Allen Kelsey Grammer is an American actor, voice actor, singer, director and activist, best known for his two-decade-long portrayal of psychiatrist Dr. Frasier Crane on the NBC sitcoms Cheers and Frasier, he has won five Primetime Emmy Awards, three Golden Globe Awards, one Tony Award, has worked as a television producer and writer. Grammer was born February 21, 1955, in Charlotte Amalie, Saint Thomas, U. S. Virgin Islands, the son of Sally, a singer and actress, Frank Allen Grammer, Jr. a musician and owner of a coffee shop and a bar and grill called Greer's Place. He had one younger sister. Grammer and his sister Karen were subsequently raised by their mother and grandparents in New Jersey; the family relocated to Florida, shortly afterwards his grandfather died when Kelsey was twelve. Two years in 1968, Frank Allen Grammer, his father, was murdered. In 1975, his sister Karen was raped and murdered after a work shift at the age of 18. In 1980, his two half-brothers died while scuba diving in the Virgin Islands.
Grammer attended a private preparatory school in Fort Lauderdale, Florida. It was there that he first began to perform on stage. From the age of 16, with his mother's approval, he began to smoke a pipe. Grammer won a scholarship to the prestigious Juilliard School, he was a member of Group 6, 1973–1975. He failed to attend classes and was expelled. After leaving Juilliard, Grammer had a three-year internship with the Old Globe Theatre in San Diego in the late 1970s before a stint in 1980 at the Guthrie Theater in Minneapolis, Minnesota, he made his Broadway debut in 1981 as "Lennox" in Macbeth, taking the lead role when Philip Anglim withdrew after receiving negative reviews. Grammer played Michael Cassio in a Broadway revival of Othello, with James Earl Jones and Christopher Plummer. In 1983 he performed in the demo of the Stephen Sondheim–James Lapine production Sunday in the Park with George, starring Mandy Patinkin. In 2000, Grammer again played Macbeth on Broadway, in a production. On April 18, 2010, Grammer made his Broadway musical debut playing the role of Georges in a revival of the Jerry Herman/Harvey Fierstein musical La Cage aux Folles, for which he was nominated for a Tony Award for Best Performance by a Leading Actor in a Musical.
Grammer originated the roles of Charles Frohman and Captain Hook in the Broadway premiere of the musical Finding Neverland in March 2015, continuing with the roles through June 28, 2015. He returned to the stage from January 19 to April 3, 2016. Most he made an appearance in the West End production of Big Fish. Grammer arrived at iconic television status in 1984 as Dr. Frasier Crane in the NBC sitcom Cheers. Grammer's former Juilliard classmate and Broadway co-star Mandy Patinkin suggested Grammer to the New York casting director, he got what was supposed to be a six-episode job, but ended up as a regular cast member until May 1993, when the show ended. In September 1993 the character became the center of the spin-off Frasier, one of the most successful spin-offs in TV history. In addition to starring, he directed more than 30 episodes during the second half of the series, sang the closing theme "Tossed Salads and Scrambled Eggs." Frasier was nominated for and won many awards during its 11-year run, concluding in May 2004.
Grammer has received 11 consecutive Primetime Emmy Award nominations for his role in Frasier. He won four times tie with Carrol O'Connor, Michael J. Fox and Jim Parsons for the most wins for Primetime Emmy Award for Best Actor in a Comedy Series. In 2001, he negotiated a US$700,000-per-episode salary for Frasier, his 20-year run playing Dr. Frasier Crane ties a length set by James Arness in playing Marshal Matt Dillon on Gunsmoke from 1955 to 1975 but was surpassed by Richard Belzer in playing Det. John Munch on Homicide: Life on the Street and Law & Order: Special Victims Unit since 1993. Frasier Crane had a crossover appearance in 1993 Wings episode "Planes, Trains, & Visiting Cranes". Since Frasier, Grammer has had multiple failed attempts at Television, In 2005, Grammer returned to television, he produced and appeared in an American adaptation of the British show The Sketch Show, which aired on Fox. The main cast consisted of Malcolm Barrett, Kaitlin Olson, Mary Lynn Rajskub and Paul F. Tompkins, as well as Lee Mack from the British version of the show.
