North American Numbering Plan
The North American Numbering Plan is a telephone numbering plan that encompasses twenty-five distinct regions in twenty countries in North America, including the Caribbean. Some North American countries, most notably Mexico, do not participate in the NANP; the NANP was devised in the 1940s by AT&T for the Bell System and independent telephone operators in North America to unify the diverse local numbering plans, established in the preceding decades. AT&T continued to administer the numbering plan until the breakup of the Bell System, when administration was delegated to the North American Numbering Plan Administration, a service, procured from the private sector by the Federal Communications Commission in the United States; each participating country forms a regulatory authority that has plenary control over local numbering resources. The FCC serves as the U. S. regulator. Canadian numbering decisions are made by the Canadian Numbering Administration Consortium; the NANP divides the territories of its members into numbering plan areas which are encoded numerically with a three-digit telephone number prefix called the area code.
Each telephone is assigned a seven-digit telephone number unique only within its respective plan area. The telephone number consists of a four-digit station number; the combination of an area code and the telephone number serves as a destination routing address in the public switched telephone network. For international call routing, the NANP has been assigned the international calling code 1 by the International Telecommunications Union; the North American Numbering Plan conforms with ITU Recommendation E.164, which establishes an international numbering framework. From its beginnings in 1876 and throughout the first part of the 20th century, the Bell System grew from local or regional telephone systems; these systems expanded by growing their subscriber bases, as well as increasing their service areas by implementing additional local exchanges that were interconnected with tie trunks. It was the responsibility of each local administration to design telephone numbering plans that accommodated the local requirements and growth.
As a result, the Bell System as a whole developed into an unorganized system of many differing local numbering systems. The diversity impeded the efficient operation and interconnection of exchanges into a nationwide system for long-distance telephone communication. By the 1940s, the Bell System set out to unify the various numbering plans in existence and developed the North American Numbering Plan as a unified, systematic approach to efficient long-distance service that did not require the involvement of switchboard operators; the new numbering plan was accepted in October 1947, dividing most of North America into eighty-six numbering plan areas. Each NPA was assigned a numbering plan area code abbreviated as area code; these codes were first used by long-distance operators to establish long-distance calls between toll offices. The first customer-dialed direct call using area codes was made on November 10, 1951, from Englewood, New Jersey, to Alameda, California. Direct distance dialing was subsequently introduced across the country.
By the early 1960s, most areas of the Bell System had been converted and DDD had become commonplace in cities and most larger towns. In the following decades, the system expanded to include all of the United States and its territories, Canada and seventeen nations of the Caribbean. By 1967, 129 area codes had been assigned. At the request of the British Colonial Office, the numbering plan was first expanded to Bermuda and the British West Indies because of their historic telecommunications administration through Canada as parts of the British Empire and their continued associations with Canada during the years of the telegraph and the All Red Line system. Not all North American countries participate in the NANP. Exceptions include Mexico, Saint Pierre and Miquelon, the Central American countries and some Caribbean countries; the only Spanish-speaking state in the system is the Dominican Republic. Mexican participation was planned, but implementation stopped after three area codes had been assigned, Mexico opted for an international numbering format, using country code 52.
The area codes in use were subsequently withdrawn in 1991. Area code 905 for Mexico City, was reassigned to a split of area code 416 in the Greater Toronto Area. Dutch-speaking Sint Maarten joined the NANP in September 2011, receiving area code 721; the NANP is administered by the North American Numbering Plan Administration. Today, this function is overseen by the Federal Communications Commission, which assumed the responsibility upon the breakup of the Bell System; the FCC solicits private sector contracts for the role of the administrator. The service was provided by a division of Lockheed Martin. In 1997, the contract was awarded to Neustar Inc.. In 2012, the contract was renewed until 2017. In 2015, the contract beginning 2017 was granted to Ericsson; the vision and goal of the architects of the North American Numbering Plan was a system by which telephone subscribers in the United States and Canada could themselves dial and establish a telephone call to any other subscriber wi
1910 United States Census
The Thirteenth United States Census, conducted by the Census Bureau on April 15, 1910, determined the resident population of the United States to be 92,228,496, an increase of 21.0 percent over the 76,212,168 persons enumerated during the 1900 Census. The 1910 Census switched from a portrait page orientation to a landscape orientation; the 1910 census collected the following information: Full documentation for the 1910 census, including census forms and enumerator instructions, is available from the Integrated Public Use Microdata Series. The column titles in the census form are as follows: LOCATION. Street, road, etc. House number. 1. Number of dwelling house in order of visitation. 2. Number of family in order of visitation. 3. NAME of each person whose place of abode on April 15, 1910, was in this family. Enter surname first the given name and middle initial, if any. Include every person living on April 15, 1910. Omit children born since April 15, 1910. RELATION. 4. Relationship of this person to the head of the family.
