Bexar County, Texas
Bexar County is a county of the U. S. state of Texas. As of the 2010 census, the population was 1,714,773, a 2017 estimate put the population at 1,958,578, it is the fourth-most populated in Texas. Its county seat is San Antonio, the second-most populous city in Texas and the seventh-largest city in the United States. Bexar County is included in TX metropolitan statistical area. Bexar County includes Government Canyon State Natural Area in the northwestern part of the county. Bexar County was created on December 20, 1836, encompassed the entire western portion of the Republic of Texas; this included the disputed areas of western New Mexico northward to Wyoming. After statehood, 128 counties were carved out of its area; the county was named for San Antonio de Béxar, one of the 23 Mexican municipalities of Texas at the time of its independence. San Antonio de Béxar—originally Villa de San Fernando de Béxar—was the first civil government established by the Spanish in the province of Texas; the municipality was created in 1731 when 55 Canary Islanders settled near the system of missions, established around the source of the San Antonio River.
The new settlement was named after the Presidio San Antonio de Béjar, the Spanish military outpost that protected the missions. The presidio, located at the San Pedro Springs, was founded in 1718 and named for Viceroy Balthasar Manuel de Zúñiga y Guzmán Sotomayor y Sarmiento, second son of the Duke of Béjar; the modern city of San Antonio in the U. S. state of Texas derived its name from San Antonio de Béjar. According to the U. S. Census Bureau, the county has a total area of 1,256 square miles, of which 1,240 sq mi is land and 16 sq mi is water. Bexar County is in south-central Texas, about 190 miles west of Houston and 140 mi from both the US-Mexican border to the southwest and the Gulf of Mexico to the southeast; the Balcones Escarpment bisects the county from west to northeast. South of the escarpment are the South Texas plains; the San Antonio River rises from springs north of Downtown San Antonio, flows southward and southeastward through the county. Bexar County has a comprehensive "wagon wheel" freeway system, with radial freeways and beltways that encircle Downtown San Antonio, allowing for simplified countywide freeway access, in a manner much like the freeways around Houston or Dallas.
San Antonio is unique, however, in that unlike Houston or Dallas, none of these highways is tolled. Kendall County Comal County Guadalupe County Wilson County Atascosa County Medina County Bandera County San Antonio Missions National Historical Park As of the 2010 United States Census, there were 1,714,773 people residing in the county. Of those, 72.9% were White, 7.5% Black or African American, 2.4% Asian, 0.8% Native American, 0.1% Pacific Islander, 12.7% of some other race and 3.5% of two or more races. 58.7% were Hispanic or Latino. As of the census of 2000, 1,392,931 people, 488,942 households, 345,681 families were residing in the county; the population density was 1,117 inhabitants per square mile. There were 521,359 housing units at an average density of 418 per square mile; the racial makeup of the county was 68.86% White, 7.18% Black or African American, 0.80% Native American, 1.61% Asian, 0.10% Pacific Islander, 17.80% from other races, 3.64% from two or more races. About 54.35 % of the population were Latino of any race.
Of 488,942 households, 36.60% had children under the age of 18 living with them, 50.50% were married couples living together, 15.50% had a female householder with no husband present, 29.30% were not families. About 24.00% of all households were made up of individuals and 7.40% had someone living alone, 65 years of age or older. The average household size was 2.78 and the average family size was 3.33. A Williams Institute analysis of 2010 census data found there were about 6.2 same-sex couples per 1,000 households in the county. In the county, the population was distributed as 28.50% under the age of 18, 10.70% from 18 to 24, 30.60% from 25 to 44, 19.90% from 45 to 64, 10.40% who were 65 years of age or older. The median age was 32 years. For every 100 females, there were 94.70 males. For every 100 females age 18 and over, there were 91.20 males. The median income for a household was $38,328, for a family was $43,724. Males had a median income of $30,756 versus $24,920 for females; the per capita income for the county was $18,363.
