Connecticut is the southernmost state in the New England region of the United States. As of the 2010 Census, it has the highest per-capita income, Human Development Index, median household income in the United States, it is bordered by Rhode Island to the east, Massachusetts to the north, New York to the west, Long Island Sound to the south. Its capital is Hartford and its most populous city is Bridgeport, it is part of New England, although portions of it are grouped with New York and New Jersey as the Tri-state area. The state is named for the Connecticut River which bisects the state; the word "Connecticut" is derived from various anglicized spellings of an Algonquian word for "long tidal river". Connecticut's first European settlers were Dutchmen who established a small, short-lived settlement called Fort Hoop in Hartford at the confluence of the Park and Connecticut Rivers. Half of Connecticut was part of the Dutch colony New Netherland, which included much of the land between the Connecticut and Delaware Rivers, although the first major settlements were established in the 1630s by the English.
Thomas Hooker led a band of followers from the Massachusetts Bay Colony and founded the Connecticut Colony. The Connecticut and New Haven colonies established documents of Fundamental Orders, considered the first constitutions in America. In 1662, the three colonies were merged under a royal charter; this was one of the Thirteen Colonies. Connecticut is the third smallest state by area, the 29th most populous, the fourth most densely populated of the 50 states, it is known as the "Constitution State", the "Nutmeg State", the "Provisions State", the "Land of Steady Habits". It was influential in the development of the federal government of the United States; the Connecticut River, Thames River, ports along Long Island Sound have given Connecticut a strong maritime tradition which continues today. The state has a long history of hosting the financial services industry, including insurance companies in Hartford and hedge funds in Fairfield County. Landmarks and cities of Connecticut Connecticut is bordered on the south by Long Island Sound, on the west by New York, on the north by Massachusetts, on the east by Rhode Island.
The state capital and fourth largest city is Hartford, other major cities and towns include Bridgeport, New Haven, Waterbury, Danbury, New Britain and Bristol. Connecticut is larger than the country of Montenegro. There are 169 incorporated towns in Connecticut; the highest peak in Connecticut is Bear Mountain in Salisbury in the northwest corner of the state. The highest point is just east of where Connecticut and New York meet, on the southern slope of Mount Frissell, whose peak lies nearby in Massachusetts. At the opposite extreme, many of the coastal towns have areas that are less than 20 feet above sea level. Connecticut has a long maritime history and a reputation based on that history—yet the state has no direct oceanfront; the coast of Connecticut sits on Long Island Sound, an estuary. The state's access to the open Atlantic Ocean is both to the east; this situation provides many safe harbors from ocean storms, many transatlantic ships seek anchor inside Long Island Sound when tropical cyclones pass off the upper East Coast.
The Connecticut River cuts through the center of the state. The most populous metropolitan region centered within the state lies in the Connecticut River Valley. Despite Connecticut's small size, it features wide regional variations in its landscape. Connecticut's rural areas and small towns in the northeast and northwest corners of the state contrast with its industrial cities such as Stamford and New Haven, located along the coastal highways from the New York border to New London northward up the Connecticut River to Hartford. Many towns in northeastern and northwestern Connecticut center around a green, such as the Litchfield Green, Lebanon Green, Wethersfield Green. Near the green stand historical visual symbols of New England towns, such as a white church, a colonial meeting house, a colonial tavern or inn, several colonial houses, so on, establishing a scenic historical appearance maintained for both historic preservation and tourism. Many of the areas in southern and coastal Connecticut have been built up and rebuilt over the years, look less visually like traditional New England.
