The Liberty Tunnels are a pair of tunnels located in Pittsburgh, Pennsylvania that allow motorists to travel between the South Hills of Pittsburgh and the city, beneath Mt. Washington; the tunnels were vital in the expansion of the South Hills suburbs by providing a direct route to the city, eliminating the time-consuming task of navigating around or over Mt. Washington and its inclines. Opening in 1924, the Liberty Tunnels are the longest automobile tunnel in the City of Pittsburgh; the tunnels were designed by Amos D. Neeld, who would supervise the construction of the adjoining Liberty Bridge, which gives travelers a way to cross the Monongahela River after passing through the tunnels; the design was two vertical wall horseshoe profile tunnels, each consisting of two lanes of traffic and a 4 ft sidewalk. The sidewalks, being minimally used and in disrepair, were removed during a renovation in the 1970s in order to widen and increase the height of the traffic lanes. Prior to the construction of the Liberty Tunnels, many other projects were proposed.
One plan, from engineer W. M. Donley, called for a deep cut through the mountain; this would eliminate the need for a tunnel. Many residents wanted tunnels to be built in Shalerville. In 1959, the Fort Pitt Tunnels were constructed near this proposed area. Other residents wanted tunnels to be built in a valley behind Mt. Washington that led to Dormont and Mt. Lebanon, they would follow a low line to exit at Saw Mill Run. This was known as the Bell Tavern plan, modified to create the Liberty Tunnels; the final plan for the tunnels shared the southern Bell Tavern portal, but followed a higher line to emerge on the north face of Mt. Washington; this plan required the construction of a new bridge, to become the Liberty Bridge. Booth and Flinn, Ltd. were awarded the contract to build the new tunnels in January 1919, construction began shortly thereafter. On May 11, 1922, the boring of the tunnels was complete and in January 1924, the $6 million Liberty Tunnels were opened to traffic. However, the tunnels were not yet complete and lacked a major component necessary to the project: ventilation.
There was not yet a ventilation system when the tunnels opened, but authorities decided the flow of traffic would allow for a natural draft of ventilation. On May 10, 1924, a traffic jam which occurred due to a Pittsburgh Street Railway Company strike, causing vehicles to be stopped, idling in the tunnels. Several motorists passed out from the fumes emitted from the exhaust of the congested vehicles. For the safety of motorists, the number of vehicles permitted through the tunnels was regulated until a ventilation system was installed. With help from the U. S. Bureau of Mines, tunnel engineers designed a system to ventilate the tunnels to accommodate the high traffic flow. In 1928, construction of four 200-foot vertical shafts was completed to continuously provide fresh air to the tunnels. A plant located on top on the mountain was constructed to pump the fresh air through the shafts, which tower 110 ft above the plant. After the ventilation system was put into service, the traffic restrictions were lifted.
Following the completion of the Liberty Tunnels, the Liberty Bridge was completed and linked to the tunnels on March 27, 1928. The bridge and tunnel combination gave motorists and pedestrians a direct route to the city without traveling over or around Mt. Washington. 5,889 ft in length Twin tunnels 2 lanes in each tunnel Vertical wall horseshoe profile 11 cross passages 14 ft 6 in posted vertical clearance Each tunnel is 28.6 ft wide and 20.75 ft high to arch Floor slopes upward 0.329 percent grade to Saw Mill Run portal 20 ft higher Opened in 1924 Between: Liberty Bridge. Since August 1987 the tunnels have provided cellular phone reception. Liberty Tunnels on pghbridges.com
Pennsylvania the Commonwealth of Pennsylvania, is a state located in the northeastern and Mid-Atlantic regions of the United States. The Appalachian Mountains run through its middle; the Commonwealth is bordered by Delaware to the southeast, Maryland to the south, West Virginia to the southwest, Ohio to the west, Lake Erie and the Canadian province of Ontario to the northwest, New York to the north, New Jersey to the east. Pennsylvania is the 33rd-largest state by area, the 6th-most populous state according to the most recent official U. S. Census count in 2010, it is the 9th-most densely populated of the 50 states. Pennsylvania's two most populous cities are Philadelphia, Pittsburgh; the state capital and its 10th largest city is Harrisburg. Pennsylvania has 140 miles of waterfront along the Delaware Estuary; the state is one of the 13 original founding states of the United States. Part of Pennsylvania, together with the present State of Delaware, had earlier been organized as the Colony of New Sweden.