Grammer appeared in only short closing segments in each episode. Many of the sketches from the British version were re-created, such as the "California Dreamin'", "English Course", "Sign Language" sketches. Only six episodes of the show were made, it was canceled after only four of them had aired. In 2007, Grammer starred with Patricia Heaton in the American sitcom Back to You, which Fox cancelled after its first season, his next attempt, ABC's Hank, fared worse. It was canceled. Grammer commented, "Honestly, it just wasn't funny."In 2014 Grammer returned to sitcom television in Partners with comedian Martin Lawrence. The Lionsgate-produced show was written and executive produced by Robert L. Boyett and Robert Horn, known for writing hit shows like Family Matters, Living Single, Full House, Designing Women, Perfect Strangers. Despite this the show was cancelled after its first season. In 2011 and 2012, Grammer found temporary success in the Starz drama series Boss as a fictional mayor of Chicago in the mold of Richard J. Daley which premiered in October 2011.
It was his first dramatic TV series. At the 2012 Golden Globe Awards Kelsey Grammer won the award for Best Actor in a Television Series Drama for his role on Boss; the show ran for 18 episodes over two
David Hyde Pierce
David Hyde Pierce is an American actor and director. He is best known for playing psychiatrist Dr. Niles Crane on the NBC sitcom Frasier, for which he won four Primetime Emmy Awards for Outstanding Supporting Actor in a Comedy Series during the show's run. Pierce has played supporting roles in many films, including Little Man Tate, The Fisher King, Sleepless in Seattle, A Bug's Life, Oliver Stone's Nixon. Pierce has had a successful career on stage, his Broadway roles include Sir Robin in Spamalot, Vanya in Vanya and Sonia and Masha and Spike and Horace Vandergelder in Hello Dolly. He won the 2007 Tony Award for Best Performance by a Leading Actor in a Musical for his performance in Curtains. In 2015, he directed the Broadway musical It Shoulda Been You. Pierce was born David Pierce in New York, his father, George Hyde Pierce, was an aspiring actor, his mother, Laura Marie, was an insurance agent. He added his middle name "Hyde" to avoid confusion with another actor named David Pierce; as a child, Pierce played organ at the local Bethesda Episcopal Church.
While attending Yale, Pierce performed in and directed student productions, appearing in the Yale Gilbert & Sullivan Society's production of H. M. S. Pinafore, he directed the Gilbert & Sullivan Society's operetta Princess Ida. Among other productions Pierce appeared in at Yale were Waiting for Godot, Saint Joan, Who's Afraid of Virginia Woolf?. After his graduation, Pierce moved to New York City, where during the 1980s and early 1990s he was employed in various jobs, such as selling ties at Bloomingdale's and working as a security guard, while pursuing an acting career and studying at Michael Howard Studios. During this period he played Laertes in a popular off-Broadway production of Hamlet and made his Broadway debut in 1982 in Christopher Durang's Beyond Therapy. Pierce's first big television break came in the early 1990s with Norman Lear's political comedy, The Powers That Be, in which Pierce played Theodore, a Congressman. Despite positive reviews from critics, the show was canceled after a brief run.
In part due to his close physical resemblance to Kelsey Grammer, the producers of the Cheers spin-off Frasier created the role of Niles Crane for him. Although prior to Frasier going into production, Pierce had petitioned the Screen Actors Guild to change his billing to David Pierce, the name he had used on the stage, the use of his middle name in the show's credits helped reinforce the actor's and the character's "snooty" image. For his work on Frasier, Pierce was nominated for a Best Supporting Actor Emmy a record eleven consecutive years, winning in 1995, 1998, 1999 and 2004. Pierce appeared alongside Jodie Foster in Little Man Tate, with Anthony Hopkins in Oliver Stone's Nixon, with Ewan McGregor in Down With Love, he provided the voice for Doctor Doppler in Disney's 42nd animated feature, Treasure Planet, Slim, a stick insect in Pixar's A Bug's Life and Abe Sapien in Guillermo del Toro's Hellboy. In his role in Sleepless in Seattle, Pierce played the brother of Meg Ryan's character, a professor at Johns Hopkins University.