PERSONAL DESCRIPTION. 5. Sex. 6. Color or race. 7. Age at last birthday. 8. Whether single, widowed, or divorced. 9. Number of years of present marriage. 10. Mother of how many children: Number born. 11. Mother of how many children: Number now living. NATIVITY. Place of birth of each person and parents of each person enumerated. If born in the United States, give the state or territory. If of foreign birth, give the country. 12. Place of birth of this Person. 13. Place of birth of Father of this person. 14. Place of birth of Mother of this person. CITIZENSHIP. 15. Year of immigration to the United States. 16. Whether naturalized or alien. 17. Whether able to speak English. OCCUPATION. 18. Trade or profession of, or particular kind of work done by this person, as spinner, laborer, etc. 19. General nature of industry, business, or establishment in which this person works, as cotton mill, dry goods store, etc. 20. Whether as employer, employee, or work on own account. If an employee— 21. Whether out of work on April 15, 1910.
22. Number of weeks out of work during year 1909. EDUCATION. 23. Whether able to read. 24. Whether able to write. 25. Attended school any time since September 1, 1909. OWNERSHIP OF HOME. 26. Owned or rented. 27. Owned free or mortgaged. 28. Farm or house. 29. Number of farm schedule. 30. Whether a survivor of the Union or Confederate Army or Navy. 31. Whether blind. 32. Whether deaf and dumb. Special Notation In 1912 and 1959, New Mexico, Arizona and Hawaii would become the 47th, 48th, 49th and 50th states admitted to the Union; the 1910 population count for each of these areas was 327,301, 204,354, 64,356 and 191,909 respectively. On this basis, the ranking list above would be modified as follows: First 42 ranked states - positions unchanged New Mexico, Arizona, Hawaii, Wyoming and Alaska; the original census enumeration sheets were microfilmed by the Census Bureau in the 1940s. The microfilmed census is available in rolls from the National Records Administration. Several organizations host images of the microfilmed census online, along which digital indices.
Microdata from the 1910 census are available through the Integrated Public Use Microdata Series. Aggregate data for small areas, together with electronic boundary files, can be downloaded from the National Historical Geographic Information System. 1911 U. S Census Report Contains 1910 Census results Historic US Census data census.gov/population/www/censusdata/PopulationofStatesandCountiesoftheUnitedStates1790-1990.pdf
Hennepin Technical College
Hennepin Technical College is a public technical school with two campuses in suburban Minneapolis, Minnesota. The college awards Associate in Applied Sciences degrees and certificates. Hennepin Technical College works with community partners to provide customized training in areas such as culinary arts and fire protection. Several student clubs and organizations are active and sponsored by Hennepin Technical College, including Phi Theta Kappa, Pangea Multicultural Club, Student Life Board, SkillsUSA, Veteran Student Club, Gay-Straight Alliance and the HTC Student Senate. Official website
1940 United States Census
The Sixteenth United States Census, conducted by the Census Bureau, determined the resident population of the United States to be 132,164,569, an increase of 7.3 percent over the 1930 population of 123,202,624 people. The census date of record was April 1, 1940. A number of new questions were asked including where people were 5 years before, highest educational grade achieved, information about wages; this census introduced sampling techniques. Other innovations included a field test of the census in 1939; this was the first census in which every state had a population greater than 100,000. The 1940 census collected the following information: In addition, a sample of individuals were asked additional questions covering age at first marriage and other topics. Full documentation on the 1940 census, including census forms and a procedural history, is available from the Integrated Public Use Microdata Series. Following completion of the census, the original enumeration sheets were microfilmed; as required by Title 13 of the U.
