The United States of America known as the United States or America, is a country composed of 50 states, a federal district, five major self-governing territories, various possessions. At 3.8 million square miles, the United States is the world's third or fourth largest country by total area and is smaller than the entire continent of Europe's 3.9 million square miles. With a population of over 327 million people, the U. S. is the third most populous country. The capital is Washington, D. C. and the largest city by population is New York City. Forty-eight states and the capital's federal district are contiguous in North America between Canada and Mexico; the State of Alaska is in the northwest corner of North America, bordered by Canada to the east and across the Bering Strait from Russia to the west. The State of Hawaii is an archipelago in the mid-Pacific Ocean; the U. S. territories are scattered about the Pacific Ocean and the Caribbean Sea, stretching across nine official time zones. The diverse geography and wildlife of the United States make it one of the world's 17 megadiverse countries.
Paleo-Indians migrated from Siberia to the North American mainland at least 12,000 years ago. European colonization began in the 16th century; the United States emerged from the thirteen British colonies established along the East Coast. Numerous disputes between Great Britain and the colonies following the French and Indian War led to the American Revolution, which began in 1775, the subsequent Declaration of Independence in 1776; the war ended in 1783 with the United States becoming the first country to gain independence from a European power. The current constitution was adopted in 1788, with the first ten amendments, collectively named the Bill of Rights, being ratified in 1791 to guarantee many fundamental civil liberties; the United States embarked on a vigorous expansion across North America throughout the 19th century, acquiring new territories, displacing Native American tribes, admitting new states until it spanned the continent by 1848. During the second half of the 19th century, the Civil War led to the abolition of slavery.
By the end of the century, the United States had extended into the Pacific Ocean, its economy, driven in large part by the Industrial Revolution, began to soar. The Spanish–American War and World War I confirmed the country's status as a global military power; the United States emerged from World War II as a global superpower, the first country to develop nuclear weapons, the only country to use them in warfare, a permanent member of the United Nations Security Council. Sweeping civil rights legislation, notably the Civil Rights Act of 1964, the Voting Rights Act of 1965 and the Fair Housing Act of 1968, outlawed discrimination based on race or color. During the Cold War, the United States and the Soviet Union competed in the Space Race, culminating with the 1969 U. S. Moon landing; the end of the Cold War and the collapse of the Soviet Union in 1991 left the United States as the world's sole superpower. The United States is the world's oldest surviving federation, it is a representative democracy.
The United States is a founding member of the United Nations, World Bank, International Monetary Fund, Organization of American States, other international organizations. The United States is a developed country, with the world's largest economy by nominal GDP and second-largest economy by PPP, accounting for a quarter of global GDP; the U. S. economy is post-industrial, characterized by the dominance of services and knowledge-based activities, although the manufacturing sector remains the second-largest in the world. The United States is the world's largest importer and the second largest exporter of goods, by value. Although its population is only 4.3% of the world total, the U. S. holds 31% of the total wealth in the world, the largest share of global wealth concentrated in a single country. Despite wide income and wealth disparities, the United States continues to rank high in measures of socioeconomic performance, including average wage, human development, per capita GDP, worker productivity.
The United States is the foremost military power in the world, making up a third of global military spending, is a leading political and scientific force internationally. In 1507, the German cartographer Martin Waldseemüller produced a world map on which he named the lands of the Western Hemisphere America in honor of the Italian explorer and cartographer Amerigo Vespucci; the first documentary evidence of the phrase "United States of America" is from a letter dated January 2, 1776, written by Stephen Moylan, Esq. to George Washington's aide-de-camp and Muster-Master General of the Continental Army, Lt. Col. Joseph Reed. Moylan expressed his wish to go "with full and ample powers from the United States of America to Spain" to seek assistance in the revolutionary war effort; the first known publication of the phrase "United States of America" was in an anonymous essay in The Virginia Gazette newspaper in Williamsburg, Virginia, on April 6, 1776. The second draft of the Articles of Confederation, prepared by John Dickinson and completed by June 17, 1776, at the latest, declared "The name of this Confederation shall be the'United States of America'".