The movie was released three months before the start of Frasier. In 2001, he starred in the cult 1981-set summer camp comedy Wet Hot American Summer, as the befuddled astrophysicist, Prof. Henry Newman. In 2005, Pierce joined others in the stage production of Spamalot. In August and September 2006, he starred as Lieutenant Frank Cioffi in Curtains, a new Kander and Ebb musical staged at the Ahmanson Theatre in Los Angeles. In March 2007, Curtains opened on Broadway and on June 10, 2007, Pierce won the Tony Award for Best Performance by a Leading Actor in a Musical at the 61st Tony Awards for his performance. In his acceptance speech, Pierce said the first words he spoke on a Broadway stage were, "I'm sorry, I'm going to have to ask you to leave."On November 19, 2007, Pierce was awarded an Honorary Doctor of Fine Arts Degree from Niagara University in Lewiston, New York. In 1999 he was awarded an Honorary Degree from Skidmore College, located in his native Saratoga Springs. In 2010, Pierce appeared in a revival of David Hirson's play La Bête directed by Matthew Warchus.
The production debuted on London's West End before moving to New York. In 2010, Pierce had his first starring film role as Warwick Wilson in the dark comedy/psychological thriller The Perfect Host. Pierce directed the Broadway production of the musical It Shoulda Been You. In 2015 he directed the Manhattan Theater Club production of David Lindsay-Abaire's play Ripcord Off-Broadway at City Center. Pierce appeared in the Off-Broadway limited engagement of A Life by Adam Bock; the play premiered at the Peter Jay Sharp Theater on October 24, 2016, directed by Anne Kaufman, closed on November 27. Pierce co-starred with Bette Midler in the Broadway revival of Hello, Dolly!. The musical opened on April 2017 at the Shubert Theatre; the show was a critical and box office hit. Pierce himself received a Tony Award nomination for Best Featured Actor in a Play for his performance. Pierce received a 2017 Drama League award nomination for Hello, Dolly! and A Life. Pierce is known for his distinctive voice and, like his Frasier co-star, Kelsey Grammer, is called upon to provide voice work.
His notable roles include the narrator of the movie The Mating Habits of the Earthbound Human in 1999, walking stick insect Slim in A Bug's Life, Doctor Delbert Doppler in Disney's film Treasure Planet, the amphibian Abe Sapien in Hellboy. Pierce refused credit for his Hellboy role because he felt it was the performance of Doug Jones, not his own voice, which brought the character of Abe Sapien to life, he was the voice for a cold pill, in the animated comedy Osmosis Jones. In a deliberate
The Brother from Another Planet
The Brother from Another Planet is a 1984 science fiction film written and edited by John Sayles. It stars Joe Morton as "The Brother", an alien and escaped slave who, while fleeing "Another Planet", has crash-landed and hides in Harlem; the sweet-natured and honest Brother looks like an ordinary African American man, distinguished only by his being mute and—although other characters in the film never see them—his feet, which each have three large toes. Upon arrival in Ellis Island, the Brother displays psychic powers, being able to hear the experiences of the immigrants that came before him, he is able to regenerate a foot that he lost after crashing in the ocean to a shark bite. The Brother has telekinetic powers but, unable to speak, he struggles to express himself and adjust to his new surroundings, including a stint in the Job Corps at a video arcade in Manhattan. People ask him where he is from, he points his thumb upwards. The Brother has escaped enslavement on the planet; this is made evident in the film.
