Building material is any material which is used for construction purposes. Many naturally occurring substances, such as clay, sand, apart from naturally occurring materials, many man-made products are in use, some more and some less synthetic. They provide the make-up of habitats and structures including homes and these trends tend to increase the initial and long term economic, ecological and social costs of building materials. The initial economic cost of building materials is the purchase price and this is often what governs decision making about what materials to use. Sometimes people take into consideration the energy savings or durability of the materials, for example, an asphalt shingle roof costs less than a metal roof to install, but the metal roof will last longer so the lifetime cost is less per year. Some materials may require more care than others, maintaining costs specific to some materials may influence the final decision. Risks when considering lifetime cost of a material is if the building is damaged such as by fire or wind, the cost of materials should be taken into consideration to bear the risk to buy combustive materials to enlarge the lifetime.
It is said that, if it must be done, it must be done well, pollution costs can be macro and micro. An example of the aspect of pollution is the off-gassing of the building materials in the building or indoor air pollution. Red List building materials are found to be harmful. Also the carbon footprint, the set of greenhouse gas emissions produced in the life of the material. A life-cycle analysis includes the reuse, recycling, or disposal of construction waste, two concepts in building which account for the ecological economics of building materials are green building and sustainable development. Initial energy costs include the amount of energy consumed to produce, the long term energy cost is the economic and social costs of continuing to produce and deliver energy to the building for its use and eventual removal. The initial embodied energy of a structure is the energy consumed to extract, deliver, social costs are injury and health of the people producing and transporting the materials and potential health problems of the building occupants if there are problems with the building biology.
Aspects of fair trade and labor rights are social costs of building material manufacturing. These were variously named wikiups, lean-tos, and so forth, an extension on the brush building idea is the wattle and daub process in which clay soils or dung, usually cow, are used to fill in and cover a woven brush structure. This gives the more thermal mass and strength. Wattle and daub is one of the oldest building techniques, many older timber frame buildings incorporate wattle and daub as non load bearing walls between the timber frames
St. Alban's Church, Copenhagen
St. Albans Church, locally often referred to simply as the English Church, is an Anglican church in Copenhagen, Denmark. It was built from 1885 to 1887 for the growing English congregation in the city, the church is part of Church of Englands Diocese in Europe. It is dedicated to Saint Alban, the first martyr of Great Britain, the first sizable British community in Denmark settled in Elsinore in the early 16th century. The town was an important logistical hub for the collection of Sound Dues, first to arrive was a community of Scots which had a Scottish altar dedicated to Saint Jacob, Saint Andrew and the Scottish Saint Ninian in the local Saint Olafs Church. The altar has now moved to the National Museum of Denmark. Much of the traffic was British and over the course of time many English shipping agencies were established in Elsinore. There even was a British consul there while Copenhagen only had a vice-consul, under the Kings Law from 1665, which had instituted absolutism in Denmark, Lutheranism was the only faith allowed to hold religious services in Denmark.
During the second half of the 18th century more and more foreign denominations were granted exemptions to this prohibition. Up through the 19th century the English community in Copenhagen grew as the significance as a centre of commerce increased. An English congregation held services in rented rooms in Store Kongensgade near Kongens Nytorv from 1834. The congregation had ambitions to build their own church and a Church Building Committee was established in 1854, in 1864, it made an appeal to the Prince of Wales, and his consort, the Danish-born Princess Alexandra, took it upon her to assist. The foundation stone of St. Albans Church was laid on 19 September 1885, the church was designed by Arthur Blomfield. It was consecrated two years on 17 September 1887, like Princess Alexandra, both George I and Maria Feodorovna were born Danish, issue of the Danish King and Queen Consort. Also present were the entire Diplomatic Corps, representatives of the Army and Navy, church officials and it is built in the Gothic Revival style inspired by the Early English Style, known as Lancet Gothic.