The final version of the Articles sent to the states for ratification in late 1777 contains the sentence "The Stile of this Confederacy shall be'The United States of America'". In June 1776, Thomas Jefferson wrote the phrase "UNITED STATES OF AMERICA" in all capitalized letters in the headline of his "original Rough draught" of the Declaration of Independence; this draft of the document did not surface unti
The Crescenta Valley is a small inland valley in Los Angeles County, lying between the San Gabriel Mountains on the northeast and the Verdugo Mountains and San Rafael Hills on the southwest. It opens into the San Fernando Valley at the San Gabriel Valley at the southeast, it is nearly bisected by the Verdugo Wash, a smaller valley separating the Verdugo Mountains from the San Rafael Hills. Most of the valley lies at an elevation of over 1,500 feet. Crescenta Valley was a pastoral area under the Rancho Tujunga, Rancho San Rafael and Rancho La Canada land grants during the Spanish and Mexican periods; the first American settler in the valley was Theodore Pickens, who settled at the top of today's Briggs Avenue in 1871. The western portion of Rancho La Canada, which included the major portion of the valley, was subdivided in 1881 into 10-acre parcels by Dr. Benjamin B. Briggs. Significant suburban residential development began with the opening of the Montrose subdivision in 1913, accelerating after World War II.
Today, the Crescenta Valley is a mature suburban area. The name "Crescenta" does not derive from the Spanish word for "crescent", el creciente. Benjamin Briggs coined the name from the English word "crescent" because he could see three crescent-shaped formations from his home, or because of the shape of the valley; the post office was established in 1888, with the Post Office adding the "La" to the name to distinguish it from Crescent City, California. Incorporated cities, districts of Los Angeles, districts of Glendale, unincorporated census-designated places in the Crescenta Valley include: City of La Cañada Flintridge Crescenta Highlands: City of Glendale La Crescenta-Montrose: unincorporated LA county & City of Glendale Montrose: City of Glendale Sunland: City of Los Angeles Tujunga: City of Los Angeles Verdugo City: City of Glendale Daytime temperatures are 10 to 15 °F warmer than those in coastal regions during summer. Winter is somewhat colder than most L. A. area stations. Winter snow is not unknown on the valley floor.
Because of proximity to the mountains, rainfall is higher than most Los Angeles area locations, averaging around 20 inches per year falling between November and March. Crescenta Valley Chamber of Commerce Historical Society of Crescenta Valley Crescenta Valley Weekly
Larchmont, Los Angeles
Larchmont is a half-square-mile neighborhood in the central region of the City of Los Angeles, California. Larchmont is notable for well-maintained historic homes, it has one small park. Chevalier's Books, the oldest independent bookstore in Los Angeles, resides on its main boulevard, it has been the site of recent motion picture shoots. Described by the Mapping L. A. project of the Los Angeles Times, Larchmont is flanked by Hollywood to the north, East Hollywood to the east, Koreatown to the southeast, Windsor Square to the south and Hancock Park to the west. Street boundaries are Melrose Avenue on the north, Western Avenue on the east, Beverly Boulevard on the south and North Arden Boulevard on the west. Larchmont Village was developed in the late 1800s. By 1920, it had become a streetcar suburb of Los Angeles. Julius LaBonte, a developer from the midwest, is credited as the visionary who made Larchmont Village what it is today; the 2000 U. S. census counted 8,631 residents in the 0.49-square-mile neighborhood—an average of 17,747 people per square mile, one of the highest densities in the county.
In 2008, the city estimated that the population had increased to 9,195. The median age for residents was 34, about average for Los Angeles. Larchmont was diverse ethnically, the percentage of Asians was comparatively high; the breakdown was Latinos, 37.2%. Korea and Guatemala were the most common places of birth for the 56% of the residents who were born abroad, a high figure compared to rest of the city; the median yearly household income in 2008 dollars was $47,780, average for Los Angeles, but a high percentage of households had an income of $20,000 or less. The average household size of 2.5 people was average for the city of Los Angeles. Renters occupied 72.9% of the housing stock, house- or apartment owners 27.1%. The percentages of never-married men and women, 42.1% and 36.9% were among the county's highest. About thirty-two percent of Larchmont residents aged 25 and older had earned a bachelor’s degree, with over 60% percent having a high school education level, an average figure for the city.