He points to an illustration, displayed in the museum, depicting an enslaved African American, running away, points to himself, indicating a similarity. He frees a dog on a busy street from its tether, he is chased by two white Men in Black. The Brother meets a variety of people, including the black habitués of Odell's bar, the nice Mrs. Carter who gives him a place to stay, a card trickster on the subway, a couple of young white Midwestern men who wander by accident into Odell's and attempt to befriend him by talking about Ernie Banks, street junkies who rob him and injure him, a friendly cop, new to Harlem. Captivated by posters for a black singer, Malverne, he earns the money to attend one of her singing gigs and has a tryst with her. Seeing some dead junkies on the street, he samples the remainder of their product and hates the result. After this, the movie changes into a darker, if not dark, tone, he recognizes some graffiti as language from his own planet. In his own bizarre and alien way, he watches the drug dealers and teaches one of the top honchos a lesson.
The Men in Black capture him but they find themselves facing a neighborhood of black people who support the Brother. Cornered, the Men In Black destroy themselves. After taking the A train, the Brother smiles into the camera. Sayles describes this movie as being about the immigrant experience of assimilation, he spent part of his MacArthur Fellows "genius" grant on the film. Variety called it "vastly amusing but progressively erratic" film structured as a "series of behavioral vignettes, are genuinely delightful and inventive". Vincent Canby called it a "nice, unsurprising shaggy-dog story that goes on far too long" but singled out "Joe Morton's sweet, unaggressive performance." Roger Ebert gave the film three-and-a-half stars out of four, saying "the movie finds countless opportunities for humorous scenes, most of them with a quiet little bite, a way of causing us to look at our society", noting that "by using a central character who cannot talk, is sometimes able to explore the kinds of scenes that haven't been possible since the death of silent film."The A.
V. Club, in a 2003 review of the film's DVD release, says the film's superhero scenes are "often unintentionally silly, but again, Sayles shapes a catchy premise into a subtler piece, using Morton's'alien' status as a way of asking who deserves to be called an outsider in a country born of outsiders". Afrofuturism in film The Brother from Another Planet on IMDb The Brother from Another Planet at Rotten Tomatoes The Brother from Another Planet at Box Office Mojo The Brother from Another Planet at AllMovie The Brother from Another Planet film preview at YouTube
Arthur Fiedler was a long-time conductor of the Boston Pops Orchestra, a symphony orchestra that specializes in popular and light classical music. With a combination of musicianship and showmanship, he made the Boston Pops one of the best-known orchestras in the United States. Fiedler was sometimes criticized for over-popularizing music when adapting popular songs or edited portions of the classical repertoire, but he kept performances informal and sometimes self-mocking to attract a bigger audience. Fiedler was born in Boston, the son of Johanna and Emanuel Fiedler, his parents were Austrian Jewish immigrants. His father was a violinist who played in the Boston Symphony Orchestra, his mother was a pianist, he grew up in Boston, attended Boston Latin School until his father retired in the early 1900s, they moved to Vienna, Austria, in 1910. The family soon moved again, to Berlin, where from 1911 to 1915 young Fiedler studied violin at the Royal Academy of Music under Willy Hess. Fiedler returned to Boston at the beginning of World War I.
In 1915 he joined the Boston Symphony Orchestra under Karl Muck as a violinist. He worked as a pianist and percussionist. In 1924, Fiedler formed the Boston Sinfonietta, a chamber music orchestra composed of Boston Symphony members, started a series of free outdoor concerts. Fiedler was appointed the eighteenth conductor of the Boston Pops Orchestra in 1930. While the position of conductor of the Boston Pops both prior to and after Fiedler tended to be a phase of a conductor's career, Fiedler made it his life's work, having the position for a half-century. With Fiedler's direction, the Boston Pops made more recordings than any other orchestra in the world, most of them for RCA Victor, with total sales exceeding $50 million, his recordings began in July 1935 at Boston's Symphony Hall with RCA Victor, including a world premiere recording of Jacob Gade's "Jalousie", which sold more than a million copies, the first complete recording of Rhapsody in Blue by George Gershwin. In 1946, he conducted the Boston Pops in one of the first American recordings devoted to excerpts from a film score, Dmitri Tiomkin's music for the David O. Selznick Technicolor epic Duel in the Sun.
