Comanche County, Texas
Comanche County is a county located on the Edwards Plateau in Central Texas. As of the 2010 census, its population was 13,974; the county seat is Comanche. The county is named for the Comanche Native American tribe. Among the first inhabitants of present-day Comanche County were the Comanche Indian tribe. In 1854, Jesse M. Mercer and others organized a colony near the future settlement of Newburg. in Comanche County on lands earlier granted by Mexico to Stephen F. Austin and Samuel May Williams. Frank M. Collier built the first log house in the county. In 1856, the Texas legislature formed Comanche County from Bosque counties. Cora community, named after Cora Beeman of Bell County, was designated as the county seat. Comanche became the county seat in 1859; as of 1860, the county population was 709 persons, including 61 slaves. The Comanche Chief began publication in 1873. Editor Joe Hill's brother, Robert T. Hill, worked on the newspaper while developing his esteemed career as a geologist. In 1874, John Wesley Hardin and his gang celebrated his 21st birthday in Brown and Comanche counties.
Deputy Charles Webb drew his gun. A lynch mob was formed; the mob hanged his brother Joe and two cousins. Hardin fled, he was arrested in 1877 by Texas Rangers and a local authority on a train in Pensacola, while traveling under the alias James W. Swain, he was tried in Comanche for the murder of Deputy Sheriff Charles Webb, sentenced to 25 years in Huntsville Prison. Known for its fertile soil, Comanche County was a hotbed of political populism in the latter years of the 19th century. In 1886, white residents drove African Americans out of the county with death threats and adopted a sundown town policy that prohibited African Americans from entering the county after dark; the Texas Central Railroad began service in Comanche County in 1885 and began carrying cattle and cotton to market. By 1890, cotton had become king in the county, but by the start of the 20th century, the boll weevil had devastated the county cotton industry for three decades. In 1907, farmers in the county began to experiment with peanut farming.
Oil was discovered at Desdemona in 1910. The peak year for the Comanche County oil boom was 1920. In the early 20th century, the Comanche region raised hogs, peanuts, watermelons and engaged in dairying. More than 70,000 fruit trees were grown in the county; the area receives twenty inches of precipitation per year, but in the Dust Bowl of the Great Depression, drought conditions persisted. Farm products lost some 75 percent of their value during the depression, which the area state representative, Oscar Callaway, blamed on the Federal Reserve System. Nearly 200 county families were on public relief, area churches formed a private community chest for charity; some sought employment as day laborers. Rabbits raided the peanut crop. Home canning saved many from total ruin; the county sought federal loans for water resources, civic buildings, parks. At the time, none of the public schools in Comanche County had a gymnasium. Ben Barnes, a lobbyist, reared in Comanche County and the former Speaker of the Texas House of Representatives and lieutenant governor, recalled how the Rural Electrification Administration in particular eased the plight of county residents.
Despite the hardships, in 1934 all downtown buildings in the county seat were in use, a few additional businesses opened as the depression continued. Like much of the rest of the nation, Comanche County persevered through the hard times. In 1951–1952, a desperate, drought-stricken county experimented with rain making. Proctor Lake was impounded in 1963 to provide drinking water. From 1968 to 1974, Comanche County native Jim Reese served as the mayor of Texas, he launched unsuccessful congressional campaigns in the 1976 general election against the Democrat George H. Mahon and in the 1978 Republican primary against George W. Bush. During the 1970s, the oil industrialist Bill Noël of Odessa purchased orchards in Comanche County; as of 1982, Comanche produced more than 45,546,000 pounds of ranking second in Texas. According to the U. S. Census Bureau, the county has a total area of 948 square miles, of which 938 square miles is land and 9.9 square miles is water. The county is located some sixty miles north of the geographic center of Texas.
The county is home to Proctor Lake. Erath County Hamilton County Mills County Brown County Eastland County As of the census of 2000, there were 14,026 people, 5,522 households, 3,926 families residing in the county; the population density was 15 people per square mile. There were 7,105 housing units at an average density of 8 per square mile; the racial makeup of the county was 87.30% White, 0.44% Black or African American, 0.61% Native American, 0.13% Asian, 0.01% Pacific Islander, 9.70% from other races, 1.82% from two or more races. About 21% of the population were Hispanic or Latino of any race. There were 5,522 households, of which 29.80% had children under the age of 18 living with them, 59.20% were married couples living together, 8.10% had a female householder with no husband present, 28.90% were not families. About 26% of all households were made up of individuals, 15.20% had someone living alone, 65 years of age or older. The average household size was 2.48 and the average family size was 2.98.
In the county, the population was spread out with 25.30% under the age of 18, 7.10% from 18 to 24, 23.30% from 25 to 44, 24.00% from 45 to 64, 20.30% who
The Afrika Korps or German Africa Corps was the German expeditionary force in Africa during the North African Campaign of World War II. First sent as a holding force to shore up the Italian defense of their African colonies, the formation fought on in Africa, under various appellations, from March 1941 until its surrender in May 1943; the unit's best known commander was Field Marshal Erwin Rommel. The Afrika Korps formed on 11 January 1941 and one of Hitler's favorite generals, Erwin Rommel, was designated as commander on 11 February. Hans von Funck was to have commanded it, but Hitler loathed von Funck, as he had been a personal staff officer of Werner von Fritsch until von Fritsch was dismissed in 1938; the German Armed Forces High Command had decided to send a "blocking force" to Libya to support the Italian army. The Italian army group had been routed by the British Commonwealth Western Desert Force in Operation Compass; the German blocking force, commanded by Rommel, at first consisted of a force based only on Panzer Regiment 5, put together from the second regiment of the 3rd Panzer Division.