The schools operating within the Larchmont borders are: Christ the King Elementary School, private, 617 North Arden Boulevard Cheder Menachem, Melrose Avenue Frances Blend Special Education Center, public, 5210 Clinton Street Van Ness Avenue Elementary School, LAUSD, 501 North Van Ness Avenue Robert Burns Park, 4900 Beverly Boulevard, unstaffed pocket park with a play area and picnic tables. Ernest L. Webster, Los Angeles City Council member, 1927–31 Judy Greer, actress Mindy Kaling, producer, comedian Adriana Caselotti and singer, original voice of Snow White in the iconic 1937 Disney film Snow White and the Seven Dwarfs Larchmont Village Neighborhood Association Larchmont crime map and statistics Larchmont Boulevard Online/Larchmont Boulevard Association Updates daily on events in Larchmont Village LarchmontBuzz.com Updates daily on news and events in Larchmont Village Larchmont Chronicle—monthly neighborhood newspaper for Larchmont Village, Hancock Park, Windsor Square, Fremont Place, Park La Brea and Miracle Mile
Northeast Los Angeles
Northeast Los Angeles is a 17.18-square-mile region of Los Angeles County, comprising seven neighborhoods within the City of Los Angeles. The area is home to Occidental College located in Eagle Rock; the bulk of the area closer to Pueblo de Los Angeles-Downtown Los Angeles was part of the original Spanish and Mexican land grants of Rancho San Rafael and Rancho San Pascual when the city incorporated in 1850. One of the first annexations of the city was Highland Park in 1895. Other nearby communities attached to Los Angeles were Arroyo Seco and Eagle Rock. Development in the Northeast was fostered by service of the Los Angeles Railway "Yellow Cars." According to the Mapping L. A. survey of the Los Angeles Times, Northeast Los Angeles consists of a 17.18-square-mile region bounded on the south and west by the interstate 5, the north by the cities of Glendale and Pasadena, bounded on the east by the Arroyo Seco Parkway. Much of Northeast Los Angeles is located around the San Rafael Hills; the same survey identifies the following seven neighborhoods as comprising Northeast Los Angeles: Other neighborhoods within the region are: In the 2000 census, Northeast Los Angeles had 167,674 residents in its 17.18 square miles, which amounted to 9,757 people per square mile.
The densest neighborhood was Highland Park, the least dense was Mount Washington. About 54 % of the area's population lived in rental units. Highland Park was the neighborhood with the highest rental occupancy, Eagle Rock had the lowest; the latter district had the oldest population, Cypress Park had the youngest. Eagle Rock was the wealthiest neighborhood and Cypress Park the poorest. Eagle Rock was the neighborhood with the largest percentage of residents holding a four-year academic degree and Cypress Park had the lowest percentage; the ethnic breakdown in 2000 was Latino, 62.5%. Eagle Rock was Cypress Park the least; the area is well-served by public transportation. California's first freeway, the 1940 Arroyo Seco Parkway connects the area with Downtown and Pasadena; the Interstate 5 and Interstate 10-San Bernardino Freeway lie directly to the south of the district. The Metro Gold Line light-rail's four stations connects Northeast Los Angeles with Downtown and Pasadena. Notable places Arroyo Seco River California Cycleway Occidental College Southwest Museum of the American Indian List of Los Angeles Historic-Cultural Monuments on the East and Northeast SidesNotable people John C.
