National Register of Historic Places listings in Georgia
This is a list of the more than 2,000 properties and historic districts in the U. S. state of Georgia that are listed on the National Register of Historic Places. Listings are distributed across all of Georgia's 159 counties. Listings for the city of Atlanta are in Fulton County's list but spill over into DeKalb County's list; this National Park Service list is complete through NPS recent listings posted April 12, 2019. The following are tallies of current listings by county. List of National Historic Landmarks in Georgia List of bridges on the National Register of Historic Places in Georgia
Confederate States dollar
The Confederate States dollar was first issued just before the outbreak of the American Civil War by the newly formed Confederacy. It was not backed by hard assets, but by a promise to pay the bearer after the war, on the prospect of Southern victory and independence; as the war began to tilt against the Confederates, confidence in the currency diminished, the government inflated the currency by continuing to print the unbacked banknotes. By the end of 1863, the Confederate dollar was quoted at just six cents in gold, fell further still; the Greyback is now a prized collector's item, in its many versions, including those issued by individual states and local banks. The various engravings of leading Confederates and goddesses and scenes of slave life, on these hastily printed banknotes, sometimes cut with scissors and signed by clerks, continue to stimulate debate among antique dealers, with some of the counterfeit notes commanding high prices; the Confederate dollar called a "Greyback", was first issued into circulation in April 1861, when the Confederacy was only two months old, on the eve of the outbreak of the Civil War.
At first, Confederate currency was accepted throughout the South as a medium of exchange with high purchasing power. As the war progressed, confidence in the ultimate success waned, the amount of paper money increased, their dates of redemption were extended further into the future. Most Confederate currency carried the phrase across the top of the bill: "SIX MONTHS AFTER THE RATIFICATION OF A TREATY OF PEACE BETWEEN THE CONFEDERATE STATES AND THE UNITED STATES" across the middle, the "CONFEDERATE STATES OF AMERICA WILL PAY TO BEARER"; as the war progressed, the currency underwent the depreciation and soaring prices characteristic of inflation. For example, by the end of the war, a cake of soap could sell for as much as $50 and an ordinary suit of clothes was $2,700. Near the end of the war, the currency became worthless as a medium of exchange; this was because Confederate currency were bills of credit, as in the Revolutionary War, not secured or backed by any assets. Just as the currency issued by the Continental Congress was deemed worthless because they were not backed by any hard assets, so, this became the case with Confederate currency.
Though both gold and silver may have been scarce, some economic historians have suggested that the currency would have retained a material degree of value, for a longer period of time, had it been backed by hard goods the Confederacy did have such as cotton, or tobacco. When the Confederacy ceased to exist as a political entity at the end of the war, the money lost all value as fiat currency; the Confederacy, being limited in skilled engravers and printers as well as secure printing facilities had to make do with unrelated designs in early banknote issues. Some such were abstract depictions of mythological gods and goddesses, such as the Goddess of Liberty. Confederate themes did prevail with designs of black slaves, naval ships and historical figures, including George Washington. Images of slaves had them depicted as carrying about their work. Since most of the engravers and bank plates were in the Northern states, Confederate printers had to lift by offset or lithographic process scenes, used on whatever notes they had access to.
Many variations in plates and papers appear in most of the issues, due in large part to the limits on commerce resulting from the Union embargo of Confederate ports. Some of the people featured on banknotes include Andrew Jackson, John C. Calhoun, Christopher Memminger, Robert M. T. Hunter, Alexander H. Stephens, Jefferson Davis, Judah P. Benjamin, Clement Clay, George W. Randolph, Lucy Holcombe Pickens, the wife of the Governor of South Carolina. There was a bill featuring George Washington. Confederate Treasury Notes were hand signed by various clerks, with exception of the 50 cent issues that had the printed signatures of Robert Tyler and Edward C. Elmore; the first six notes issued were hand signed by the Treasurer themselves. While hand signatures were considered an anti-counterfeiting tool, the sheer number of bills being produced could not reasonably be signed individually by two men each. Women were hired as clerks to sign "for Register" and "for Treasurer"; as the Civil War continued, the cost of the war loomed large.