The church is built in limestone from the Faxe south of Copenhagen, knapped flint from Stevns, the tiles on the roof are from Broseley in Shropshire. The tower contains fifteen tubular bells and it was not deemed strong enough to support regular bells, and a set of eight was presented by the Prince of Wales when the church was built. These can be played manually on an Ellacombe Frame, on which the player pulls a rope for the relevant bell. In 2013 the Prince of Wales contributed to a new fund, which enabled a further seven bells to be installed, every quarter-hour the 80 louvres open while the bells sound a quarter chime, and after striking the hour play a hymn tune
Christiansborg Palace is a palace and government building on the islet of Slotsholmen in central Copenhagen, Denmark. It is the seat of the Danish Parliament, the Danish Prime Ministers Office, several parts of the palace are used by the Danish monarch, including the Royal Reception Rooms, the Palace Chapel and the Royal Stables. The palace is home to the three supreme powers, the executive power, the legislative power, and the judicial power. It is the building in the world that houses all three of a countrys branches of government. The name Christiansborg is thus used as a metonym for the Danish political system. The present building, the third with this name, is the last in a series of castles and palaces constructed on the same site since the erection of the first castle in 1167. The palace today bears witness to three eras of Danish architecture, as the result of two serious fires, the first fire occurred in 1794 and the second in 1884. The main part of the current palace, finished in 1928, is in the historicist Neo-baroque style, the chapel dates to 1826 and is in a neoclassical style.
The showgrounds were built 1738-46, in a baroque style, Christiansborg Palace is owned by the Danish state, and is run by the Palaces and Properties Agency. Several parts of the palace are open to the public, the first castle on the site was Absalons Castle. According to the Danish chronicler Saxo Grammaticus, Bishop Absalon of Roskilde built a castle in 1167 on an island outside Copenhagen Harbour. The castle was made up by a wall, encircling an enclosed courtyard with several buildings, such as the bishops palace. At the death of Absalon in 1201, possession of the castle, a few decades later, however, a bitter feud erupted between crown and church, and for almost two centuries the ownership of the castle and city was contested between kings and bishops. Furthermore, the castle was frequently under attack, for example by Wend pirates and the Hanseatic cities, in 1369, following a conflict with king Valdemar IV of Denmark, the Hanseatic League sent 40 stonemasons to demolish the castle stone by stone.
The castle had long been a nuisance to the Hanseatic cities trade in the Sound. The castle had a wall and was surrounded by a moat and with a large. The castle was still the property of the Bishop of Roskilde until King Eric VII usurped the rights to the castle in 1417, from on the castle in Copenhagen was occupied by the king. In the middle of the 15th century, the became the principal residence of the Danish kings
Romanesque Architecture is an architectural style of medieval Europe characterized by semi-circular arches. There is no consensus for the date of the Romanesque style, with proposals ranging from the 6th to the late 10th century. It developed in the 12th century into the Gothic style, marked by pointed arches, examples of Romanesque architecture can be found across the continent, making it the first pan-European architectural style since Imperial Roman Architecture. The Romanesque style in England is traditionally referred to as Norman architecture, each building has clearly defined forms, frequently of very regular, symmetrical plan, the overall appearance is one of simplicity when compared with the Gothic buildings that were to follow. The style can be identified right across Europe, despite regional characteristics, Many castles were built during this period, but they are greatly outnumbered by churches. The most significant are the great churches, many of which are still standing, more or less complete.
The largest groups of Romanesque survivors are in areas that were less prosperous in subsequent periods, including parts of southern France, northern Spain and rural Italy. According to the Oxford English Dictionary, the word Romanesque means descended from Roman and was first used in English to designate what are now called Romance languages, Romance language is not degenerated Latin language. Latin language is degenerated Romance language, Romanesque architecture is not debased Roman architecture. Roman architecture is debased Romanesque architecture, the first use in a published work is in William Gunns An Inquiry into the Origin and Influence of Gothic Architecture. The term is now used for the more restricted period from the late 10th to 12th centuries, Many castles exist, the foundations of which date from the Romanesque period. Most have been altered, and many are in ruins. By far the greatest number of surviving Romanesque buildings are churches, the scope of Romanesque architecture Romanesque architecture was the first distinctive style to spread across Europe since the Roman Empire.