RCA Victor released an album of ten-inch 78-rpm discs complete with photographs from the film. Fiedler's June 20, 1947, recording of Gaîté Parisienne by Jacques Offenbach was released by RCA as their first long-playing classical album, in 1950, he recorded the same music in 1954 in stereo and began making regular stereo recordings in 1956. A number of Fiedler's recordings were released as 45-rpm "extended play" discs, beginning in 1949, such as Tchaikovsky's Marche Slave and Ketèlbey's In a Persian Market. Besides recording light classics, Fiedler recorded music from Broadway shows and Hollywood film scores, as well as arrangements of popular music the Beatles, he and the Boston Pops recorded classical works that were favorites, but not considered as "light" as most of the pieces that he conducted. He made but a single recording with the Boston Symphony Orchestra: Dvorak's New World Symphony. There were recordings of chamber music by his Sinfonietta. Fiedler and the Boston Pops recorded for RCA Victor until 1970, when they switched to Deutsche Grammophon for classical releases with co-owned Polydor Records for his arrangements of pop music compositions and London Records.
His last album, devoted to disco, was titled Saturday Night Fiedler. Fiedler was associated with the San Francisco Pops Orchestra for 26 summers, conducted many other orchestras throughout the world, he was a featured conductor on several of NBC's The Standard Hour programs in 1950 and 1951, conducting the San Francisco Symphony in the War Memorial Opera House. In rare visiting performances, Fiedler accepted the invitation to conduct Don Caneva's John Hersey High School Bands after reviewing their latest recordings. Caneva said, “I was tremendously pleased and delighted when he said he would accept our invitation, after hearing a recent recording of the band." Fiedler ended up conducting twice for Caneva's bands in 1971 and 1972. In the final 1972 performance the band opened the Symphonic Winds portion of the concert with the "Festive Overture" by Dmitri Schostakovich, followed with the "American Salute" by Morton Gould. For the conclusion of this portion, Fiedler chose "The Finale From The New World Symphony" by Anton Dvorak.
He conducted Leroy Anderson's "Serenata" with the high school band. Fiedler had many different hobbies, he was fascinated by the work of firefighters and would travel in his own vehicle to large fires in and around Boston at any time of the day or night to watch the firefighters at work. He was made an "Honorary Captain" in the Boston Fire Department. A number of other fire departments badges; the official biography of Fiedler reports that the conductor once helped in the rescue efforts at the tragic Cocoanut Grove fire in Boston in 1942. An avid sailor, he volunteered during the early days of World War II for the Temporary Reserve of the U. S. Coast Guard and was a member of the Coast Guard Auxiliary. Fiedler conducted at the nationally televised opening ceremonies of Walt Disney World in 1971, he appeared on numerous telecasts on Evening at Pops, carried on PBS stations nationwide. In 1972, Fiedler was awarded an
Johnny Cash was an American singer-songwriter, guitarist and author. He is one of the best-selling music artists of all time, having sold more than 90 million records worldwide. Although remembered as a country music icon, his genre-spanning songs and sound embraced rock and roll, blues and gospel; this crossover appeal won Cash the rare honor of being inducted into the Country Music and Roll, Gospel Music Halls of Fame. Cash was known for his deep, calm bass-baritone voice, the distinctive sound of his Tennessee Three backing band characterized by train-sound guitar rhythms, a rebelliousness coupled with an somber and humble demeanor, free prison concerts, a trademark, all-black stage wardrobe, which earned him the nickname "The Man in Black." He traditionally began his concerts by introducing himself, "Hello, I'm Johnny Cash," followed by his signature song "Folsom Prison Blues". Much of Cash's music contained themes of sorrow, moral tribulation, redemption in the stages of his career, his other signature songs include "I Walk the Line", "Ring of Fire", "Get Rhythm", "Man in Black".