It was the second state to ratify the United States Constitution, on December 12, 1787. Independence Hall, where the United States Declaration of Independence and United States Constitution were drafted, is located in the state's largest city of Philadelphia. During the American Civil War, the Battle of Gettysburg was fought in the south central region of the state. Valley Forge near Philadelphia was General Washington's headquarters during the bitter winter of 1777–78. Pennsylvania is 170 miles north to south and 283 miles east to west. Of a total 46,055 square miles, 44,817 square miles are land, 490 square miles are inland waters, 749 square miles are waters in Lake Erie, it is the 33rd-largest state in the United States. Pennsylvania has 51 miles of coastline along Lake Erie and 57 miles of shoreline along the Delaware Estuary. Of the original Thirteen Colonies, Pennsylvania is the only state that does not border the Atlantic Ocean; the boundaries of the state are the Mason–Dixon line to the south, the Twelve-Mile Circle on the Pennsylvania-Delaware border, the Delaware River to the east, 80° 31' W to the west and the 42° N to the north, with the exception of a short segment on the western end, where a triangle extends north to Lake Erie.
Cities include Philadelphia, Reading and Lancaster in the southeast, Pittsburgh in the southwest, the tri-cities of Allentown and Easton in the central east. The northeast includes the former anthracite coal mining cities of Scranton, Wilkes-Barre and Hazleton. Erie is located in the northwest. State College serves the central region while Williamsport serves the commonwealth's north-central region as does Chambersburg the south-central region, with York and the state capital Harrisburg on the Susquehanna River in the east-central region of the Commonwealth and Altoona and Johnstown in the west-central region; the state has five geographical regions, namely the Allegheny Plateau and Valley, Atlantic Coastal Plain and the Erie Plain. New York Ontario Maryland Delaware West Virginia New Jersey Ohio Pennsylvania's diverse topography produces a variety of climates, though the entire state experiences cold winters and humid summers. Straddling two major zones, the majority of the state, with the exception of the southeastern corner, has a humid continental climate.
The southern portion of the state has a humid subtropical climate. The largest city, has some characteristics of the humid subtropical climate that covers much of Delaware and Maryland to the south. Summers are hot and humid. Moving toward the mountainous interior of the state, the winter climate becomes colder, the number of cloudy days increases, snowfall amounts are greater. Western areas of the state locations near Lake Erie, can receive over 100 inches of snowfall annually, the entire state receives plentiful precipitation throughout the year; the state may be subject to severe weather from spring through summer into fall. Tornadoes occur annually in the state, sometimes in large numbers, such as 30 recorded tornadoes in 2011; as of 1600, the tribes living in Pennsylvania were the Algonquian Lenape, the Iroquoian Susquehannock & Petun and the Siouan Monongahela Culture, who may have been the same as a little known tribe called the Calicua, or Cali. Other tribes who entered the region during the colonial era were the Trockwae, Saponi, Nanticoke, Conoy Piscataway, Iroquois Confederacy—possibly among others.
Other tribes, like the Erie, may have once held some land in Pennsylvania, but no longer did so by the year 1600. Both the Dutch and the English claimed both sides of the Delaware River as part of their colonial lands in America; the Dutch were the first to take possession. By June 3, 1631, the Dutch had begun settling the Delmarva Peninsula by establishing the Zwaanendael Colony on the site of present-day Lewes, Delaware. In 1638, Sweden established the New Sweden Colony, in the region of Fort Christina, on the site of present-day Wilmington, Delaware. New Sweden claimed and, for the most part, controlled the lower Delaware River region (parts of present-day Delaware, New Jersey, Pe
Manchester is a neighborhood on Pittsburgh, Pennsylvania's North Side. It has a ZIP code of 15233, has representation on Pittsburgh City Council by the council member for District 6; the Pittsburgh Bureau of Fire houses Battalion 1 in Manchester. The neighborhood includes the Manchester Historic District, which protects, to some degree, 609 buildings over a 51.6-acre area. The district was listed on the National Register of Historic Places in 1975; the Manchester Historic District is Pittsburgh's largest historic district under the National Register of Historic Places, preserved for its early 19th century-built Late Victorian-style houses. Manchester was rated as one of the top 10 neighborhoods for "being close to everything" because it's walkable and has easy access to public transportation and major roadways; the Three Rivers Heritage Trail System runs along Manchester. Manchester is exclusively residential; as of the 2010 Census, there were 2,130 people residing in Manchester. According to a report created by the University Center for Social and Urban Research, 46.3% of houses were families while 55.7% were nonfamily households.