About 12.70% of families and 15.90% of the population were below the poverty line, including 22.40% of those under age 18 and 12.20% of those age 65 or over. The Bexar County jail facilities are at 200 North Comal in downtown San Antonio, operated by the Bexar County Sheriff's Office. In late 2012, press reports noted an increase in the number of suicides at the facility; the issue was a topic of debate in the election for sheriff that year. The jail holds an average of about 3,800 prisoners in 2012, with a total capacity of 4,596, making it the fourth-largest in the state; the Texas Department of Criminal Justice operates the Dominguez Unit, a state jail for men, in an unincorporated section of Bexar County. In the fall of 2013, Bexar County opened BiblioTech - Bexar County's Digital Library, the nation's first bookless library. In 2016, for the third consecutive year, Bexar County increased the appraised value of businesses and residences. Most will hence find their prop
Mixed-use development or simply Live-work space is a type of urban development strategy for living spaces that blends residential, cultural, institutional, or entertainment uses, where those functions are physically and functionally integrated, that provides pedestrian connections. Mixed-use development can take the form of a single building, a city block, or entire neighbourhoods; the term may be used more to refer to a mixed-use real estate development project—a building, complex of buildings, or district of a town or city, developed for mixed-use by a private developer, governmental agency, or a combination thereof. Traditionally, human settlements have developed in mixed-use patterns. However, with industrialisation as well as the invention of the skyscraper, governmental zoning regulations were introduced to separate different functions, such as manufacturing, from residential areas. In the United States, the heyday of separate-use zoning was after World War II, but since the 1990s, mixed-use zoning has once again become desirable as the benefits are recognized.
In most of Europe, government policy has encourage the continuation of the city center's role as a main location for business, retail and entertainment activity, unlike in the United States where zoning discouraged such mixed use for many decades. As a result, much of Europe's central cities are mixed use "by default" and the term "mixed-use" is much more relevant regarding new areas of the city, when an effort is made to mix residential and commercial activities – such as in Amsterdam's Eastern Docklands – rather than separate them. One of the earliest cities to adopt a policy on Mixed-use development is Ontario; the local government first played a role in 1986 with a zoning bylaw that allowed for commercial and residential units to be mixed. At the time, Toronto was in the beginning stages planning a focus on developing mixed-use development due to a growing popularity of more social housing; the law has since been updated as as 2013, refining much of its focus outside the downtown area, amalgamated into the main city since 1998.
With the regulations in place, the city has oversaw the development of high-rise condominiums throughout the city with the supply of amenities and transit stops nearby. Toronto case of developing Mixed-uses has expand to encompass other North American cities in Canada and The United States to bring in similar changes. In the United States, the Environmental Protection Agency collaborates with local governments by providing researchers developing new data that estimates how a city can be impacted by Mixed-use development. With the EPA putting models in the spreadsheet, it makes it much easier for municipalities, developers to estimate the traffic, with Mixed-use spaces; the linking models used as a resource tool measures the geography and land use characteristics in a city. The Environmental Protection Agency has conducted an analysis on six major metropolitan areas using land usage, household surveys, GIS databases. States such as California, New Mexico, Virginia has adopted this standard as statewide policy when assessing how urban developments can impact traffic.
Preconditions for the success of Mixed-use developments is employment and consumer spending. The three preconditions ensures that a development can attract quality tenants and financial success. Other factors determining the success of the Mixed-use development is the proximity of production time, the costs from the surrounding market. Mixed-use zones has been implemented in Portland, Oregon since the early 1990's as the local government was trying to figure out how to lower auto oriented development, prominent in the city at the time. In the state of Oregon alone, that housing must provide a clear objective towards design review; the city of Portland bureau of Planning and Sustainability has released a report in 2014 discussing the development trends in the city. The report eventuates the development of mixed-use spaces by focusing on the city center and its corridors. Portland's light rail system, MAX provides the encouragement of mixing up residential and work spaces into one zone. With this one zoning planning system, the use of land at increased densities provides a return in public investments throughout the city.
Main street corridors provide flexible building heights and high density uses to provide opportunities for gathering places. Mixed-use development allows the creation of plazas and outdoor corridors between buildings and sidewalks. Street facing facades have a maximum setback to how much space is allocated for pedestrians to gather in. Landscaping another feature in outdoor spaces allow trees and plants to grow on buildings vertically rather than being faced out in a front row. Public Infrastructure Mixed-use in centers that have increased in population density has allowed people to access places through public transit and has helped encourage walking and cycling to places of work and errands. Transportation has played a role in mitigating climate change by reducing congestion on roads and building up freight movement for goods and services. With street-level design in place in cities like Boston and Denver Mixed-uses allowed the designs of pedestrian walkways and eye distances to shops and workplaces.