S. Code, access to identifiable information from census records was restricted for 72 years. Non-personally identifiable information Microdata from the 1940 census is available through the Integrated Public Use Microdata Series. Aggregate data for small areas, together with electronic boundary files, can be downloaded from the National Historical Geographic Information System. On April 2, 2012—72 years after the census was taken—microfilmed images of the 1940 census enumeration sheets were released to the public by the National Archives and Records Administration; the records are indexed only by enumeration district upon initial release. Official 1940 census website 1940 Census Records from the U. S. National Archives and Records Administration 1940 Federal Population Census Videos, training videos for enumerators at the U. S. National Archives Selected Historical Decennial Census Population and Housing Counts from the U. S. Census Bureau Snow, Michael S. "Why the huge interest in the 1940 Census?"
CNN. Monday April 9, 2012. 1941 U. S Census Report Contains 1940 Census results 1940 Census Questions Hosted at CensusFinder.com
Brooklyn is a village in Jackson County of the U. S. state of Michigan. The population was 1,206 at the 2010 census, it is located just off U. S. Highway 12 in Columbia Township. Brooklyn is located in a portion of central lower Michigan known for its lush, rolling green landscapes in the Irish Hills area of Southeast Michigan which contains scenic lakes surrounding Hayes State Park and Cambridge Junction Historic State Park which adjoins the Michigan International Speedway; the area was a summer vacation spot for residents of metropolitan Detroit who owned cottages near lakes in the area. With the nearby additions of Interstate 94 in the late 1950s and Michigan International Speedway in the late 1960s, Brooklyn established a year-round population; this city is 14 miles southeast of Jackson, 37 miles southwest of Ann Arbor and 56 miles southeast of Lansing. The village was founded by Calvin Swain, who filed the first land claim on June 16, 1832 and named his settlement Swainsville. In a town meeting vote on August 5, 1836, the community elected to change the town's name to Brooklyn.
The town is named after New York. A sign marking Swain's historical discovery stands in the town square. Street Art: In 2015 a small street art revolution happened along Monroe and water streets. Artists were brought in by local resident Josh Mitoska and several large scale wall murals were painted by Bonus Saves, THOR, PHYBR, Andrew Hall, Mosher Show, Lauren Harrington, Sheefy McFly, Paul Johnson, Old Growth Creative, And world-famous female artist from Paris KASHINK-, as well as others; the art has brought in a large amount of outside visitors to the area as well as drawn some criticism from local residents with one resident citing "This is becoming a circus" As of 2017 there were 17 murals completed According to the United States Census Bureau, the village has a total area of 1.02 square miles, of which 1.01 square miles is land and 0.01 square miles is water. As of the census of 2010, there were 1,206 people, 577 households, 306 families residing in the village; the population density was 1,194.1 inhabitants per square mile.
There were 661 housing units at an average density of 654.5 per square mile. The racial makeup of the village was 96.9% White, 0.2% African American, 0.7% Native American, 1.3% Asian, 0.8% from two or more races. Hispanic or Latino of any race were 2.9% of the population. There were 577 households of which 27.0% had children under the age of 18 living with them, 34.7% were married couples living together, 13.5% had a female householder with no husband present, 4.9% had a male householder with no wife present, 47.0% were non-families. 41.6% of all households were made up of individuals and 22.6% had someone living alone, 65 years of age or older. The average household size was 2.09 and the average family size was 2.86. The median age in the village was 43.6 years. 22.7% of residents were under the age of 18. The gender makeup of the village was 43.4% male and 56.6% female. As of the census of 2000, there were 1,176 people, 507 households, 297 families residing in the village; the population density was 1,171.1 per square mile.
There were 534 housing units at an average density of 531.8 per square mile. The racial makeup of the village was 97.96% White, 0.26% Native American, 0.51% Asian, 0.51% from other races, 0.77% from two or more races. Hispanic or Latino of any race were 1.96% of the population. There were 507 households out of which 27.8% had children under the age of 18 living with them, 41.8% were married couples living together, 12.4% had a female householder with no husband present, 41.4% were non-families. 35.9% of all households were made up of individuals and 18.1% had someone living alone, 65 years of age or older. The average household size was 2.22 and the average family size was 2.87. In the village, the population was spread out with 23.5% under the age of 18, 7.2% from 18 to 24, 27.8% from 25 to 44, 19.6% from 45 to 64, 21.9% who were 65 years of age or older. The median age was 40 years. For every 100 females there were 81.8 males. For every 100 females age 18 and over, there were 74.1 males. The median income for a household in the village was $31,964, the median income for a family was $48,750.