He recorded humorous numbers like "One Piece at a Time" and "A Boy Named Sue". During the last stage of his career, Cash covered songs by several late 20th-century rock artists, notably "Hurt" by Nine Inch Nails and "Rusty Cage" by Soundgarden. Johnny Cash was born on February 1932, in Kingsland, Arkansas, to Ray Cash and Carrie Cloveree, he was the fourth of seven children, who were in birth order: Roy, Margaret Louise, Jack, J. R. Reba and Tommy, he was of English and Scottish descent. As an adult he traced his surname to 11th-century Fife, after meeting with the then-laird of Falkland, Major Michael Crichton-Stuart. Cash Loch and other locations in Fife bear the name of his family. At birth, Cash was named J. R. Cash; when Cash enlisted in the United States Air Force, he was not permitted to use initials as a first name, so he changed his name to John R. Cash. In 1955, when signing with Sun Records, he started going by Johnny Cash. In March 1935, when Cash was three years old, the family settled in Dyess, Arkansas, a New Deal colony established to give poor families a chance to work land that they had a chance to own as a result.
J. R. started singing along with his family while working. The Cash farm flooded during the family's time in Dyess which led Cash to write the song "Five Feet High and Rising", his family's economic and personal struggles during the Great Depression inspired many of his songs those about other people facing similar difficulties. He had sympathy for the poor and working class. Cash was close to his older brother, Jack. On Saturday May 12, 1944, Jack was pulled into an unguarded table saw at his high school while cutting oak into fence posts as his job and was cut in two, he lingered until the following Saturday. Cash spoke of the horrible guilt he felt over this incident. According to Cash: The Autobiography, his father was away that morning, but Johnny and his mother, Jack himself, all had premonitions or a sense of foreboding about that day, his mother urged Jack to go fishing with his brother. Jack insisted on working. On his deathbed, Jack said he had visions of angels. Decades Cash spoke of looking forward to meeting his brother in Heaven.
Cash's early memories were dominated by gospel radio. Taught guitar by his mother and a childhood friend, Cash began playing and writing songs at the age of 12; when young, Cash had a high-tenor voice, before becoming a bass-baritone after his voice changed. In high school, he sang on a local radio station. Decades he released an album of traditional gospel songs, called My Mother's Hymn Book, he was significantly influenced by traditional Irish music, which he heard performed weekly by Dennis Day on the Jack Benny radio program. Cash enlisted in the United States Air Force on July 7, 1950. After basic training at Lackland Air Force Base and technical training at Brooks Air Force Base, both in San Antonio, Cash was assigned to the 12th Radio Squadron Mobile of the U. S. Air Force Security Service at Landsberg, Germany, as a Morse code operator intercepting Soviet Army transmissions, it was there he created his first band, named "The Landsberg Barbarians". He was honorably discharged as a staff sergeant on July 3, 1954, returned to Texas.
During his military service, he acquired a distinctive scar on the right side of his jaw as a result of surgery to remove a cyst. On July 18, 1951, while in Air Force training, Cash met 17-year-old Italian-American Vivian Liberto at a roller skating rink in her native San Antonio, they dated for three weeks. During that time, the couple exchanged hundreds of pages of love letters. On August 7, 1954, one month after his discharge, they were married at St. Ann's Roman Catholic Church in San Antonio; the ceremony was performed by Vincent Liberto. They had four daughters: Rosanne, Kathy and Tara. In 1961, Johnny moved his family to a hilltop home overlooking Casitas Springs, California, a small town south of Ojai on Highway 33, he had moved his parents to the area to run a small trailer park called the Johnny Cash Trailer Park. Johnny's drinking led to several run-ins with local law enforcement
The National Broadcasting Company is an American English-language commercial terrestrial television network, a flagship property of NBCUniversal, a subsidiary of Comcast. The network is headquartered at 30 Rockefeller Plaza in New York City, with additional major offices near Los Angeles and Philadelphia; the network is one of the Big Three television networks. NBC is sometimes referred to as the "Peacock Network", in reference to its stylized peacock logo, introduced in 1956 to promote the company's innovations in early color broadcasting, it became the network's official emblem in 1979. Founded in 1926 by the Radio Corporation of America, NBC is the oldest major broadcast network in the United States. At that time the parent company of RCA was General Electric. In 1930, GE was forced to sell the companies as a result of antitrust charges. In 1986, control of NBC passed back to General Electric through its $6.4 billion purchase of RCA. Following the acquisition by GE, Bob Wright served as chief executive officer of NBC, remaining in that position until his retirement in 2007, when he was succeeded by Jeff Zucker.