The median sales price for homes in Manchester for Nov 12 to Jan 13 was $172,350. This represents an increase of 36.8%, or $46,350, compared to the prior quarter and an increase of 48.6% compared to the prior year. Sales prices have appreciated 94.7 % over the last 5 years in Pittsburgh. The median sales price of $172,350 for Manchester is 29.68% higher than the median sales price for Pittsburgh PA. Average price per square foot for homes in Manchester was $54 in the most recent quarter, 43.75% lower than the average price per square foot for homes in Pittsburgh. Manchester's schools are within the Pittsburgh Public School District. Allegheny West California-Kirkbride Central Northside Chateau Marshall-Shadeland List of Pittsburgh neighborhoods UCSUR's Census Report Interactive Pittsburgh Neighborhoods Map Manchester Historic Society Manchester Citizen's Corporation Mexican War Streets Society Carnegie Science Center Carnegie Library of Pittsburgh Manchester Craftmen's Guild City Council District 6 Manchester Youth Development Center
Brunot Island is a 129-acre island in the Ohio River. It is part of the Marshall-Shadeland neighborhood of Pittsburgh, in Allegheny County, Pennsylvania in the United States, it was named for Dr. Felix Brunot; the family entertained the Lewis and Clark expedition on the island in August 1803. The island is home to the Brunot Island Generating Station, a 315 MW fossil fuel power plant; the Ohio Connecting Railroad Bridge crosses the Ohio River at the island. The island does not otherwise connect to the land, all vehicular traffic must use a ferry to access the island; the employees of the power plant use a pedestrian walkway on the railroad bridge to go to work. The walkway is not accessible to the public. From 1903 to 1914, the island was the home of Brunots Island Race Track. Type: Fossil fuel. Airgun Accident
Fineview is a neighborhood on Pittsburgh, Pennsylvania's North Side. It has zip codes of both 15212 and 15214, has representation on Pittsburgh City Council by the council member for District 6 and District 1. Fineview was known to older generations as Nunnery Hill, its modern name derives from the expansive views of downtown Pittsburgh. The most famous of these views is from the Fineview Overlook at the corner of Catoma and Meadville streets. For older generations, this neighborhood was well known for its locally famous streetcar line, for its incline, known as the Nunnery Hill Incline; this incline was one of two in the city. The incline started at the present-day intersection of Federal Street; the curve was located in the area of Jay Street. The incline ended along Meadville Street; the old retaining wall, built for the incline can still be seen running up the side of Henderson Street. This route ran from 1908 to April 30, 1966. Fineview has four borders with the Pittsburgh neighborhoods of Perry South to the north and west, Central Northside to the southwest, East Allegheny to the south and Spring Hill–City View to the east.
