden Atrium at Wikimedia Commons Calendar of Events
Brookfield Place (Toronto)
Brookfield Place is an office complex in downtown Toronto, Canada, comprising the 2.1 ha block bounded by Yonge Street, Wellington Street West, Bay Street, Front Street. The complex contains 242,000 m2 of office space, consists of two towers, Bay Wellington Tower and TD Canada Trust Tower, linked by the Allen Lambert Galleria. Brookfield Place is the home of the Hockey Hall of Fame; the TD Canada Trust Tower is noted for its recessed design and spire on the upper levels and stands at 53 storeys. Designed by Bregman + Hamann Architects and Skidmore, Owings & Merrill, the tower was completed in 1990 and was known as the Canada Trust Tower until 2000 when Toronto-Dominion Bank purchased Canada Trust. Canada Trust signage was atop the spire of building until 2000; until July 2015, the "TD" logo in the downtown Toronto skyline was displayed on the Canada Trust Tower, unlike the nearby towers of the Toronto-Dominion Centre which lacked signage. Bay Wellington Tower is a 49-story office tower, designed by Bregman + Hamann Architects and completed in 1992.
Architecturally it is meant to complement the Canada Trust Tower. Allen Lambert Galleria, sometimes described as the "crystal cathedral of commerce", is an atrium designed by Spanish architect Santiago Calatrava which connects Bay Street with Sam Pollock Square; the six story high pedestrian thoroughfare is structured by eight freestanding supports on each side of the Galleria, which branch out into parabolic shapes evoking a forest canopy or a tree-lined avenue because of the presence of building facades along the sides of the structure. The Galleria was the result of an international competition and was incorporated into the development in order to satisfy the City of Toronto's public art requirements, it is a photographed space, is featured as a backdrop for news reports, as well as TV and film productions. The parabolic arched roof that Santiago Calatrava created for the assembly hall of the Wohlen High School in Wohlen, Switzerland, is considered to be a precursor of the vaulted, parabolic ceiling in the Galleria.
Brookfield Place serves as the headquarters for Brookfield Office Properties, which owns the Bay Wellington Tower section of the complex. The TD Tower section was owned in entirety by the Ontario Municipal Employees Retirement System through its subsidiary Oxford Properties. In late 2012 or early 2013, OMERS and an unconfirmed entity identified in news reports as the Public Sector Pension Investment Board completed a swap transaction in which OMERS reduced its ownership stake in the tower to 50%. According to the Financial Post, "A spokesman for PSP would not confirm the deal had taken place, noting the pension fund never comments on any transaction." The swap valued the 50% stake in the tower at C$465 million, or C$750 per square foot, a record for commercial property in Canada. The opulent former Bank of Montreal branch at the northwest corner of Yonge and Front streets, built in 1885 forms part of the complex, now serves as part of the Hockey Hall of Fame, it contains portraits of all Hall of Fame inductees, houses a number of hockey trophies, including the first Stanley Cup trophy.
List of tallest buildings in Toronto List of tallest buildings in Canada Official website Photos of Brookfield Place Description of Allen Lambert Galleria Heritage elements of Brookfield Place
The American Express Company known as Amex, is an American multinational financial services corporation headquartered in Three World Financial Center in New York City. The company is one of the 30 components of the Dow Jones Industrial Average; the company is best known for its charge card, credit card, traveler's cheque businesses. In 2016, credit cards using the American Express network accounted for 22.9% of the total dollar volume of credit card transactions in the US. As of December 31, 2017, the company had 112.8 million cards in force, including 50 million cards in force in the United States, each with an average annual spending of $18,519. In 2017, Forbes named American Express as the 23rd most valuable brand in the world, estimating the brand to be worth US$24.5 billion. In 2018, Fortune ranked American Express as the 14th most admired company worldwide, the 23rd best company to work for; the company's logo, adopted in 1958, is a gladiator or centurion whose image appears on the company's traveler's cheques, charge cards and credit cards.