Any precious metals available in the South made their way to Europe to procure war goods. But the CSA did manage to mint a few coins. In 1861, Mr. Robert Lovett Jr. of Philadelphia was commissioned to design and make a one cent piece for the Confederacy. On the obverse, he used the head of Minerva; the coins were struck using the Federal standard of cupronickel for cent pieces. He made a few samples, of which only 12 are said to exist by the popular stories but research has shown that 14 are known to exist. Fearing prosecution for aiding the enemy, he stopped his work and hid the coins and dies in his cellar; the original dies were purchased and used to make restrikes, first by John W. Haseltine and by Robert S. Bashlow; the dies were donated to the Smithsonian Institution by Bashlow in 1962. In the aftermath of secession, the Co
National Register of Historic Places listings in Arkansas
This is a list of properties and historic districts in Arkansas that are listed on the National Register of Historic Places. There are more than 2,600 listings in the state, including at least 8 listings in each of Arkansas's 75 counties; this National Park Service list is complete through NPS recent listings posted April 12, 2019. The following are tallies of current listings in Arkansas on the National Register of Historic Places; these counts are based on entries in the National Register Information Database as of April 24, 2008 and new weekly listings posted since on the National Register of Historic Places web site. There are frequent additions to the listings and occasional delistings and the counts here are not official; the counts in this table exclude boundary increase and decrease listings which modify the area covered by an existing property or district and which carry a separate National Register reference number. List of National Historic Landmarks in Arkansas List of bridges on the National Register of Historic Places in Arkansas
Homer is a town in Banks County, United States. The population was 1,141 at the 2010 census; the town is the county seat of Banks County. The community was named after a pioneer citizen. Homer was founded in 1858 as seat for the newly established Banks County. Homer was incorporated as a town in 1859, its first courthouse was built in 1863. Homer is located at 34°20′2″N 83°29′59″W. According to the United States Census Bureau, the town has a total area of 9.7 square miles, of which 9.6 square miles is land and 0.04 square miles, or 0.38%, is water. Banks County students in kindergarten to grade twelve are in the Banks County School District, which consists of two elementary schools, a middle school and a high school; the district has over 2,428 students. Banks County Elementary School Banks County Primary School Banks County Middle School Banks County High School As of the census of 2000, there were 950 people, 366 households, 249 families residing in the town; the population density was 99.1 people per square mile.
There were 406 housing units at an average density of 42.4 per square mile. The racial makeup of the town was 84.32% White, 11.79% African American, 1.16% Native American, 0.84% Asian, 1.16% from other races, 0.74% from two or more races. Hispanic or Latino of any race were 2.00% of the population. There were 366 households out of which 36.3% had children under the age of 18 living with them, 54.4% were married couples living together, 10.4% had a female householder with no husband present, 31.7% were non-families. 26.2% of all households were made up of individuals and 12.6% had someone living alone, 65 years of age or older. The average household size was 2.60 and the average family size was 3.16. In the town, the population was spread out with 28.1% under the age of 18, 10.5% from 18 to 24, 29.1% from 25 to 44, 20.5% from 45 to 64, 11.8% who were 65 years of age or older. The median age was 33 years. For every 100 females, there were 95.5 males. For every 100 females age 18 and over, there were 95.1 males.
The median income for a household in the town was $35,500, the median income for a family was $41,667. Males had a median income of $30,147 versus $23,438 for females; the per capita income for the town was $17,353. About 8.9% of families and 13.3% of the population were below the poverty line, including 14.3% of those under age 18 and 21.1% of those age 65 or over. Homer is among the earliest to hold the world record for an Easter egg hunt - 80,000 eggs, listed in the 1985 Guinness Book of World Records; the event in the small town of 1,100 people is an Easter Sunday tradition. The egg hunt each year draws about 5,000 egg hunters and adults. Though it no longer holds the record, Homer has long touted its annual hunt as the world's largest
National Register of Historic Places
The National Register of Historic Places is the United States federal government's official list of districts, buildings and objects deemed worthy of preservation for their historical significance. A property listed in the National Register, or located within a National Register Historic District, may qualify for tax incentives derived from the total value of expenses incurred preserving the property; the passage of the National Historic Preservation Act in 1966 established the National Register and the process for adding properties to it. Of the more than one million properties on the National Register, 80,000 are listed individually; the remainder are contributing resources within historic districts. For most of its history the National Register has been administered by the National Park Service, an agency within the United States Department of the Interior, its goals are to help property owners and interest groups, such as the National Trust for Historic Preservation, coordinate and protect historic sites in the United States.