In 2003, French media company Vivendi merged its entertainment assets with GE, forming NBC Universal. Comcast purchased a controlling interest in the company in 2011, acquired General Electric's remaining stake in 2013. Following the Comcast merger, Zucker left NBCUniversal and was replaced as CEO by Comcast executive Steve Burke. NBC has thirteen owned-and-operated stations and nearly 200 affiliates throughout the United States and its territories, some of which are available in Canada and/or Mexico via pay-television providers or in border areas over-the-air. During a period of early broadcast business consolidation, radio manufacturer Radio Corporation of America acquired New York City radio station WEAF from American Telephone & Telegraph. Westinghouse, a shareholder in RCA, had a competing outlet in Newark, New Jersey pioneer station WJZ, which served as the flagship for a loosely structured network; this station was transferred from Westinghouse to RCA in 1923, moved to New York City. WEAF acted as a laboratory for AT&T's manufacturing and supply outlet Western Electric, whose products included transmitters and antennas.
The Bell System, AT&T's telephone utility, was developing technologies to transmit voice- and music-grade audio over short and long distances, using both wireless and wired methods. The 1922 creation of WEAF offered a research-and-development center for those activities. WEAF maintained a regular schedule of radio programs, including some of the first commercially sponsored programs, was an immediate success. In an early example of "chain" or "networking" broadcasting, the station linked with Outlet Company-owned WJAR in Providence, Rhode Island. C. WCAP. New parent RCA saw an advantage in sharing programming, after getting a license for radio station WRC in Washington, D. C. in 1923, attempted to transmit audio between cities via low-quality telegraph lines. AT&T refused outside companies access to its high-quality phone lines; the early effort fared poorly, since the uninsulated telegraph lines were susceptible to atmospheric and other electrical interference. In 1925, AT&T decided that WEAF and its embryonic network were incompatible with the company's primary goal of providing a telephone service.
AT&T offered to sell the station to RCA in a deal that included the right to lease AT&T's phone lines for network transmission. RCA spent $1 million to purchase WEAF and Washington sister station WCAP, shut down the latter station, merged its facilities with surviving station WRC; the division's ownership was split among RCA, its founding corporate parent General Electric and Westinghouse. NBC started broadcasting on November 15, 1926. WEAF and WJZ, the flagships of the two earlier networks, were operated side-by-side for about a year as part of the new NBC. On January 1, 1927, NBC formally divided their respective marketing strategies: the "Red Network" offered commercially sponsored entertainment and music programming. Various histories of NBC suggest the color designations for the two networks came from the color of the pushpins NBC engineers used to designate affiliate stations of WEAF and WJZ, or from the use of double-ended red and blue colored pencils. On April 5, 1927, NBC expanded to the West Coast with the launch of the NBC Orange Network known as the Pacific Coast Network.
This was followed by the debut of the NBC Gold Network known as the Pacific Gold Network, on October 18, 1931. The Orange Network carried Red Network programming, the Gold Network carried programming from the Blue Network; the Orange Network recreated Eastern Red Network programming for West Coast stations at KPO in San Francisco. In 1936, the Orange Network affiliate stations became part of the Red Network, at the same time the Gold Network became part of the Blue Network. In the 1930s, NBC developed a network for shortwave radio stations, called the NBC White Network. In 1927, NBC moved its operations to 711 Fifth Avenue in Manhattan, occupying the upper floors of a building de
Jazz is a music genre that originated in the African-American communities of New Orleans, United States, in the late 19th and early 20th centuries, developed from roots in blues and ragtime. Jazz is seen by many as "America's classical music". Since the 1920s Jazz Age, jazz has become recognized as a major form of musical expression, it emerged in the form of independent traditional and popular musical styles, all linked by the common bonds of African-American and European-American musical parentage with a performance orientation. Jazz is characterized by swing and blue notes and response vocals and improvisation. Jazz has roots in West African cultural and musical expression, in African-American music traditions including blues and ragtime, as well as European military band music. Intellectuals around the world have hailed jazz as "one of America's original art forms"; as jazz spread around the world, it drew on national and local musical cultures, which gave rise to different styles. New Orleans jazz began in the early 1910s, combining earlier brass-band marches, French quadrilles, biguine and blues with collective polyphonic improvisation.