In 1850, American Express was started as an express mail business in New York. It was founded as a joint stock corporation by the merger of the express companies owned by Henry Wells, William G. Fargo, John Warren Butterfield. Wells and Fargo started Wells Fargo & Co. in 1852 when Butterfield and other directors objected to the proposal that American Express extend its operations to California. American Express established its headquarters in a building at the intersection of Jay Street and Hudson Street in what was called the Tribeca section of Manhattan. For years it enjoyed a virtual monopoly on the movement of express shipments throughout New York State. In 1874, American Express moved its headquarters to 65 Broadway in what was becoming the Financial District of Manhattan, a location it was to retain through two buildings. In 1854, the American Express Co. purchased a lot on Vesey Street in New York City as the site for its stables. The company's first New York headquarters was an 1858 marble Italianate palazzo at 55–61 Hudson Street, which had a busy freight depot on the ground story with a spur line from the Hudson River Railroad.
A stable was constructed in 1867, five blocks north at 4–8 Hubert Street. The company prospered sufficiently that headquarters were moved in 1874 from the wholesale shipping district to the budding Financial District, into rented offices in two five-story brownstone commercial buildings at 63 and 65 Broadway that were owned by the Harmony family. In 1880, American Express built a new warehouse behind the Broadway Building at 46 Trinity Place; the designer is unknown, but it has a façade of brick arches that are reminiscent of pre-skyscraper New York. American Express has long been out of this building, but it still bears a terracotta seal with the American Express Eagle. In 1890–91 the company constructed a new ten-story building by Edward H. Kendall on the site of its former headquarters on Hudson Street. By 1903, the company had assets of some $28 million, second only to the National City Bank of New York among financial institutions in the city. To reflect this, the company purchased the Broadway buildings and site.
At the end of the Wells-Fargo reign in 1914, an aggressive new president, George Chadbourne Taylor, who had worked his way up through the company over the previous thirty years, decided to build a new headquarters. The old buildings, dubbed by the New York Times as "among the ancient landmarks" of lower Broadway, were inadequate for such a expanding concern. After some delays due to the First World War, the 21-story neo-classical American Express Co. Building was constructed in 1916–17 to the design of James L. Aspinwall, of the firm of Renwick, Aspinwall & Tucker, the successor to the architectural practice of the eminent James Renwick, Jr.. The building consolidated the two lots of the former buildings with a single address: 65 Broadway; this building was part of the "Express Row" section of lower Broadway at the time. The building completed the continuous masonry wall of its block-front and assisted in transforming Broadway into the "canyon" of neo-classical masonry office towers familiar to this dayAmerican Express sold this building in 1975, but retained travel services there.
The building was the headquarters over the years of other prominent firms, including investment bankers J.& W. Seligman & Co. the American Bureau of Shipping, a maritime concern, J. J. Kenny, Standard & Poor's, who has renamed the building for itself. American Express extended its reach nationwide by arranging affiliations with other express companies and steamship companies. In 1857, American Express started its expansion in the area of financial services by launching a money order business to compete with the United States Post Office's money orders. Sometime between 1888 and 1890, J. C. Fargo returned frustrated and infuriated. Despite the fact that he was president of American Express and that he carried with him traditional letters of credit, he found it difficult to obtain cash anywhere except in major cities. Fargo went to Marcellus Flemming Berry and asked him to create a better solution than the letter of credit. Berry introduced the American Express Traveler's Cheque, launched in 1891 in denominations of $10, $20, $50, $100.
Traveler's cheques established American Express as a international compa
Toronto is the provincial capital of Ontario and the most populous city in Canada, with a population of 2,731,571 in 2016. Current to 2016, the Toronto census metropolitan area, of which the majority is within the Greater Toronto Area, held a population of 5,928,040, making it Canada's most populous CMA. Toronto is the anchor of an urban agglomeration, known as the Golden Horseshoe in Southern Ontario, located on the northwestern shore of Lake Ontario. A global city, Toronto is a centre of business, finance and culture, is recognized as one of the most multicultural and cosmopolitan cities in the world. People have travelled through and inhabited the Toronto area, situated on a broad sloping plateau interspersed with rivers, deep ravines, urban forest, for more than 10,000 years. After the broadly disputed Toronto Purchase, when the Mississauga surrendered the area to the British Crown, the British established the town of York in 1793 and designated it as the capital of Upper Canada. During the War of 1812, the town was the site of the Battle of York and suffered heavy damage by United States troops.