Holland, Los Angeles City Council member, 1943–67, businessman in Northeast Los Angeles Jackson Browne, singer and musician who wrote and recorded songs such as "These Days", "The Pretender", "Running on Empty". Skrillex, electronic music/songwriter, 1988–present Beck, alternative singer/musician. Other regions of Los Angeles County Boulevard Sentinel
Lafayette Square, Los Angeles
LaFayette Square is a historic semi-gated neighborhood in the central region of Los Angeles, California. Although founded in 1913 by real estate developer George L. Crenshaw, it is named after the French marquis who fought alongside Colonists in the American Revolution, it sits just off of Crenshaw Boulevard in the Mid-City area. It was designated by the city as a Los Angeles Historic Preservation Overlay Zone in 2000 for its significant residential architecture and history. LaFayette Square is regarded for large homes; the neighborhood is notable for its central location to the entire city—an important incentive for many residents. According to the Los Angeles Conservancy, "LaFayette Square was the last and greatest of banker George L. Crenshaw's ten residential developments in the City of Los Angeles." Around the turn of the twentieth century, there was a large oil boom in southern California: Between the extraordinary climate that California had to offer and the rich resources that provided jobs to the oil and agricultural industries, the state experienced great population booms.
In Los Angeles, Crenshaw invested in and oversaw the development of ten residential real estate ventures to help satiate the population growth. LaFayette Square was developed during the early 20th century. Wrought-iron gates surrounding the district are a recent addition, coming only in 1989; the addition of the iron gates eliminated cut-through commuter traffic. LaFayette Square is situated about 7 miles west of Downtown Los Angeles, 2 miles east of Beverly Hills, 4 miles south of Hollywood; the nearest beach is Santa Monica Beach, about 9 miles away. It consists of eight blocks, centered on St. Charles Place, situated between Venice Boulevard on the north, Washington Boulevard on the south, Crenshaw Boulevard on the east and West Blvd on the west. There are 236 homes in the neighborhood, it is south of Victoria Park, southeast of the Crestview and Pico-Robertson neighborhoods in West Los Angeles and north of Wellington Square. The central region of Los Angeles experiences warm and dry summers, with average monthly temperatures above 71.6 °F.
According to the Köppen Climate Classification system, this area has a warm-summer Mediterranean climate, abbreviated "Csb" on climate maps. Crenshaw wanted this development to have a European flair so it was designed as an elegant residential park centered on St. Charles Place—a broad palm tree-lined avenue with a landscaped median; the houses in Lafayette Square reflect residential styles popular during the 1910s and 1920s such as Tudor Revival architecture, Mediterranean Revival, Neo-Federalist, American Craftsman, Spanish Colonial Revival, American Colonial Revival. Several houses, such as architect Paul Williams’ own home, were designed in the Modern style, exemplifying an important trend in Los Angeles’ architectural development; the neighborhood was designed for wealthy families and now-historic houses have 5,000 to 6,000 square feet floor plans, although the average home size is 3,600 square feet. According to a Los Angeles Times real-estate section article on the district, "Most of the properties have period details: Juliet balconies, mahogany staircases and libraries, sitting rooms, stained glass windows, triple crown molding, soaring ceilings—even four-car garages."
Lafayette Square has shifted between white-only homeownership during the 1920s through the 1940s to nearly all African American homeownership in the 1950s after restrictive deed covenants preventing African Americans from buying homes there, as well as in other well-to-do Los Angeles neighborhoods, were lifted in the 1940s. The community is more racially mixed now as more white families began moving back into the neighborhood over a decade ago. Most of the families in the neighborhood do not send their children to public school, and those that do use public schools tend to use Charter schools outside of the district. Some nearby private schools used by families in the neighborhood are: Marlborough School, private high for young women, 250 South Rossmore Avenue Loyola High School, Jesuit preparatory school for young men The neighborhood is zoned to schools in the Los Angeles Unified School District; the neighborhood is zoned to the following schools: Alta Loma Elementary School Johnnie L. Cochran Jr.