The northern boundary of the state with Massachusetts is marked by the Southwick Jog or Granby Notch, an 2.5 miles square detour into Connecticut. The origin of this anomaly is established in a long line of disputes and temporary agreements which were concluded in 1804, when southern Southwick's residents sought to leave Massachusetts, the town was split in half; the southwestern border of Connecticut where it abuts New York State is marked by a panhandle in Fairfield County, containing the towns of Greenwich, New Canaan and parts of Norwalk and Wilton. This irregularity in the boundary is the result of territorial disputes in the late 17th century, culminating
Vincent Philip D'Onofrio is an American actor, producer and singer. He is known for his roles as Private Leonard "Gomer Pyle" Lawrence in Full Metal Jacket, Wilson Fisk / Kingpin in Daredevil, NYPD Detective Robert Goren in Law & Order: Criminal Intent, Edgar the Bug in Men in Black, Vic Hoskins in Jurassic World. Among other honors, D'Onofrio is a Saturn Award winner, an Emmy Award nominee and a Jay Award 2018 winner. D'Onofrio was born in Brooklyn, he is with ancestors from Sicily. His parents and Phyllis D'Onofrio, an interior designer/theater-production assistant, server met while Gennaro was stationed in Hawaii with the U. S. Air Force. In 1956, they had Antoinette, their second child, Elizabeth, is an actress and drama coach residing in Fort Myers Beach and Vincent was born, the youngest of the three siblings. He was raised in Colorado during his early years. D'Onofrio's parents divorced, he became step-brother to Meyer's children from a previous marriage. The family moved to Florida area. D'Onofrio described himself as a shy boy who spent "a lot of time in my room, staying in my head" became interested in magic and sleight of hand, tricks he learned from Cuban entertainers who owned a small magic shop.
In his teens, he worked backstage in set building and sound production at a number of community theaters run by his father. He graduated from Hialeah-Miami Lakes Senior High School. After graduating from high school, D'Onofrio started to appear on stage. During an 18-month stint at the University of Colorado in Boulder, Colorado, he was involved with small, community-theater productions, he studied method acting at the American Stanislavsky Theater and the Actors Studio, under coaches Sonia Moore and Sharon Chatten, which landed him his first paid role in off-Broadway's This Property Is Condemned. He went on to appear in a number of their productions, including Of Mice and Men and Sexual Perversity in Chicago. D'Onofrio continued his career by performing in many New York University student productions while working as a bouncer at the Hard Rock Cafe, a bodyguard for Robert Plant and Yul Brynner and a deliveryman. In 1984, he made his Broadway debut as Nick Rizzoli in Open Admissions. In 2012, D'Onofrio returned to teach at the Lee Strasberg Theatre and Film Institute where his daughter is a student.
In 1986, D'Onofrio took on the role considered the defining moment in his acting career, as Pvt. Leonard Lawrence, an overweight, clumsy Marine recruit in the movie Full Metal Jacket. On a tip from friend Matthew Modine, D'Onofrio was urged to send audition tapes to director Stanley Kubrick, in England. Four tapes D'Onofrio landed the role; the character of Pvt. Lawrence had been written as a "skinny ignorant redneck". D'Onofrio gained 70 lb for the role; this remains. While filming an obstacle course scene for the movie, D'Onofrio injured his left knee, compounded by the excessive weight, which required surgical reconstruction. After filming of Full Metal Jacket was completed, having lost nearly all the weight gained for the movie in nine months, D'Onofrio went on to play Dawson, the owner of Dawson's Garage in Adventures in Babysitting, he appears in one scene near the end of the film. In 1988, he was cast in another supporting role in the film Mystic Pizza, playing the fiancé of Lili Taylor's character.
In the film, Julia Roberts' breakout film, he was billed under his full name Vincent Phillip D'Onofrio. D'Onofrio continued to play a wide variety of minor or supporting roles, including the father of a saint in Nancy Savoca's Household Saints, director Orson Welles in Tim Burton's Ed Wood, farmer Edgar and the evil "Bug" that possesses him from Men in Black, a man who claims to be from the future in Happy Accidents, the serial killer Carl Stargher, opposite Jennifer Lopez's character in The Cell. In 1992, he appeared as an aspiring screenwriter. In 1997, he made a move to television and received an Emmy nomination for his appearance as John Lange in the Homicide: Life on the Street episode "Subway". In 1999, he turned down a role in The Sopranos. D'Onofrio portrayed leftist radical Abbie Hoffman in Steal This Movie in 2000, starring Janeane Garofalo as his wife. In 2001, he took on what became his longest and best-known role as Det. Robert Goren on the NBC/USA Network television show Order: Criminal Intent.