In the more northern countries Roman building styles and techniques had never been adopted except for official buildings, although the round arch continued in use, the engineering skills required to vault large spaces and build large domes were lost. There was a loss of continuity, particularly apparent in the decline of the formal vocabulary of the Classical Orders. In Rome several great Constantinian basilicas continued in use as an inspiration to builders, the largest building is the church, the plan of which is distinctly Germanic, having an apse at both ends, an arrangement not generally seen elsewhere. Another feature of the church is its regular proportion, the plan of the crossing tower providing a module for the rest of the plan. These features can both be seen at the Proto-Romanesque St. Michaels Church, Hildesheim, 1001–1030, the style, sometimes called First Romanesque or Lombard Romanesque, is characterised by thick walls, lack of sculpture and the presence of rhythmic ornamental arches known as a Lombard band
Immanuel Church, Copenhagen
Immanuel Church is a church in the Frederiksberg district of Copenhagen, Denmark. It belongs to Københavns Valgmenighed and Vartov Valgmenighed, two Grundtvigian congregations under Church of Denmark, the building was designed by Andreas Clemmesen and completed in 1893. The church was built for the first Grundtvigian concregation in Denmark which had separated from the Vartov congregation, the congregation first assembled at a local folk high school on Cjr. Winters Vej, but soon began construction of the new church which was consecrated on 29 October 1893, the detached clock tower was designed by af R. V. Rue in 1904 and completed in 1905 together with some of the surrounding features, the church is built in large red brick of the type in Denmark known as Munkesten in a Romanesque Revival style inspired by Italian churches in Ravenna and Sienna. It is a building under a barrel vaulted roof with a semi-circular choir to the east. The round-arched entrance is located in the west gable and it has a tympanum with a glass mosaic.
Four additional entrances, two on each side of the building, have glass mosaics in their tympana, the eastern mosaic on the south side was designed by Niels Skovgaard, while the rest are by Joakim Skovgaard. The north and south have double-height windows. There is a blinded, ornamental gallery with 11 arches supported by columns above the entrance on the west gable. The altarpiece is a painting by Niels Skovgaard with a decorated wooden frame carved by Poul S. Christiansen. The front of the table is designed by Niels Skovgaard. The altar carpet, —decorated with lilies and crocuses, was designed by Joakim Skovgaard, the organ was made by A. H. Buch and dates from 1896. Other decorative features include several reliefs of religious subjects by Joakim Skovgaard, Niels Skovgaard and Christian C. Peters
A brick is building material used to make walls and other elements in masonry construction. Traditionally, the term referred to a unit composed of clay. A brick can be composed of clay-bearing soil and lime, Bricks are produced in numerous classes, types and sizes which vary with region and time period, and are produced in bulk quantities. Two basic categories of bricks are fired and non-fired bricks, block is a similar term referring to a rectangular building unit composed of similar materials, but is usually larger than a brick. Lightweight bricks are made from expanded clay aggregate, fired bricks are one of the longest-lasting and strongest building materials, sometimes referred to as artificial stone, and have been used since circa 5000 BC. Air-dried bricks, known as mudbricks, have an older than fired bricks. Bricks are laid in courses and numerous patterns known as bonds, collectively known as brickwork, the earliest bricks were dried brick, meaning that they were formed from clay-bearing earth or mud and dried until they were strong enough for use.
The oldest discovered bricks, originally made from shaped mud and dating before 7500 BC, were found at Tell Aswad, in the upper Tigris region, ceramic, or fired brick was used as early as 3000 BC in early Indus Valley cities. In pre-modern China, bricks were being used from the 2nd millennium BCE at a site near Xian, the carpenters manual Yingzao Fashi, published in 1103 at the time of the Song dynasty described the brick making process and glazing techniques in use. He had to know when to quench the kiln with water so as to produce the surface glaze, Early civilisations around the Mediterranean adopted the use of fired bricks, including the Ancient Greeks and Romans. The Roman legions operated mobile kilns, and built large brick structures throughout the Roman Empire, during the Early Middle Ages the use of bricks in construction became popular in Northern Europe, after being introduced there from Northern-Western Italy. An independent style of architecture, known as brick Gothic flourished in places that lacked indigenous sources of rocks.