Males had a median income of $32,727 versus $22,083 for females. The per capita income for the village was $18,933. About 9.7% of families and 12.1% of the population were below the poverty line, including 25.1% of those under age 18 and 12.1% of those age 65 or over. Ethlyn T. Clough, American newspaper publisher, editor Vivian Kellogg, first baseman in the All-American Girls Professional Baseball League. Village of Brooklyn government site Brooklyn and Irish Hills Chamber of Commerce The Brooklyn Exponent newspaper
County Road 81 (Hennepin County, Minnesota)
County State-Aid Highway 81 known as County Road 81, is a county highway in Hennepin County, which runs from its interchange with Interstate 94, CR 66, CR 152 in the city of Minneapolis, continues northwest to its terminus at Main Street in suburban Rogers. CR 81 is 20 miles long. County Road 81 begins in Minneapolis, it goes northwest into the city of Robbinsdale, intersecting with CR 9 and has an interchange MN 100. It enters Crystal shortly after the interchange, intersecting with several smaller roads, it enters south of its intersection with 63rd Avenue. In the city, the route has an interchange with I-94 / I-694. Afterwards, it intersects with several county roads: CR 152 and CR 130 and CR 109, it has a new interchange with US Highway 169. In Osseo, it intersects with Jefferson Highway / Central Avenue. In Maple Grove it intersects with Zachary Lane North, CR 30, CR 130, MN 610, Fernbrook Lane and Maple Grove Parkway. In Dayton, it intersects with CR 101 / CR 13. In Rogers it intersects with CR 150 and becomes MN 101 at I-94.
From Rogers to Robbinsdale the speed limit stays between 55 mph. CR 81, between the Robbinsdale and Minneapolis border and present-day US 169 in Brooklyn Park, was constructed between the late 1940s and 1950s; until I-94 and I-494 were built, CR 81 served as the principal route between Minneapolis and points northwest. A trunk highway supervised by the state and known as US 52, US 169, MN 101, MN 152, MN 218 in various segments at various times, the state turned over management of the roadway to Hennepin County in 1988 and it was renumbered to CR 81. From 1982 to 1988, a portion of the route was known as MN 81; the portion of CR 81 from Rogers to Robbinsdale was signed as Bottineau Boulevard, named after historic frontiersman Pierre Bottineau. The portion of CR 81 in North Minneapolis is still signed as West Broadway. In 2004, the at-grade intersection with MN 100 was converted into an interchange along with other intersections on MN 100 during a reconstruction project. In 2008, a reconstruction project in Robbinsdale was completed.
In Maple Grove, a reconstruction project near Fernbrook Lane, Elm Creek Boulevard, Maple Grove Parkway was completed, reconstructing the Fernbrook Lane intersection and adding new intersections at Elm Creek Boulevard and Maple Grove Parkway, when Elm Creek Boulevard was extended and Maple Grove Parkway was paved to its reconstructed interchange with I-94. In 2011, the intersection with US 169 was converted into an interchange, along with the road's reconstruction from the former intersection with US 169 to CR 109, the extension of the nearby 83rd Avenue North and construction on local streets. In 2011, when MN 610 was extended, a half of a new interchange was built south of CR 130 near the end of the new portion of MN 610. In Rogers, CR 81's terminus was moved from its former intersection with MN 101/CR 150 to MN 101's interchange with I-94; the intersection with MN 101 and CR 150 was demolished, during a different road construction project. Since 2000, local governments and business leaders in the CR 81 corridor have been working together on a strategic redevelopment plan supported by a transit line.
Rapid bus transit was considered for this corridor in the early 2000s. Since 2007, light rail transit is now being studied as the more favorable option. A 7.5-mile segment of CR 81 reconstruction project began in 2010. This section is from 47th Avenue North in the city of Robbinsdale to CR 30 in the city of Maple Grove, resulting in a six-lane divided urban roadway; the project passes through the cities of Crystal, Brooklyn Park, Osseo. The goals of this project are to improve the safety and operations along the roadway, changes will be made to existing access. Major intersections will be reconstructed. Construction will occur in segments. Construction of Segment One began in 2010, is expected to be completed in the summer of 2012; the construction of Segment Two is funded, expected to begin in 2012. Segments 3 and 4 are not funded; the entire route is in Hennepin County
Interstate 94 is an east–west Interstate Highway connecting the Great Lakes and northern Great Plains regions of the United States. Its western terminus is in Billings, Montana, at a junction with I-90, it thus lies along the primary overland route from Seattle to Toronto, is the only east–west Interstate highway to form a direct connection into Canada. I-94 intersects with I-90 several times: at its western terminus. Among the other major cities that I-94 connects to are North Dakota. I-94 begins at Billings and travels northeastward toward Glendive before exiting the state to the east. I-94 links seven counties, which are Yellowstone, Rosebud, Prairie and Wibaux counties and passes near or through Miles City, Glendive while connecting with I-90 in Billings; the highway is notable for following the Yellowstone River from Billings through Glendive. Beyond the western terminus of I-94, I-90 connects westbound I-94 travelers to points west such as Butte, Coeur d'Alene and Seattle, Washington; the route passes through the Badlands near Medora.