On March 1, 2008, D'Onofrio made a cameo appearance in a presidential election-related sketch in a Saturday Night Live episode as his character Det. Robert Goren. In the sketch, he interrogates Hillary Clinton, his entrance to and exit from the skit are punctuated by Order "dun-DUN" sound. In 2009, it was announced that D'Onofrio would be leaving Law & Order: Criminal Intent in the spring of 2010, with his last appearance occurring in the two-part, season-9 premiere, he was replaced by Jeff Goldblum, but after a drop in ratings, D'Onofrio and Kathryn Erbe agreed to return for a 10th season of the show. In 2003, it was reported that D'Onofrio and Joe Pantoliano had begun work on a small film titled Little Victories, about a 12-year-old boy whose perceptions of the world are forever changed when his gangster uncle comes to live with him. According to a television interview with Pantoliano, the film was not completed and went into turn
Rego Park, Queens
Rego Park is a neighborhood in the borough of Queens in New York City. Rego Park is bordered to the north by Elmhurst and Corona, the east and south by Forest Hills, the west by Middle Village. Rego Park's boundaries include Queens Boulevard, the Long Island Expressway, Woodhaven Boulevard, Yellowstone Boulevard. There is a large Jewish population in the neighborhood, which features high-rise apartment buildings and detached houses, as well as a large commercial zone. Rego Park is represented by Queens Community Board 6. Rego Park is built on a swamp called the Hempstead Swamp, which once extended to St. John's Cemetery in Middle Village. By 1653, though and Dutch farmers moved into the area and founded a community called Whitepot, a part of the Township of Newtown. Whitepot is believed to be so named because the original Dutch settlers named the area "Whiteput", or "hollow creek"; the Remsen family created a burial ground, still located on Alderton Street near Metropolitan Avenue. The colonists founded the Whitepot School, which operated until the late 19th century.
In the Hempstead Swamp, which turned out to be good for farming, the colonists cultivated hay, rye, corn and vegetables. The original Dutch and German farmers sold their produce in Manhattan; the settlement was renamed Rego Park after the Real Good Construction Company, which began development of the area in 1925. "Rego" comes from the first two letters of the first two words of the company's name. The company built 525 eight-room houses costing $8,000 each. Stores were built in 1926 on Queens Boulevard and 63rd Drive, apartment buildings were built in 1927–1928. In 1930, the Independent Subway System began work on eight IND Queens Boulevard Line stations in the area, at a cost of $5 million; the subway extension was concurrent with the Real Good Construction Company's completion of apartment buildings near Queens Boulevard and one-family homes throughout the rest of the neighborhood. The short block of 63rd Drive between Austin Street and the Long Island Railroad overpass was the scene of a fire in February 1972 that claimed a row of stores and the neighborhood library.
The blistering "Rego Park Inferno" started in the second store on the block from Austin Street, a shoe store, spread with the gusting winds to neighboring stores, including a television repair shop, toy store, pet shop and a pioneering Indian restaurant, the library, where row upon row of oily books and wooden shelves sent flames high into the sky and up the embankment of the railroad. Firefighters scrambled to keep the windswept flames from reaching an apartment house behind the stores, a new Key Food supermarket across Austin Street, or the Shell gas station just across the drive; the library caved in. A new library opened across the street. After the fire, until the new library was built, the community was served by a mobile "Bookmobile" library which parked under the LIRR tracks on 63rd Drive. A similar fire had decimated the same block in 1959. Based on data from the 2010 United States Census, the population of Rego Park was 28,260, a decrease of 1,144 from the 29,404 counted in 2000. Covering an area of 455.74 acres, the neighborhood had a population density of 62.0 inhabitants per acre.