Examples of this style can be found in modern-day Denmark, Poland. A clear distinction between the two styles developed at the transition to Baroque architecture. In Lübeck, for example, Brick Renaissance is clearly recognisable in buildings equipped with terracotta reliefs by the artist Statius von Düren, production of bricks increased massively with the onset of the Industrial Revolution and the rise in factory building in England. For reasons of speed and economy, bricks were increasingly preferred as building material to stone and it was at this time in London, that bright red brick was chosen for construction to make the buildings more visible in the heavy fog and to help prevent traffic accidents. The transition from the method of production known as hand-moulding to a mechanised form of mass-production slowly took place during the first half of the nineteenth century. His mechanical apparatus soon achieved widespread attention after it was adopted for use by the South Eastern Railway Company for brick-making at their factory near Folkestone, the Bradley & Craven Ltd ‘Stiff-Plastic Brickmaking Machine’ was patented in 1853, apparently predating Clayton
The name “rose window” was not used before the 17th century and according to the Oxford English Dictionary, among other authorities, comes from the English flower name rose. Rose windows are called Natalie windows after Saint Natalie of Lu who was sentenced to be executed on a spiked wheel, a circular window without tracery such as are found in many Italian churches, is referred to as an ocular window or oculus. Rose windows are particularly characteristic of Gothic architecture and may be seen in all the major Gothic Cathedrals of Northern France and their origins are much earlier and rose windows may be seen in various forms throughout the Medieval period. Their popularity was revived, with other features, during the Gothic revival of the 19th century so that they are seen in Christian churches all over the world. The origin of the window may be found in the Roman oculus. These large circular openings let in light and air, the best known being that at the top of the dome of the Pantheon. Windows with stone tracery make their emergence in Antiquity, but they arrived to us.
Geometrical patterns of roses are very developed and common in Roman mosaic, in Early Christian and Byzantine architecture, there are examples of the use of circular oculi. A window of the 8th century, now located in Venice, many semicircular windows with pierced tracery exist from the 6th to the 8th century, and in Greece. This theory suggests that crusaders brought the design of this window to Europe. But of the halves editing roses are known, as with the church of San Juan Bautista in Baños de Cerrato, the scarcity and the brittleness of the vestiges of this time does not make it possible to say that complet rose window in tracery did not exist before. In another of these churches, San Miguel de Lillo, is the earliest known example of an axially placed oculus with tracery, several such windows of different sizes exist, and decoration of both Greek Cross and scalloped petal-like form occur, prefiguring both wheel and rose windows. In Germany, Worms Cathedral, has windows in the pedimental ends of its nave and gables.
The apsidal western end has a wheel window with smaller oculi in each face. The Church of the Apostles, Cologne has an array of both ocular and lobed windows forming decorative features in the gables and beneath the Rhenish helm spire, the octagonal dome has a ring of oculi with two in each of the curved faces. Oculi were used in the drums supporting domes and as upper lights in octagonal baptisteries such as that at Cremona. Romanesque facades with oculi include San Miniato al Monte, Florence, 11th century, San Michele, Pavia, c. As the windows increased in size in the Romanesque period, wheel windows became a feature of which there are fine examples at San Zeno Maggiore, Verona
Christian's Church, Copenhagen
Christians Church is a magnificent Rococo church in the Christianshavn district of Copenhagen, Denmark. Designed by Nicolai Eigtved, it was built 1754–59, the church was originally built by the German community as a church for the large German community at Christianshavn and served this purpose until the end of the 19th century. Today it is a parish church for Christians Parish within the Danish National Church. Its name is a reference to King Christian IV. who founded the Christianshavn district in 1611, after Christian IV founded Christianshavn in 1617 as a town specially for merchants, a large community of German tradrers and craftsmen settled there. This lasted until they finally asked King Christian VI for permission to build their own church, the King approved the plans and contributed with a lot, a former saltern, located at the end of Strandgade in the southern part of the neighbourhood. He granted permission for a lottery to be held to cover the financing with the result that the finished church used to be colloquially known as the Lottery Church.
In return for his approaval and donation of the lot, the laid down very specific guidelines for the placement. Nicolai Eigtved, the preferred architect at the time, was charged with the design of the new church but died in 1754. Instead his son-in-law, Royal Master Builder Georg David Anthon, was entrusted with supervising the construction of the church which was completed in 1759. Anthon designed the spire which is an addition from 1769, the church originally called Frederiks German Church, and served its original purpose as a church for the German congregation until it was dissolved in 1886. Since 1991 it has been a parish church for Christians Parish which includes part of Christianshavn as well as Slotsholmen. The church has a layout, the nave occupying the space between the shorter rather than the longer sides of the rectangle, giving it exceptional width. Standing on a plinth, the church is a yellow brick building with sandstone finishing for the portal. Ionic pilasters decorate the portal and the windows are tall.