This in turn has reduced parking lots in garages. Historic Preservation Older cities such as Chicago and San Francisco landmark preservation policies to allow more flexibility on older buildings being reused as third spaces. Benefits of mixed-use development include: greater housing variety and density, more affordable housing, life-cycle housing (start
United States Air Force
The United States Air Force is the aerial and space warfare service branch of the United States Armed Forces. It is one of the five branches of the United States Armed Forces, one of the seven American uniformed services. Formed as a part of the United States Army on 1 August 1907, the USAF was established as a separate branch of the U. S. Armed Forces on 18 September 1947 with the passing of the National Security Act of 1947, it is the youngest branch of the U. S. Armed Forces, the fourth in order of precedence; the USAF is the largest and most technologically advanced air force in the world. The Air Force articulates its core missions as air and space superiority, global integrated intelligence and reconnaissance, rapid global mobility, global strike, command and control; the U. S. Air Force is a military service branch organized within the Department of the Air Force, one of the three military departments of the Department of Defense; the Air Force, through the Department of the Air Force, is headed by the civilian Secretary of the Air Force, who reports to the Secretary of Defense, is appointed by the President with Senate confirmation.
The highest-ranking military officer in the Air Force is the Chief of Staff of the Air Force, who exercises supervision over Air Force units and serves as one of the Joint Chiefs of Staff. Air Force components are assigned, as directed by the Secretary of Defense, to the combatant commands, neither the Secretary of the Air Force nor the Chief of Staff of the Air Force have operational command authority over them. Along with conducting independent air and space operations, the U. S. Air Force provides air support for land and naval forces and aids in the recovery of troops in the field; as of 2017, the service operates more than 5,369 military aircraft, 406 ICBMs and 170 military satellites. It has a $161 billion budget and is the second largest service branch, with 318,415 active duty airmen, 140,169 civilian personnel, 69,200 reserve airmen, 105,700 Air National Guard airmen. According to the National Security Act of 1947, which created the USAF: In general, the United States Air Force shall include aviation forces both combat and service not otherwise assigned.
It shall be organized and equipped for prompt and sustained offensive and defensive air operations. The Air Force shall be responsible for the preparation of the air forces necessary for the effective prosecution of war except as otherwise assigned and, in accordance with integrated joint mobilization plans, for the expansion of the peacetime components of the Air Force to meet the needs of war. §8062 of Title 10 US Code defines the purpose of the USAF as: to preserve the peace and security, provide for the defense, of the United States, the Territories and possessions, any areas occupied by the United States. The stated mission of the USAF today is to "fly and win...in air and cyberspace". "The United States Air Force will be a trusted and reliable joint partner with our sister services known for integrity in all of our activities, including supporting the joint mission first and foremost. We will provide compelling air and cyber capabilities for use by the combatant commanders. We will excel as stewards of all Air Force resources in service to the American people, while providing precise and reliable Global Vigilance and Power for the nation".
The five core missions of the Air Force have not changed since the Air Force became independent in 1947, but they have evolved, are now articulated as air and space superiority, global integrated intelligence and reconnaissance, rapid global mobility, global strike, command and control. The purpose of all of these core missions is to provide, what the Air Force states as, global vigilance, global reach, global power. Air superiority is "that degree of dominance in the air battle of one force over another which permits the conduct of operations by the former and its related land, sea and special operations forces at a given time and place without prohibitive interference by the opposing force". Offensive Counterair is defined as "offensive operations to destroy, disrupt, or neutralize enemy aircraft, launch platforms, their supporting structures and systems both before and after launch, but as close to their source as possible". OCA is the preferred method of countering air and missile threats since it attempts to defeat the enemy closer to its source and enjoys the initiative.
OCA comprises attack operations, sweep and suppression/destruction of enemy air defense. Defensive Counter air is defined as "all the defensive measures designed to detect, identify and destroy or negate enemy forces attempting to penetrate or attack through friendly airspace". A major goal of DCA operations, in concert with OCA operations, is to provide an area from which forces can operate, secure from air and missile threats; the DCA mission comprises both passive defense measures. Active defense is "the employment of limited offensive action and counterattacks to deny a contested area or position to the enemy", it includes both ballistic missile defense and air-breathing threat defense, encompasses point defense, area defense, high-value airborne asset defense. Passive defense is "measures taken to reduce the probability of and to minimize the effects of damage caused by hostile action without the intention of taking the initiative", it includes warning.