The racial makeup of the neighborhood was 46.2% White, 2.5% African American, 0.1% Native American, 31.7% Asian, 0.1% Pacific Islander, 0.4% from other races, 2.4% from two or more races. Hispanic or Latino of any race were 16.6% of the population. The entirety of Community Board 6, which comprises Rego Park and Forest Hills, had 115,119 inhabitants as of NYC Health's 2018 Community Health Profile, with an average life expectancy of 85.4 years. This is higher than the median life expectancy of 81.2 for all New York City neighborhoods. Most inhabitants are middle-aged and elderly adults: 31% are between the ages of 25–44, 28% between 45–64, 19% over 64; the ratio of young and college-aged residents was lower, at 16% and 5% respectively. As of 2017, the median household income in Community Board 4 was $75,447. In 2018, an estimated 26% of Rego Park and Forest Hills residents lived in poverty, compared to 19% in all of Queens and 20% in all of New York City. One in seventeen residents were unemployed, compared to 9 % in New York City.
Rent burden, or the percentage of residents who have difficulty paying their rent, is 50% in Rego Park and Forest Hills, lower than the boroughwide and citywide rates of 53% and 51% respectively. Based on this calculation, as of 2018, Rego Park and Forest Hills is considered to be high-income relative to the rest of the city and not gentrifying. Like its neighbor Forest Hills, Rego Park has long had a significant Jewish population, most of which have Georgian and Russian Jewish ancestors, with a number of synagogues and kosher restaurants. Many Holocaust survivors settled in Rego Park after 1945. In the 1990s, Jewish immigrants from the former Soviet Union from Central Asia, moved in. Most of the residents are Bukharan Jewish, the effect of life in the Soviet Union on the population has led Rego Park to have a Russian feel with many signs in Russian Cyrillic. Most of the Bukharan Jewish immigrants in the neighborhood come from Uzbekistan and Tajikistan, there is Uzbek and Tajik cuisine in many Rego Park restaurants.
Immigrant populations from Albania, Israel, Iran, South Asia, China, Bu
A rookie is a person in the first year of activity in a sport, or someone new to a profession, training, or activity such as a rookie police officer, rookie pilot, or a recruit. In some sports there are traditions in which rookies must do things. Examples in baseball include players having to dress up in strange costumes, or getting hit in the face with a cream pie. In Major League Baseball, the MLB has cracked down on hazing by enacting an Anti-Hazing and Anti-Bullying Policy which prohibits players from dressing up as the opposite sex, or wearing offensive costumes based on race, nationality, sexual orientation, gender identify. In the National Football League a rookie is any player, in their first season in the NFL; the NFL awards the best rookie with the Associated Press NFL Rookie of the Year Award, as voted upon the Associated Press. In the NFL, rookies have special contract rules which limit how much a team can pay them as well as limiting the length of the contract, as per stipulations laid out in the NFL Collective Bargaining Agreement.
NASCAR and INDYCAR rookies are denoted by a yellow stripe on sections of the car as prescribed in the respective rule books. In NASCAR, the rookie stripe is located on the tail panel of the race car. Media related to Rookie stripes at Wikimedia Commons The following rules are for rookie status in a national series: Must have run no more than five and have been declared to race for driver points in that series, races in any previous season. In the Camping World Truck Series, a driver, 17 at the start of the season and does not make ten starts overall is eligible in his first full season after turning 18. Truck Series drivers who are 16 and 17 may only participate in nine races during the season based on circuits. Drivers who compete in more than five races in a higher NASCAR-sanctioned series are not eligible for the award in a lower series if they have not declared for the higher series. If a driver does not start eight races before the end of Race 20 on the schedule, they will become ineligible to earn rookie points for the rest of that season and starting in 2011, remained declared for that series.