List of Pittsburgh neighborhoods Toker, Franklin. Pittsburgh: An Urban Portrait. Pittsburgh: University of Pittsburgh Press. ISBN 0-8229-5434-6. Interactive Pittsburgh Neighborhoods Map Media related to Fineview at Wikimedia Commons
Pittsburgh is a city in the Commonwealth of Pennsylvania in the United States, is the county seat of Allegheny County. As of 2018, a population of 308,144 lives within the city limits, making it the 63rd-largest city in the U. S; the metropolitan population of 2,362,453, is the largest in both the Ohio Valley and Appalachia, the second-largest in Pennsylvania, the 26th-largest in the U. S. Pittsburgh is located in the south west of the state, at the confluence of the Allegheny and Ohio rivers. Pittsburgh is known both as "the Steel City" for its more than 300 steel-related businesses and as the "City of Bridges" for its 446 bridges; the city features 30 skyscrapers, two inclined railways, a pre-revolutionary fortification and the Point State Park at the confluence of the rivers. The city developed as a vital link of the Atlantic coast and Midwest, as the mineral-rich Allegheny Mountains made the area coveted by the French and British empires, Whiskey Rebels, Civil War raiders. Aside from steel, Pittsburgh has led in manufacturing of aluminum, shipbuilding, foods, transportation, computing and electronics.
For part of the 20th century, Pittsburgh was behind only New York and Chicago in corporate headquarters employment. S. stockholders per capita. America's 1980s deindustrialization laid off area blue-collar workers and thousands of downtown white-collar workers when the longtime Pittsburgh-based world headquarters moved out; this heritage left the area with renowned museums, medical centers, research centers, a diverse cultural district. Today, Apple Inc. Bosch, Uber, Autodesk, Microsoft and IBM are among 1,600 technology firms generating $20.7 billion in annual Pittsburgh payrolls. The area has served as the long-time federal agency headquarters for cyber defense, software engineering, energy research and the nuclear navy; the area is home to 68 colleges and universities, including research and development leaders Carnegie Mellon University and the University of Pittsburgh. The nation's eighth-largest bank, eight Fortune 500 companies, six of the top 300 U. S. law firms make their global headquarters in the area, while RAND, BNY Mellon, FedEx, Bayer and NIOSH have regional bases that helped Pittsburgh become the sixth-best area for U.
S. job growth. In 2015, Pittsburgh was listed among the "eleven most livable cities in the world"; the region is a hub for Environmental Design and energy extraction. In 2019, Pittsburgh was deemed “Food City of the Year” by the San Francisco-based restaurant and hospitality consulting firm af&co. Many restaurants were mentioned favorable, among them were Superior Motors in Braddock, Driftwood Oven in Lawrenceville, Spork in Bloomfield, Fish nor Fowl in Garfield and Bitter Ends Garden & Luncheonette in Bloomfield. Pittsburgh was named in 1758 by General John Forbes, in honor of British statesman William Pitt, 1st Earl of Chatham; as Forbes was a Scot, he pronounced the name PITS-bər-ə. Pittsburgh was incorporated as a borough on April 22, 1794, with the following Act: "Be it enacted by the Pennsylvania State Senate and Pennsylvania House of Representatives of the Commonwealth of Pennsylvania... by the authority of the same, that the said town of Pittsburgh shall be... erected into a borough, which shall be called the borough of Pittsburgh for ever."
From 1891 to 1911, the city's name was federally recognized as "Pittsburg", though use of the final h was retained during this period by the city government and other local organizations. After a public campaign, the federal decision to drop the h was reversed; the area of the Ohio headwaters was long inhabited by the Shawnee and several other settled groups of Native Americans. The first known European to enter the region was the French explorer/trader Robert de La Salle from Quebec during his 1669 expedition down the Ohio River. European pioneers Dutch, followed in the early 18th century. Michael Bezallion was the first to describe the forks of the Ohio in a 1717 manuscript, that year European fur traders established area posts and settlements. In 1749, French soldiers from Quebec launched an expedition to the forks to unite Canada with French Louisiana via the rivers. During 1753–54, the British hastily built Fort Prince George before a larger French force drove them off; the French built Fort Duquesne based on LaSalle's 1669 claims.