A public rest area about seven miles east of Medora provides an awe-inspiring view at sunset, an opportunity to hike through some of the scenery on the Painted Canyon Trail. Further east, I-94 provides access to the North Unit of Theodore Roosevelt National Park passes through the cities of Dickinson, Bismarck and Valley City on the way to West Fargo and Fargo, where it leaves the state and crosses into Minnesota. Throughout the state, the route travels straight east and west following both the railroad route and the former route of US Highway 10 where its western terminus is at exit 343 in West Fargo; the highway intersects with the Enchanted Highway 11 miles east of Dickinson at exit 72. At New Salem, it passes Salem Sue, a 38-foot-high sculpture of a Holstein cow and is visible from I-94 on the south side of the road. A drive up the road to Sue will take visitors to a vantage point where they can see a panoramic landscape for many miles. Between Mandan and Bismarck, I-94 crosses the Missouri River with a view of the Northern Pacific/BNSF Railroad Bridge on the south side of the road.
At Steele, it passes the world's largest sculpture of a sand hill crane, 40 feet tall and visible from I-94 on the south side of the road, just to the east of exit 200. At Jamestown, it passes the world's largest sculpture of the buffalo named "Dakota Thunder", 28 feet tall and is visible from I-94 on the north side of the road. At mile marker 275 on the westbound lanes between Jamestown and Valley City, there is a small green sign marking the Laurentian Divide, which marks a continental divide where rivers south of the divide drain into the Gulf of Mexico, while the rivers north flow into the Arctic Ocean; the highway reaches Fargo, before the Red River. Leaving Fargo and entering Moorhead, Minnesota, I-94 crosses the Red River. East of the Moorhead airport, the Interstate travels in a northwest–southeast trajectory past Fergus Falls, St. Cloud on the way to the Twin Cities, eastward out of the state; the road crosses the Mississippi River in Minneapolis between the Prospect Park and Seward neighborhoods.
The highway joins Minneapolis and St. Paul together where it meets Minnesota Highway 280. In the Twin Cities, the routing of the highway is politically charged through many historic working-class and African-American neighborhoods. In Saint Paul, the routing of I-94 is set through and displaces the historic Rondo neighborhood, which prior to the highway construction was the largest African-American community in Saint Paul. East of Saint Paul, I-94 leaves Minnesota between Lakeland and Hudson, while crossing the St. Croix River. I-94 enters Wisconsin east of the Twin Cities at Hudson, it passes Eau Claire before turning southeastward and joining with I-90 in Tomah and I-39 in Portage. I-94 leaves I-90 and I-39 near Madison and resumes its easterly path toward Milwaukee before turning south and heading to Chicago, entering Illinois at Pleasant Prairie. In the state of Illinois, I-94 runs south from Wisconsin to Indiana via downtown Chicago, it is tolled on the Tri-State Tollway to the I-94/I-294 split.
At I-80, I-94 runs east to Indiana on the Kingery Expressway. In the state of Indiana, I-94 runs east from Illinois concurrently with I-80, it crosses Interstate 90. I-94 continues northeasterly; the 55-mile-per-hour speed limit used to continue east of exit 26. Between mile markers 0.0 and 15.5, the highway is posted along with I-80. Between mile markers 15.6 and 19.0, I-94 is posted alone. I-94 runs north along Lake Michigan to St. Joseph and Benton Harbor before heading east toward Detroit, it turns northeast to Port Huron where it meets I-69 and ends at the Blue Water Bridge, where it becomes Ontario Highway 402 in Point Edward, Ontario. The first section of I-94 completed with Interstate funds (under the Federal-Aid H