Brooks Air Force Base
Brooks Air Force Base was a United States Air Force facility, located in San Antonio, Texas. It was closed on September 30, 2011. In 2002 Brooks Air Force Base was renamed Brooks City-Base when the property was conveyed to the Brooks Development Authority as part of a unique project between local and federal government; the Brooks Development Authority is now the owner and operator of the property, is redeveloping it as a science and technology center. The Air Force was the largest tenant at Brooks City-Base. Brooks Air Force Base was one of thirty-two Air Service, United States Army training camps established in 1918 after the United States entry into World War I, being established on December 8, 1917 as Kelly Field No. 5. Flying at Brooks, however predates its military establishment, as the facility was known as Gosport Field prior to the first Army airplanes arriving on December 5, 1917. Brooks Air Force Base was named to honor San Antonio aviator Sidney Johnson Brooks, Jr. Cadet Brooks died on November 13, 1917 when his Curtiss JN-4 nosed down as he prepared to land after his final training flight at Kelly Field, Texas because he had blacked out in reaction to the inoculations they had been given shortly before the flight.
Brooks was one of the first to volunteer at the call for men for the American Flying Corps. He was awarded his wings and commission posthumously; the history of Brooks Air Force Base parallels the history of military aviation and aviation medicine in the United States. After the United States entered World War I, in April 1917, the U. S. Army recognized the need for trained flying instructors. San Antonio was chosen for a year-round training site due to its favorable climate, good water supply and convenient transportation facilities; the Chamber of Commerce assembled an 873-acre tract southeast of the city near Berg's Mill and offered it as the site for the new aviation field. The site was called Gosport Field, a name derived from the flight instruction system used at the new base. On December 5, 1917, the Army named the site Kelly Field No. 5, on 8 December, ground breaking ceremonies were held. On February 16, 1918, Kelly Field No. 5 became a separate post and named Brooks Field by the Aviation Section, U.
S. Signal Corps The first commander of Brooks Field was Lt. Col. H. Conger Pratt, who until the preceding October had been a cavalryman; the first aircraft flown from the new Brooks Field, on March 28, 1918, was a Curtiss JN-4D "Jenny" of World War I fame, piloted by Maj. Leo A. Walton. Brooks Field, contained the principal flight instructor's school. Brooks Field was used as the Air Service Flight Instructor's School, it was a six-week course, with a maximum student capacity of 300. During its first year of operation, Brooks Field consisted of 16 hangars with extensive support facilities. Of these early buildings, Hangar 9, now the Edward H. White II Memorial, is the only structure still in existence. Squadrons assigned to Brooks Field: Post Headquarters, Brooks Field, 16 February 1918-July 1919 29th Aero Squadron, March 1918Re-designated Squadron "A", July–November 191867th Aero Squadron, April 1918Re-designated Squadron "B", July–November 1918118th Aero Squadron, April 1918Re-designated Squadron "C", July–November 1918134th Aero Squadron, April 1918Re-designated Squadron "D", July–November 1918179th Aero Squadron, April 1918Re-designated Squadron "E", July–November 1918234th Aero Squadron, June 1918Re-designated Squadron "F", July–November 1918Flying School Detachment, November 1918-June 1919 In May 1919, the pilot instructor school was closed and a Balloon and Airship School was opened for pilots and ground crew members.
A huge 91,000-square-foot airship hangar was constructed. Balloon units assigned 67th Balloon Company, May–June 1919 72d Balloon Company, May–June 1919 93d to 99th Balloon Company, May–June 1919Consolidated into the Air Corps Balloon and Airship School, Brooks Field, June 1919However, a series of mishaps in operating the hydrogen-filled craft led to the transfer of the school from Brooks to Scott Field, Illinois on June 26, 1922. After the cancellation of the airship training, the 11th School Group was formed at Brooks Field as the Primary Flying School for the Air Service and Army Air Corps, replacing the World War I school at Carlstrom Field, Florida; the Primary Flying School operated between September 1922 through July 1931. The school took about six months with advanced training divided into three months each of basic and advanced instruction; the dual trainer used was the Curtiss JN-6H. Brooks accepted other planes, including Vought VE-7 Bluebirds and Dayton-Wright TA-3s, for evaluation, but JNs were used until 1926.
The beginning class in March of that year was the first without Jennies. Students now flew with tandem seats and a Wright E engine. A few National Guard officers went to Brooks Field in January 1923 for pilot instruction. World War I flyers underwent refresher training. Eight of the ten officers entering graduated to become junior airplane pilots; the Air Service suggested, the Militia Bureau adopted, a policy of giving men flying training before commissioning them in the Guard. During the 1920s, the Primary Flying School at Brooks expanded but still could not accommodate all primary students. Needing another school, the Air Corps reopened California. Reorganizing pilot training, the Air Corps created a Training Center at San Antonio with Brig. Gen. Frank P. Lahm in charge, he opened headquarters at Duncan Field on September 1, 1926. As an Assistant Chief of Air Corps, he commanded the Primary Flying School and the School of Aviat