While National Register listings are symbolic, their recognition of significance provides some financial incentive to owners of listed properties. Protection of the property is not guaranteed. During the nomination process, the property is evaluated in terms of the four criteria for inclusion on the National Register of Historic Places; the application of those criteria has been the subject of criticism by academics of history and preservation, as well as the public and politicians. Historic sites outside the country proper, but associated with the United States are listed. Properties can be nominated in a variety of forms, including individual properties, historic districts, multiple property submissions; the Register categorizes general listings into one of five types of properties: district, structure, building, or object. National Register Historic Districts are defined geographical areas consisting of contributing and non-contributing properties; some properties are added automatically to the National Register when they become administered by the National Park Service.
These include National Historic Landmarks, National Historic Sites, National Historical Parks, National Military Parks, National Memorials, some National Monuments. On October 15, 1966, the Historic Preservation Act created the National Register of Historic Places and the corresponding State Historic Preservation Offices; the National Register consisted of the National Historic Landmarks designated before the Register's creation, as well as any other historic sites in the National Park system. Approval of the act, amended in 1980 and 1992, represented the first time the United States had a broad-based historic preservation policy; the 1966 act required those agencies to work in conjunction with the SHPO and an independent federal agency, the Advisory Council on Historic Preservation, to confront adverse effects of federal activities on historic preservation. To administer the newly created National Register of Historic Places, the National Park Service of the U. S. Department of the Interior, with director George B.
Hartzog Jr. established an administrative division named the Office of Archeology and Historic Preservation. Hartzog charged OAHP with creating the National Register program mandated by the 1966 law. Ernest Connally was the Office's first director. Within OAHP new divisions were created to deal with the National Register; the division administered several existing programs, including the Historic Sites Survey and the Historic American Buildings Survey, as well as the new National Register and Historic Preservation Fund. The first official Keeper of the Register was an architectural historian. During the Register's earliest years in the late 1960s and early 1970s, organization was lax and SHPOs were small and underfunded. However, funds were still being supplied for the Historic Preservation Fund to provide matching grants-in-aid to listed property owners, first for house museums and institutional buildings, but for commercial structures as well. A few years in 1979, the NPS history programs affiliated with both the U.
S. National Parks system and the National Register were categorized formally into two "Assistant Directorates." Established were the Assistant Directorate for Archeology and Historic Preservation and the Assistant Directorate for Park Historic Preservation. From 1978 until 1981, the main agency for the National Register was the Heritage Conservation and Recreation Service of the United States Department of the Interior. In February 1983, the two assistant directorates were merged to promote efficiency and recognize the interdependency of their programs. Jerry L. Rogers was selected to direct this newly merged associate directorate, he was described as a skilled administrator, sensitive to the need for the NPS to work with SHPOs, local governments. Although not described in detail in the 1966 act, SHPOs became integral to the process of listing properties on the National Register; the 1980 amendments of the 1966 law further defined the responsibilities of SHPOs concerning the National Register.
Several 1992 amendments of the NHPA added a category to the National Register, known as Traditional Cultural Properties: those properties associated with Native American or Hawaiian groups
National Register of Historic Places listings in Hawaii
This is a list of properties and historic districts in Hawaii listed on the National Register of Historic Places. More than 340 listings appear on all but one of Hawaii's main islands and the Northwestern Islands, in all of its five counties. Included are houses, archeological sites, ships and various other types of listings; these properties and districts are listed beginning at the northwestern end of the chain. This National Park Service list is complete through NPS recent listings posted April 12, 2019; the following are approximate tallies of current listings by county. These counts are based on entries in the National Register Information Database as of April 24, 2008 and new weekly listings posted since on the National Register of Historic Places web site, all of which list properties by county. There are frequent additions to the listings and occasional delistings, the counts here are approximate and not official. New entries are added to the official Register on a weekly basis; the counts in this table exclude boundary increase and decrease listings which modify the area covered by an existing property or district and which carry a separate National Register reference number.
The number of NRHP listings on each island are documented by tables in each of the individual island lists, the number of listings in each county is determined by adding the totals of the islands in that county. Kalawao and Maui counties are the sole exception: Kalawao County is a peninsula on Molokai, otherwise a part of Maui County. Many small islands, all uninhabited, lie northwest of Kauai, they are included despite the vast distance between them and Oahu. Kauai is the northernmost of the major islands of Hawaii, except for Niihau, the westernmost. Together with Niihau, it forms Kauai County. Oahu is the only major island in Honolulu County; the location of the city of Honolulu, Oahu is the most populous island in the state. Molokai is the northernmost of the islands of Maui County. Unlike every other island in the state, it is divided between two counties: Kalawao County consists of the island's northern peninsula. Lanai is the smallest of the populated islands of Maui County, lying between the islands of Maui and Molokai.