The tower stands 70 metres high, designed by Eigtveds son-in-law D. G. Anthon, the spire was added in 1769. The tower is positioned at the centre of the side which serves as the main facade. The unusual interior of Christians Church is reminiscent of a theatre, in addition to the benches on either side of the nave, three tiers of galleries complete with boxes rise the full height of the building on the northern and southern sides. They are all arranged to provide the congregation with an excellent view of the podium on the side which is reminiscent of a stage
Jerusalem's Church, Copenhagen
Jerusalems Church is the main church of the Methodist community in Denmark. It is located in Rigensgade (, central Copenhagen, the first Methodist congregation in Denmark was founded on 11 January 1859 and was based in rented rooms in Store Kongensgade. The congregation grew rapidly and funds were raised for a new church which was completed in 1866 to designs by Ferdinand Vilhelm Jensen, the church was known as St. Pauls Church until 1894 when that name was taken over by the nearby St. Pauls Church. Marks Church until 1912 when it received its current name, the church was destroyed in a fire in 1914. It was subsequently rebuilt by Jens Christian Kofoed and reinaugurated the following year, the church is designed in a mixture of Romanesque Revival and Byzantine Revival styles. It is 27 metres long,16 metres wide and the tower stands 50.6 metres tall, the Jerusalem Church contains an organ built in 1916. It was restored in 1982-84, and is considered one of the best organs in Denmark from before World War II.
The church has three gospel choirs with different profiles, Kefas has existed since 1976, Saints and Sinners has existed since 1994 and Revelation Gospel Choirer is the youngest
Reformed Church, Copenhagen
Reformed Church in Gothersgade, opposite Rosenborg Castle, is a church building used by the reformed congregations in Copenhagen, Denmark. Consecrated in 1689, the church was instigated by Queen Charlotte Amalie, consort of King Christian V, the church is noted for its fine Baroque interiors which date from 1730 when it was restored after being damaged in the Copenhagen Fire of 1728. In 1685, encouraged by his queen, Christian V licensed the formation of a reformed congregation among German, mainly refuges, many members of the congregation held prominent positions in society, typically as merchants, often with new trades, or military officers. After a few years the split into a German Reformed Church. Charlotte Amelia personally financed the erection of the building on a prominent site in Gothersgade. Charlotte Amalie placed the stone on 20 April 1688. The German and French reformed churches shared the new church, the complex included a rectory, with residences for four priests, a school, an old age assulum, and an orphanage.
The church was damaged in the Copenhagen Fire of 1728 but was subsequently rebuilt with new furnishings attributed the sculptor Friederich Ehbisch. In 1886 the architect Ludvig Knudsen built a community house for the congregation, the church is built in red brick and designed in the Dutch Baroque style. It has a floor plan with a slightly progressing median risalit on the facade toward Gothersgade, decorated with Ionic pilasters. Above the entrance there is a cartouche with the monograms of Christian V and Charlotte Amalie, the hipped roof with black tiles is topped by a copper-clad flèche with two lanterns which rises 13.5 metres above the roof. It was added in 1731 in connection with the rebuilding after the fire, the church room is oriented along the short axis of the building and is dominated by beautifully carved wooden features. Typical of reformed but unusual for Danish churches, it has a centrally placed pulpit set dramatically high above the altar table, the organ front was originally from Copenhagen Castle and dates from 1724.
It was transferred to the church in 1730 when the castle was demolished to make room for the first Christiansborg Palace, the current organ was made by the organ manufacturer Köhne and is from 1878. The churchs closed boxes were reserved for families and the wealthy merchants of the congregation. The churchyard next to the church has been decommissioned, other internents include the Danish Court Painter Jacques dAgar who immigrated from France, and C. de Cormaillon, commander of Kastellet. The church is used by the German and French Reformed Churches in Copenhagen. Along with a congregation in Fredericia, they form the Reformed Synod of Denmark which is a member of the World Alliance of Reformed Churches
Such ceremonies are often attended by dignitaries such as politicians and businessmen. The actual shovel or spade used during the actual groundbreaking is often a special ceremonial shovel meant to be saved for subsequent display, commemorative information may be subsequently engraved on the shovel. In some places, clergy may provide blessings, particularly if the building is being constructed by a church or religious-affiliated organization. The term groundbreaking, when used as an adjective, may mean being or making something that has never been done, seen, or made before, builders rites Topping out Cornerstone Publicity stunt Ribbon cutting ceremony Media related to Ground-breaking ceremonies at Wikimedia Commons