Drivers may change series declaration. A driver may not receive rookie points if they start a race for a team that they did not qualify with. However, they are still eligible for championship points in that race; the following rules are for rookie status in the NTT IndyCar Series: Must not have participated in more than three NTT IndyCar Series races in a season. A veteran driver in the Indianapolis 500 may still be a Series Rookie if he has not competed in more than three series races overall. A driver who has never raced in the Indianapolis 500 but has made a legal season of NTT IndyCar Series races is still an Indianapolis 500 rookie in his first start. To qualify as a rookie in Major League Baseball, a player must not have exceeded 130 at bats or fifty innings pitched in the majors, fewer than 45 days on the active rosters of major league clubs in their previous seasons. Major League Baseball awards the best rookie with the Major League Baseball Rookie of the Year Award, as voted upon by the Baseball Writers' Association of America.
In the National Basketball Association, a rookie is any player who has never played a game in the NBA until that year. The NBA awards the best rookie with the NBA Rookie of the Year Award, as voted upon by a selected panel of United States and Canadian sportswriters and broadcasters. In the NBA, rookies have special contract rules which limit how much a team can pay them as well as limiting the length of the contract. To qualify as a rookie in the National Hockey League, a player must not have played 25 regular season games or more in any single season; as of the 1990-91 NHL season, a player must be 26 years old or younger to qualify as a rookie. The National Hockey League awards the best rookie with the Calder Memorial Trophy, as voted upon by the Professional Hockey Writers' Association. In the NHL, rookies have special contract rules which limit how much a team can pay them as well as limiting the length of the contract. An NHL rookie contract is called an Entry Level contract and is limited to three years.
In Major League Soccer, a rookie is a player. MLS awards the best rookie with the MLS Rookie of the Year Award; the Oxford English Dictionary states that the origins are uncertain, but that it is a corruption of the word Recruit. The earliest example in the OED is from Rudyard Kipling's Barrack-Room Ballads: So'ark an"eed, you rookies, always grumblin' sore, referring to rookies in the sense of raw recruits to the British Army. At least during the beginning of the 20th century, in the British Army the term "rookie" was used in place of "recruit" as exemplified in Trenching at Gallipoli by John Gallishaw and in The Amateur Army by Patrick MacGill; the expression is derived from "rook", whereby a "rookie" would be someone, cheated or defrauded. Rookie of the Year – an award given to an athlete following the first year of full competition, for more impressive performance and/or better results than all other rookies that season. Freshman Novice
James Robert Jarmusch is an American film director, actor, producer and composer. He has been a major proponent of independent cinema since the 1980s, directing such films as Stranger Than Paradise, Down by Law, Mystery Train, Dead Man, Ghost Dog: The Way of the Samurai and Cigarettes, Broken Flowers, Only Lovers Left Alive, Paterson. Stranger Than Paradise was added to the National Film Registry in December 2002; as a musician, Jarmusch has composed music for his films and released two albums with Jozef van Wissem. Jarmusch was born January 22, 1953, in Cuyahoga Falls, the middle of three children of middle-class suburbanites, his mother, of German and Irish descent, had been a reviewer of film and theatre for the Akron Beacon Journal before marrying his father, a businessman of Czech and German descent who worked for the B. F. Goodrich Company, she introduced Jarmusch to cinema by leaving him at a local cinema to watch matinee double features such as Attack of the Crab Monsters and Creature From the Black Lagoon while she ran errands.
The first adult film he recalls seeing was the 1958 cult classic Thunder Road, the violence and darkness of which left an impression on the seven-year-old Jarmusch. Another B-movie influence from his childhood was Ghoulardi, an eccentric Cleveland television show which featured horror films. Despite his enthusiasm for film, Jarmusch was an avid reader in his youth and had a greater interest in literature, encouraged by his grandmother. Though he refused to attend church with his Episcopalian parents, Jarmusch credits literature with shaping his metaphysical beliefs and leading him to reconsider theology in his mid-teens. From his peers he developed a taste for counterculture, he and his friends would steal the records and books of their older siblings – this included works by William Burroughs, Jack Kerouac, The Mothers of Invention, they made fake identity documents which allowed them to visit bars at the weekend but the local art house cinema, which showed pornographic films but would feature underground films such as Robert Downey, Sr.'s Putney Swope and Andy Warhol's Chelsea Girls.