The French and Indian War, the North American front of the Seven Years' War, began with the future Pittsburgh as its center. British General Edward Braddock was dispatched with Major George Washington as his aide to take Fort Duquesne; the British and colonial force were defeated at Braddock's Field. General John Forbes took the forks in 1758. Forbes began construction on Fort Pitt, named after William Pitt the Elder while the settlement was named "Pittsborough". During Pontiac's Rebellion, native tribes conducted a siege of Fort Pitt for two months until Colonel Henry Bouquet relieved it after the Battle of Bushy Run. Fort Pitt is notable as the site of an early use of smallpox for biological warfare. Lord Jeffery Amherst ordered blankets contaminated from smallpox victims to be distributed in 1763 to the tribes surrounding the fort; the disease spread into other areas, infected other tribes, killed hundreds of thousands. During this period, the powerful nations of the Iroquois Confederacy, based in New York, had maintained control of much of the Ohio Valley as hunting grounds by right of conquest after defeating other tribes.
By the terms of the 1768 Treaty of
Baldwin Township, Allegheny County, Pennsylvania
Baldwin Township is a township in Allegheny County, United States. The population was 1,992 at the 2010 census. According to the United States Census Bureau, the township has a total area of 0.5 square miles, all of it land. Its average elevation is 1,171 feet above sea level. Baldwin Township has four borders, including the Pittsburgh neighborhoods of Brookline to the north and Overbrook to the northeast and southwest; the other two borders are with Castle Shannon to the south and southwest and Mt. Lebanon to the west; the area that would become Baldwin Township was settled around 1780. The Allegheny County Court of Quarter Sessions established Baldwin Township on February 24, 1844, from Upper St. Clair, Lower St. Clair and Mifflin townships; the area was named for Henry Baldwin, a Pittsburgh lawyer who served as an Associate Justice of the United States Supreme Court from 1830 until his death in 1844. Baldwin Township was 10,550 acres and consisted of the present-day Pittsburgh neighborhoods of Carrick, Hays and Overbrook, along with the present-day municipalities of Brentwood, Castle Shannon, Baldwin Borough.
The coal seam lying underneath Baldwin Township made mining the township's largest industry. The township was home to the first glass factories in Allegheny County. Agriculture was an important part of Baldwin Township's economy from 1753 to 1876, its most well-known agricultural exports were cherries and whiskey. The township continued to thrive until the late 19th century, when its size became too cumbersome to handle. Due to the lack of maintenance throughout the township's roads, residents of many areas broke off to form their own municipalities. In 1901, 201 acres became the Pittsburgh neighborhood of Hays. Three years in 1904, Carrick and Brookline became Pittsburgh wards, taking with them 1,058 acres and 138 acres, respectively. From 1915 - 1951 8,700 acres of the original Baldwin Township broke off to become the municipalities of Brentwood, Castle Shannon, Mt. Lebanon and Baldwin Borough; the City of Pittsburgh annexed an additional area of land, now the city's Overbrook neighborhood. Today, only 400 of the township's original 10,550 acres remain.
Historians calculate that if Baldwin Township had never been divided, it would now be the second largest community in Allegheny County, with a population of over 100,000. As of the census of 2000, there were 2,244 people, 869 households, 637 families residing in the township; the population density was 4,148.9 people per square mile. There were 880 housing units at an average density of 1,627.0/sq mi. The racial makeup of the township was 98.62% White, 0.27% African American, 0.58% Asian, 0.13% from other races, 0.40% from two or more races. Hispanic or Latino of any race were 0.40% of the population. There were 869 households, out of which 28.7% had children under the age of 18 living with them, 61.3% were married couples living together, 9.9% had a female householder with no husband present, 26.6% were non-families. 23.8% of all households were made up of individuals, 9.9% had someone living alone, 65 years of age or older. The average household size was 2.50 and the average family size was 2.98.
In the township the population was spread out, with 22.7% under the age of 18, 4.3% from 18 to 24, 29.2% from 25 to 44, 23.8% from 45 to 64, 19.9% who were 65 years of age or older. The median age was 41 years. For every 100 females there were 88.7 males. For every 100 females age 18 and over, there were 83.5 males. The median income for a household in the township was $45,071, the median income for a family was $52,200. Males had a median income of $38,750 versus $29,342 for females; the per capita income for the township was $20,918. About 3.3% of families and 4.7% of the population were below the poverty line, including 6.3% of those under age 18 and 3.1% of those age 65 or over. Township website History of Allegheny County, Volume II, Chapter V Historic Pittsburgh Map Collections