Maui is the easternmost island of Maui County. Kahoolawe is the southernmost island of Maui County. Alone among the state's major islands, it is uninhabited; the government of the island of Hawaii is Hawaii County, the only county that covers one island, the largest in area in the state. There are 67 properties and districts on the island, including 10 historic districts, six National Historic Landmarks, one, a National Historic Landmark District. Historic Hawaii Foundation Inventory of Historic Properties on official Hawaii State web site
Vernacular architecture encompasses the vast majority of the world's built environment, thus resists a simple definition. It is best understood not by what it is, but what it can reveal about the culture of a people or place at any given time; the sheer range of global building types and developments--from Mongolian yurts to Japanese minka to American roadside commercial strips--suggests that vernacular architecture is everywhere, but tends to be disregarded or overlooked in traditional histories of architecture and design. As geographer Amos Rapoport has famously written, vernacular architecture constitutes 95 percent of the world's built environment: that, not designed by professional architects and engineers. While such an understanding has its limitations, it nonetheless indicates the vastness of the subject and helps us recognize that all aspects of the built environment can impart something about the society and culture of a people or place. If nothing else, vernacular architecture cannot be distilled into a series of easy-to-digest patterns, materials, or elements.
Vernacular architecture is not a style. How has vernacular architecture been understood? Quite and not always vernacular architecture is described as a built environment, based upon local needs; this is only one way to understand it, but traditionally, the study of vernacular architecture did not examine formally-schooled architects, but instead that of the design skills and tradition of local builders, who were given any attribution for the work. More vernacular architecture has been examined by designers and the building industry in an effort to be more energy conscious with contemporary design and construction--part of a broader interest in sustainable design. Vernacular architecture can be contrasted against elite or polite architecture, characterized by stylistic elements of design intentionally incorporated for aesthetic purposes which go beyond a building's functional requirements; this article covers the term traditional architecture, which exists somewhere between the two extremes yet still is based upon authentic themes.
The term vernacular means "domestic, indigenous". The word derives from an older Etruscan word; the term is borrowed from linguistics, where vernacular refers to language use particular to a time, place or group. The terms vernacular, traditional, common and popular architecture are sometimes used interchangeably. However, Allen Noble wrote a lengthy discussion of these terms in Traditional Buildings: A Global Survey of Structural Forms and Cultural Functions where he presents scholarly opinions that folk building or folk architecture is built by "persons not professionally trained in building arts". Traditional architecture is architecture is passed down from person to person, generation to generation orally, but at any level of society, not just by common people. Noble discourages use of the term primitive architecture as having a negative connotation; the term popular architecture is used more in eastern Europe and is synonymous with folk or vernacular architecture. Although vernacular architecture might be designed by folks who do have some training in design, Ronald Brunskill has nonetheless defined vernacular architecture as:...a building designed by an amateur without any training in design.
The function of the building would be the dominant factor, aesthetic considerations, though present to some small degree, being quite minimal. Local materials would be used as a matter of course, other materials being chosen and imported quite exceptionally. Vernacular architecture is not to be confused with so-called "traditional" architecture, though there are links between the two. Traditional architecture includes buildings which bear elements of polite design: temples and palaces, for example, which would not be included under the rubric of "vernacular." In architectural terms,'the vernacular' can be contrasted with'the polite', characterised by stylistic elements of design intentionally incorporated by a professional architect for aesthetic purposes which go beyond a building's functional requirements. Between the extremes of the wholly vernacular and the polite, examples occur which have some vernacular and some polite content making the differences between the vernacular and the polite a matter of degree.
The Encyclopedia of Vernacular Architecture of the World defines vernacular architecture as:...comprising the dwellings and all other buildings of the people. Related to their environmental contexts and available resources they are customarily owner- or community-built, utilizing traditional technologies. All forms of vernacular architecture are built to meet specific needs, accommodating the values and ways of life of the cultures that produce them. Vernacular architecture is a broad, grassroots concept which encompasses fields of architectural study including aboriginal, ancestral and ethnic architecture and is contrasted with