In the 1930s arranged dance-oriented swing big bands, Kansas City jazz, a hard-swinging, improvisational style and Gypsy jazz were the prominent styles. Bebop emerged in the 1940s, shifting jazz from danceable popular music toward a more challenging "musician's music", played at faster tempos and used more chord-based improvisation. Cool jazz developed near the end of the 1940s, introducing calmer, smoother sounds and long, linear melodic lines; the 1950s saw the emergence of free jazz, which explored playing without regular meter and formal structures, in the mid-1950s, hard bop emerged, which introduced influences from rhythm and blues and blues in the saxophone and piano playing. Modal jazz developed in the late 1950s, using the mode, or musical scale, as the basis of musical structure and improvisation. Jazz-rock fusion appeared in the late 1960s and early 1970s, combining jazz improvisation with rock music's rhythms, electric instruments, amplified stage sound. In the early 1980s, a commercial form of jazz fusion called smooth jazz became successful, garnering significant radio airplay.
Other styles and genres abound in the 2000s, such as Afro-Cuban jazz. The origin of the word "jazz" has resulted in considerable research, its history is well documented, it is believed to be related to "jasm", a slang term dating back to 1860 meaning "pep, energy". The earliest written record of the word is in a 1912 article in the Los Angeles Times in which a minor league baseball pitcher described a pitch which he called a "jazz ball" "because it wobbles and you can't do anything with it"; the use of the word in a musical context was documented as early as 1915 in the Chicago Daily Tribune. Its first documented use in a musical context in New Orleans was in a November 14, 1916 Times-Picayune article about "jas bands". In an interview with NPR, musician Eubie Blake offered his recollections of the slang connotations of the term, saying, "When Broadway picked it up, they called it'J-A-Z-Z', it wasn't called that. It was spelled'J-A-S-S'; that was dirty, if you knew what it was, you wouldn't say it in front of ladies."
The American Dialect Society named it the Word of the Twentieth Century. Jazz is difficult to define because it encompasses a wide range of music spanning a period of over 100 years, from ragtime to the rock-infused fusion. Attempts have been made to define jazz from the perspective of other musical traditions, such as European music history or African music, but critic Joachim-Ernst Berendt argues that its terms of reference and its definition should be broader, defining jazz as a "form of art music which originated in the United States through the confrontation of the Negro with European music" and arguing that it differs from European music in that jazz has a "special relationship to time defined as'swing'". Jazz involves "a spontaneity and vitality of musical production in which improvisation plays a role" and contains a "sonority and manner of phrasing which mirror the individuality of the performing jazz musician". In the opinion of Robert Christgau, "most of us would say that inventing meaning while letting loose is the essence and promise of jazz".
A broader definition that encompasses different eras of jazz has been proposed by Travis Jackson: "it is music that includes qualities such as swing, group interaction, developing an'individual voice', being open to different musical possibilities". Krin Gibbard argued that "jazz is a construct" which designates "a number of musics with enough in common to be understood as part of a coherent tradition". In contrast to commentators who have argued for excluding types of jazz, musicians are sometimes reluctant to define the music they play. Duke Ellington, one of jazz's most famous figures, said, "It's all music." Although jazz is considered difficult to define, in part because it contains many subgenres, improvisation is one of its defining elements. The centrality of improvisation is attributed to the influence of earlier forms of music such as blues, a form of folk music which arose in part from the work songs and field hollers of African-American slaves on plantations; these work songs were structured around a repetitive call-and-response pattern, but early blues was improvisational.
Classical music performance is evaluated more by its fidelity to the musical score, with less attention given to interpretation and accompaniment. The classical performer's goal is to play the composition. In contrast, jazz is characterized by the product of i