Middle School Los Angeles High School George Pepperdine Paul R. Williams, famous architect W. C. Fields Fatty Arbuckle Norton Simon and art collector Joe Louis, American professional boxer and former heavyweight champion Princess Conchita Sepulveda Chapman Pignatelli Alexander Pantages Syd Tha Kyd Taco Bennett of Odd Future Kris Bowers the Crenshaw family Lafayette Square Association
Wilshire Boulevard is one of the principal east-west arterial roads in the Los Angeles area of Southern California, extending 15.83 miles from Ocean Avenue in the city of Santa Monica east to Grand Avenue in the Financial District of downtown Los Angeles. It is one of the major city streets though the city of Beverly Hills. Wilshire Boulevard runs parallel with Santa Monica Boulevard from Santa Monica to the Miracle Mile district, after which it runs a block south of Sixth Street to its terminus. Wilshire Boulevard is densely developed throughout most of its span, connecting Beverly Hills with five of Los Angeles's major business districts to each other. Many of the post-1956 skyscrapers in Los Angeles are located along Wilshire. Aon Center, at one point Los Angeles' largest tower, is at 707 Wilshire Boulevard in downtown Los Angeles. One famous stretch of the boulevard between Fairfax and Highland Avenues is known as the Miracle Mile. Many of Los Angeles' largest museums are located there; the area just to the east of that, between Highland Avenue and Wilton Place, is referred to as the "Park Mile".
Between Westwood and Holmby Hills, several tall glitzy condominium buildings overlook this part of Wilshire, giving it the title of Millionaire's Mile. This section is known as the Wilshire Corridor and Condo Canyon; the Wilshire Corridor, located next to Century City, is one of Los Angeles' busiest districts, contains many high-rise residential towers. The Fox and MGM studios are located in a series of skyscrapers, along with many historic Los Angeles hotels. Wilshire Boulevard is the principal street of Koreatown, the site of many of Los Angeles' oldest buildings, as well as skyscrapers. Koreatown and Mid-Wilshire are among Los Angeles' most densely populated districts. Much of the length of Wilshire Boulevard can be traced back to the indigenous Tongva people who used it to bring back tar from the La Brea pits in today's Miracle Mile section of Wilshire Blvd, back to their settlement on the coast; this road was used by Spanish explorers and settlers, calling it El Camino Viejo. The route that became Wilshire crossed the original pueblo of Los Angeles and five of the original Spanish land grants, or ranchos.
Wilshire was pieced together from various streets over several decades. It began in the 1870s as Nevada Avenue in Santa Monica, in the 1880s as Orange Street between Westlake Park and downtown. Nevada and Orange were renamed as parts of Wilshire; the boulevard was named for Henry Gaylord Wilshire, an Ohio native who made and lost fortunes in real estate and gold mining. In 1895 he began developing 35 acres of a barley field, stretching westward from Westlake Park for an elite residential subdivision, donated to the city a strip of land 120 feet wide by 1,200 feet long for a boulevard, on the conditions that it would be named for him and that railroad lines and commercial or industrial trucking would be banned; the road first appeared on a map under its present name in 1895. A historic apartment building on the corner of Wilshire Blvd. and S. Kenmore Ave. the Gaylord, carries his middle name. The Wilshire Boulevard home of J. Paul Getty was used as the filmset for the 1950 film Sunset Boulevard: it was demolished in 1957.
The Purple and Red subway lines of the Los Angeles Metro run along Wilshire Boulevard from just past the 7th/Figueroa Street station before serving the Westlake/MacArthur Park and Wilshire/Vermont stations, where the Purple Line continues along Wilshire to serve two stations at Normandie Avenue and at Western Avenue in Koreatown, while the Red Line branches off to terminate in North Hollywood. The construction of the future Purple Line extension along Wilshire Boulevard commenced in November 2014; the construction timeline would see the project from the existing Wilshire/Western station to the planned Wilshire/La Cienega station on the corner of Wilshire and La Cienega Boulevard, to be completed by 2023. The second phase got under way on February 23, 2018 from Wilshire/La Cienega to Century City Station. Phase three of the Purple Line extension, when completed, will extend to UCLA and Westwood/VA Hospital, will follow Wilshire Boulevard for most of its route. Phase four to downtown Santa Monica has no funding.