At one point, he took an apprenticeship with a commercial photographer. He remarked, "Growing up in Ohio was just planning to get out."After graduating from high school in 1971, Jarmusch moved to Chicago and enrolled in the Medill School of Journalism at Northwestern University. After being asked to leave due to neglecting to take any journalism courses – Jarmusch favored literature and art history – he transferred to Columbia University the following year, with the intention of becoming a poet. At Columbia, he studied English and American literature under professors including New York School avant garde poets Kenneth Koch and David Shapiro. At Columbia, he began to write short "semi-narrative abstract pieces" and edited the undergraduate literary journal The Columbia Review. During his final year at Columbia, Jarmusch moved to Paris for what was a summer semester on an exchange program, but this turned into ten months. There, he worked as a delivery driver for an art gallery, spent most of his time at the Cinémathèque Française.
That's where I saw things I had only read about and heard about – films by many of the good Japanese directors, like Imamura, Mizoguchi. Films by European directors like Bresson and Dreyer, American films, like the retrospective of Samuel Fuller's films, which I only knew from seeing a few of them on television late at night; when I came back from Paris, I was still writing, my writing was becoming more cinematic in certain ways, more visually descriptive. Jarmusch graduated from Columbia University with a Bachelor of Arts degree in 1975. Broke and working as a musician in New York City after returning from Paris in 1976, he applied on a whim to the graduate film school of New York University's Tisch School of the Arts. Despite his lack of experience in filmmaking, his submission of a collection of photographs and an essay about film secured his acceptance into the program, he studied there for four years, meeting fellow students and future collaborators Sara Driver, Tom DiCillo, Howard Brookner, Spike Lee in the process.
During the late 1970s in New York City and his contemporaries were part of an alternative culture scene centered on the CBGB music club. In his final year at New York University, Jarmusch worked as an assistant to the film noir director Nicholas Ray, at that time teaching in the department. In an anecdote, Jarmusch recounted of the formative experience of showing his mentor his first script. On Jarmusch's return with the revised script, Ray reacted favourably to his student's dissent, citing approvingly the young student's obstinate independence. Jarmusch was the only person Ray brought to work – as his personal assistant – on Lightning Over Water, a documentary about his dying years on which he was collaborating with Wim Wenders. Ray died in 1979 after a long fight with cancer. A few days afterwards, having been encouraged by Ray and New York underground filmmaker Amos Poe and using scholarship funds given by the Louis B. Mayer Foundation to pay for his school tuition, Jarmusch started work on a film for his final project.
The university, unimpressed with Jarmusch's use of his funding as well as the project itself, promptly refused to award him a degree. Jarmusch's final year university project was complete
New York City Police Department
The City of New York Police Department, more known as the New York Police Department and its initials NYPD, is the primary law enforcement and investigation agency within the City of New York, New York in the United States. Established on May 23, 1845, the NYPD is one of the oldest police departments in the United States, is the largest police force in the United States; the NYPD headquarters is at 1 Police Plaza, located on Park Row in Lower Manhattan across the street from City Hall. The department's mission is to "enforce the laws, preserve the peace, reduce fear, provide for a safe environment." The NYPD's regulations are compiled in title 38 of the New York City Rules. The New York City Transit Police and New York City Housing Authority Police Department were integrated into the NYPD in 1995 by New York City Mayor Rudolph W. Giuliani. In June 2004, there were about 45,000 sworn officers plus several thousand civilian employees; as of December 2011, that figure increased to over 36,600, helped by the graduation of a class of 1,500 from the New York City Police Academy.