York was incorporated in 1834 as the city of Toronto. It was designated as the capital of the province of Ontario in 1867 during Canadian Confederation; the city proper has since expanded past its original borders through both annexation and amalgamation to its current area of 630.2 km2. The diverse population of Toronto reflects its current and historical role as an important destination for immigrants to Canada. More than 50 percent of residents belong to a visible minority population group, over 200 distinct ethnic origins are represented among its inhabitants. While the majority of Torontonians speak English as their primary language, over 160 languages are spoken in the city. Toronto is a prominent centre for music, motion picture production, television production, is home to the headquarters of Canada's major national broadcast networks and media outlets, its varied cultural institutions, which include numerous museums and galleries and public events, entertainment districts, national historic sites, sports activities, attract over 25 million tourists each year.
Toronto is known for its many skyscrapers and high-rise buildings, in particular the tallest free-standing structure in the Western Hemisphere, the CN Tower. The city is home to the Toronto Stock Exchange, the headquarters of Canada's five largest banks, the headquarters of many large Canadian and multinational corporations, its economy is diversified with strengths in technology, financial services, life sciences, arts, business services, environmental innovation, food services, tourism. When Europeans first arrived at the site of present-day Toronto, the vicinity was inhabited by the Iroquois, who had displaced the Wyandot people, occupants of the region for centuries before c. 1500. The name Toronto is derived from the Iroquoian word tkaronto, meaning "place where trees stand in the water"; this refers to the northern end of what is now Lake Simcoe, where the Huron had planted tree saplings to corral fish. However, the word "Toronto", meaning "plenty" appears in a 1632 French lexicon of the Huron language, an Iroquoian language.
It appears on French maps referring to various locations, including Georgian Bay, Lake Simcoe, several rivers. A portage route from Lake Ontario to Lake Huron running through this point, known as the Toronto Carrying-Place Trail, led to widespread use of the name. In the 1660s, the Iroquois established two villages within what is today Toronto, Ganatsekwyagon on the banks of the Rouge River and Teiaiagon on the banks of the Humber River. By 1701, the Mississauga had displaced the Iroquois, who abandoned the Toronto area at the end of the Beaver Wars, with most returning to their base in present-day New York. French traders abandoned it in 1759 during the Seven Years' War; the British defeated the French and their indigenous allies in the war, the area became part of the British colony of Quebec in 1763. During the American Revolutionary War, an influx of British settlers came here as United Empire Loyalists fled for the British-controlled lands north of Lake Ontario; the Crown granted them land to compensate for their losses in the Thirteen Colonies.
The new province of Upper Canada was being needed a capital. In 1787, the British Lord Dorchester arranged for the Toronto Purchase with the Mississauga of the New Credit First Nation, thereby securing more than a quarter of a million acres of land in the Toronto area. Dorchester intended the location to be named Toronto. In 1793, Governor John Graves Simcoe established the town of York on the Toronto Purchase lands, naming it after Prince Frederick, Duke of York and Albany. Simcoe decided to move the Upper Canada capital from Newark to York, believing that the new site would be less vulnerable to attack by the United States; the York garrison was constructed at the entrance of the town's natural harbour, sheltered by a long sand-bar peninsula. The town's settlement formed at the eastern end of the harbour behind the peninsula, near the present-day intersection of Parliament Street and Front Street. In 1813, as part of the War of 1812, the Battle of York ended in the town's capture and plunder by United States forces.
The surrender of the town was negotiated by John Strachan. American soldiers destroyed much of the garrison and set fire to the parliament buildings during their five-day occupation; because of the sacking of York, British troops retaliated in the war with the Burning of Wa