Metro Local Line 20, Metro Rapid Line 720, Santa Monica Transit Line 2 operate along Wilshire Boulevard. Due to the high ridership of line 720, 60-foot NABI articulated buses are used on this route, bus lanes are in place along some segments of the line. All of the boulevard is at least four lanes in width, most of the portion between Hoover Street and Robertson Boulevard has a raised center median; the widest portion is in the business district of central Westwood, where mobs of pedestrians crossing Wilshire at Westwood Boulevard must traverse ten lanes. According to a 1991 study by the Los Angeles Department of Transportation and the nearby intersection of Wilshire and Veteran are among the busiest in Los Angeles; the boulevard's widest portion is in Westwood and Holmby Hills, where it expands to six, eight lanes. The sections of Wilshire Boulevard in the city of Los Angeles are notorious for their giant potholes. Wilshire Boulevard ended at the MacArthur Park lake, but in 1934 a berm was built for it to cross and link up with the existing Orange Street into downtown Los Angeles.
Park La Brea, Los Angeles
Park La Brea is a sprawling apartment community in the Miracle Mile District of Los Angeles, California. With 4,255 units located in eighteen 13-story towers and thirty-one 2-story "garden apartment buildings", it is the largest housing development in the U. S. west of the Mississippi River. It sits on 160 acres of land with numerous lawns. Park La Brea is bounded by 3rd Street on the north, Cochran Avenue on the east, 6th Street on the south, Fairfax Avenue on the west; the complex is notable for its octagonal street layout, with many thoroughfares at a 45° angle of displacement relative to the English street grid. After the arrival of the Spanish in the 1780s and the displacement of the area's indigenous population, most of the area, now Park La Brea became part of the Rancho La Brea land grant, remained devoted to agriculture and petroleum production well into the 20th century; the growth of Hollywood and the Miracle Mile made the adjacent areas desirable centers for residential development in the 1920s, but the mid-rise apartment towers that give the district its current name were built between 1944 and 1948.
Park La Brea represents something of a historical anomaly, having been built at a time when most visions of Los Angeles' development were dominated by low-rise tracts of single-family houses along freeway corridors. As the towers are isolated from the rest of the Miracle Mile — set far back from major thoroughfares in a nod to Le Corbusier, they developed a reputation as "the projects", since they are reminiscent of such notorious housing developments as Chicago's Robert Taylor Homes and New York's Queensbridge; the street layout was created in a masonic pattern as a reference to the masonic heritage of the Metropolitan Life Insurance Company, which built the complex toward the end of World War II and thereafter. Metropolitan Life Insurance constructed a sister complex, Parkmerced in San Francisco, which features a similar street layout as Park La Brea. At the same time, they built Stuyvesant Town and Peter Cooper Village in Manhattan, Parkchester in The Bronx, Parkfairfax in Alexandria, Virginia just outside Washington, DC.
The Park La Brea townhouses were designed by Leonard Schultz & Son with associate architect Earl T. Heitschmidt in 1941; the style of the architecture has been described as Modern Colonial. The Park La Brea Towers were designed by Leonard Schultz Associates with consulting architects Stanton + Kaufmann in 1948. Inspired by the innovative housing of Le Corbusier in Paris, this architectural team set out to create innovative multifamily housing, their plans included square-block sized formations of town houses surrounding shared common green space. The combined shared lawn spaces creates both tree-dappled open space; the Landmark Towers, in a revolutionary "X" structure with a unique placement, became icons of the Los Angeles skyline. The ingeniously designed plan ensured. In the 2000s, Park La Brea had become a desirable rental community with its own community center, health club and pool, beauty parlor, drycleaner in addition to its convenient proximity to local museums, Farmers Market, The Grove at Farmers Market shopping complex.
In recent years, additional improvements have been made, such as adding new pools. The complex completed another $8 million renovation in 2010. In 2017, the complex lost a $3.5-million bedbug lawsuit. Residents are zoned to schools in the Los Angeles Unified School District. Three different elementary schools serve portions of this neighborhood: Carthay Center Elementary School Hancock Park Elementary School Wilshire Crest Elementary SchoolAll of the neighborhood is zoned to John Burroughs Middle School and Fairfax High School. Co-op City Cooperative Village Mitchell Lama Parkchester, Bronx Parkfairfax, Virginia Parkmerced, San Francisco Penn South Riverton Houses Rochdale Village, Queens Stuyvesant Town–Peter Cooper Village Official Park La Brea website Apartmentratings.com: Park La Brea rating Yelp.com: Park La Brea ratings