As of Fiscal Year 2018, the NYPD's current authorized uniformed strength is 38,422. There are approximately 4,500 Auxiliary Police Officers, 5,000 School Safety Agents, 2,300 Traffic Enforcement Agents, 370 Traffic Enforcement Supervisors employed by the department; the Police Benevolent Association of the City of New York, the largest municipal police union in the United States, represents over 50,000 active and retired NYC police officers. The NYPD has a broad array of specialized services, including the Emergency Service Unit, K9, harbor patrol, air support, bomb squad, counter-terrorism, criminal intelligence, anti-gang, anti-organized crime, public transportation, public housing; the NYPD Intelligence Division & Counter-Terrorism Bureau has officers stationed in 11 cities internationally. In the 1990s the department developed a CompStat system of management which has since been established in other cities; the NYPD has extensive crime scene investigation and laboratory resources, as well as units which assist with computer crime investigations.
The NYPD runs a "Real Time Crime Center" a large search engine and data warehouse operated by detectives to assist officers in the field with their investigations. A Domain Awareness System, a joint project of Microsoft and the NYPD, links 6,000 closed-circuit television cameras, license plate readers, other surveillance devices into an integrated system. Due to its high-profile location in the largest city and media center in the United States, fictionalized versions of the NYPD and its officers have been portrayed in novels, television, motion pictures, video games; the Municipal Police were established in 1845. Mayor William Havemeyer shepherded the NYPD together, originating the phrase "New York Finest." In 1857, it was tumultuously replaced by a Metropolitan force. Twentieth-century trends struggles against corruption. Officers begin service with the rank of "probationary police officer," referred to as "recruit officer". After successful completion of five and a half to six months, sometimes longer of Police Academy training in various academic and tactical training, officers graduate from the Police Academy.
While retaining the title of "probationary police officer,"" graduates are referred to as a "police officer," or informally as a "rookie", until they have completed an additional 18 month probationary period. There are three career "tracks" in the NYPD: supervisory and specialist; the supervisory track consists of nine sworn titles, referred to as ranks. Promotion to the ranks of sergeant and captain are made via competitive civil service examinations. After reaching the civil service rank of captain, promotion to the ranks of deputy inspector, deputy chief, assistant chief and chief of department is made at the discretion of the police commissioner. Promotion from the rank of police officer to detective is discretionary by the police commissioner or required by law when the officer has performed eighteen months or more of investigative duty; the entry level appointment to detective is third specialist. The commissioner may grant discretionary grades of second and first; these grades offer compensation equivalent to that of supervisors.
A second grade detective's pay corresponds to a sergeant's and a first grade detective's pay corresponds to a lieutenant's. Detectives are police officers who perform investigatory duties but have no official supervisory authority. A "detective first grade" still falls above. Just like detectives and lieutenants can receive pay grade increases within their respective ranks. ^ †: Uniform rank that has no police powers There are two basic types of detective in the NYPD: "detective-investigators" and "detective-specialists". Detective-investigators are the type most people associate with the term "detective" and are the ones most portrayed on television and in the movies. Most police officers gain their detective title by working in the Narcotics Division of the Detective Bureau. Detectives assigned to squads are co-located within each precinct and are responsible for investigating murders, robberies and other crimes within that precinct's boundaries. Other detective-investigators are assigned to specialized units at either the major command or citywide level, investigating terrorist groups, organized crime, narcotics dealing, ext
Crime films, in the broadest sense, are a cinematic genre inspired by and analogous to the crime fiction literary genre. Films of this genre involve various aspects of crime and its detection. Stylistically, the genre may overlap and combine with many other genres, such as drama or gangster film, but include comedy, and, in turn, is divided into many sub-genres, such as mystery, suspense or noir. Crime films are based on real events or are adaptations of plays or novels. For example, the 1957 film version of Witness for the Prosecution is an adaptation of a 1953 stage play of that name, in turn based on Agatha Christie's short story published in 1933; the film version was remade in 1982, there have been other adaptations. However, each of these media has its own advantages and limitations, which in the case of cinema is the time constraint. Witness for the Prosecution is a classic example of a "courtroom drama". In a courtroom drama, a charge is brought against one of the main characters, who claims to be innocent.
Another major part is played by the lawyer representing the defendant in court and battling with the public prosecutor. He or she may enlist the services of a private investigator to find out what happened and who the real perpetrator is. However, in most cases it is not clear at all whether the accused is guilty of the crime or not—this is how suspense is created; the private investigator storms into the courtroom at the last minute in order to bring a new and crucial piece of information to the attention of the court. This type of literature lends itself to the literary genre of drama focused more on dialogue and little or no necessity for a shift in scenery; the auditorium of the theatre becomes an extension of the courtroom. When a courtroom drama is filmed, the traditional device employed by screenwriters and directors is the frequent use of flashbacks, in which the crime and everything that led up to it is narrated and reconstructed from different angles. In Witness for the Prosecution, Leonard Vole, a young American living in England, is accused of murdering a middle-aged lady he met in the street while shopping.
His wife hires the best lawyer available because she is convinced, or rather she knows, that her husband is innocent. Another classic courtroom drama is U. S. playwright Reginald Rose's Twelve Angry Men, set in the jury deliberation room of a New York Court of Law. Eleven members of the jury, aiming at a unanimous verdict of "guilty", try to get it over with as as possible, and they would succeed in achieving their common aim if it were not for the eighth juror, who, on second thoughts, considers it his duty to convince his colleagues that the defendant may be innocent after all, who, by doing so, triggers a lot of discussion and anger. A hybrid of action films and crime films and a subgenre of action films as well. Most films of this kind fall in the category of heist films, prison films and sometimes cop and gangster films. Car chases and shootouts are featured. Example include Police Story, The Dark Knight, Baby Driver, Master and Heat. A hybrid of crime and comedy films. Mafia comedy looks at organized crime from a comical standpoint.
Humor comes from the incompetence of the criminals and/or black comedy. Examples include Analyze This, The Pope of Greenwich Village, Lock and Two Smoking Barrels, In Bruges, Mafia!, Tower Heist and Pain & Gain. A combination of crime and drama films. Examples include such films as Straight Badlands. A thriller in which the central characters are involved in crime, either in its investigation, as the perpetrator or, less a victim. While some action films could be labelled as such for having criminality and thrills, the emphasis in this genre is the drama and the investigative/criminal methods. Examples include Untraceable, The Silence of the Lambs, Seven, Memories of Murder, The Call, Running Scared. A genre of Indian cinema revolving around dacoity; the genre was pioneered by Mehboob Khan's Mother India. Other examples include Gunga Jumna and Bandit Queen. A genre popular in the 1940s and 1950s fall into the crime and mystery genres. Private detectives hired to solve a crime are in such films as The Maltese Falcon, The Big Sleep, Kiss Me Deadly, L.
A. Confidential, The Long Goodbye, Chinatown. Neo-noir refers to modern films influenced by film noir such as Sin City. A genre of film that focuses on gangs and organized crime. Examples include Goodfellas, The Godfather, Casino; this film deals with a group of criminals attempting to perform a theft or robbery, as well as the possible consequences that follow. Heist films that are lighter in tone are called "Caper films". Examples include The Killing, Oceans 11, Dog Day Afternoon, Reservoir Dogs, The Town. A Hong Kong action cinema crime film genre; the genre was pioneered by John Woo's A Better Tomorrow and Ringo Lam's City on Fire, starring Chow Yun-fat. Elements of the genre can be seen in Hollywood crime films since the 1990s, such as the work of John Woo and Quentin Tarantino. Film dealing with African-American urban issues and culture, they do not always revolve around crime, but criminal activity features in the storyline. Examples include Menace II Boyz n the Hood. Not concerned with the actual crime so much as the trial in the aftermath.
A typical plot would involve a lawyer trying to prove the innocence of his or her cli