These elements were organized into the 5th Light Division when they arrived in Africa from 10 February – 12 March 1941. In late April and into May, the 5th Light Division was joined by elements of 15th Panzer Division, transferred from Italy. At this time, the Afrika Korps consisted of the two divisions, was subordinated to the Italian chain of command in Africa. On 15 August 1941, the German 5th Light Division was redesignated 21st Panzer Division, the higher formation of, still the Afrika Korps. During the summer of 1941, the OKW increased the presence in Africa and created a new headquarters called Panzer Group Africa. On 15 August, the Panzer Group was activated with Rommel in command, command of the Afrika Korps was turned over to Ludwig Crüwell; the Panzer Group comprised the Afrika Korps, with some additional German units now in North Africa, plus two corps of Italian units. The Panzer Group was, in turn, redesignated as Panzer Army Africa on 30 January 1942. After the German defeat in the Second Battle of El Alamein and the Allied landings in Morocco and Algeria Operation Torch, the OKW once more upgraded the presence in Africa by adding first the XC Army Corps, under Nehring, in Tunisia on 19 November 1942 an additional 5th Panzer Army on 8 December, under the command of Colonel-General Hans-Jürgen von Arnim.
On 23 February 1943, the original Panzer Army Africa, which had since been re-styled as the German-Italian Panzer Army, was now redesignated as the Italian 1st Army and put under the command of Italian general Giovanni Messe. Rommel, was placed in command of a new Army Group Africa, created to control both the Italian 1st Army and the 5th Panzer Army; the remnants of the Afrika Korps and surviving units of the 1st Italian Army retreated into Tunisia. Command of the Army Group was turned over to Arnim in March. On 13 May, the Afrika Korps surrendered, along with all other remaining Axis forces in North Africa. Most Afrika Korps POWs were transported to the United States and held in Camp Shelby in Mississippi and other POW camps until the end of the war; when Rommel was promoted to the newly formed Panzerarmee Afrika, his command included a number of Italian units, including four infantry divisions. Two Italian armoured divisions and Trieste remained under Italian control as the Italian XX Motorized Corps under the command of General Gastone Gambara.
The Afrika Korps was restructured and renamed in August 1941. "Afrikakorps" was the official name of the force for less than six months but the officers and men used it for the duration. The Afrika Korps was the major German component of Panzerarmee Afrika, renamed the Deutsch-Italienische Panzerarmee and renamed Heeresgruppe Afrika during the 27 months of the Desert campaign. Certain divisions were reformed in Europe after the cessation of fighting in Tunisia: 15th Panzer Division 21st Panzer Division Hermann Göring Panzer Division 90th Light Division Fliegerführer Afrika Ramcke Parachute Brigade Western Desert Campaign László Almásy Operation Salaam
U.S. Route 183
U. S. Route 183 is a north–south United States highway. US 183 was the last U. S. Route to be paved; the 20-mile segment in Loup County, north of Taylor, was unpaved until 1967. The highway's southern terminus is in Refugio, Texas, at the southern intersection of U. S. Highway 77 and Alternate US 77, its northern terminus is in Presho, South Dakota, at an intersection with Interstate 90. US 183 and Alt US 77 overlap for their final 80 miles between Refugio. US-183 begins in Refugio, sharing a multiplex with US-77A; the two highways continue north through Goliad County. US-183 crosses I-10 south of the town of Luling; the largest city that US-183 passes through is Austin, where it is a limited access highway. Northwest of Austin, US-183 passes through the suburbs of Cedar Park and Leander, where the 183A toll road runs parallel to it. In Lampasas County, US-183 shares a multiplex with US-190 between the towns of Lometa. US-183 shares a multiplex with US-84 from Goldthwaite in Mills County to Early in Brown County.
It crosses I-20 in Texas. US-183 enters a multiplex with US-283 in Throckmorton County, both highways share a multiplex with US-277 and US-82 in Baylor County from Seymour to Mabelle. In Wilbarger County, US-183 exits the multiplex with US-283 and turns east with US-70 to share a wrong way concurrency with US-287 between the towns of Vernon and Oklaunion. US-183 continues north sharing a multiplex with US-70. US 183/US 70 enters Oklahoma by crossing the Red River 3 miles south of Davidson, OK. In Davidson, US 70 splits from US 183; this continues as US 183 passes US 62 and BUS 62 in Snyder, OK. About 62 miles north of Snyder, US 183 crosses Interstate 40 at Interstate 40's exit 66. Another 47 miles US 183 co-signs with US 270 near Seiling, OK. US 183/US 270 continue in a northwesterly direction for 32 miles before picking up US 412 in Woodward, OK. US 183/US 270/US 412 leave Woodward in a due west fashion for a short time, until heading northwest again for 15 miles, at which time US 270 and US 412 leave US 183 near Fort Supply, OK to form their own duplex through the panhandle of Oklahoma as US 270/US 412.
US 183 continues north from the southern Harper County line to the Oklahoma/Kansas state line for a total of about 31 miles before leaving the state. US-183 enters Kansas in Clark County and turns east at Sitka, where it begins a multiplex with US-160, entering Comanche County, where it passes through Protection; the highways stay paired as it turns north to pass through Coldwater. At Coldwater, US-160 turns back to the east, US-183 continues its northerly track. Entering Kiowa County, US-183 reaches a junction with the multiplexed east–west route, US-54 and US-400, where it passes through Greensburg. In southern Edwards County, the highway makes a brief turn to the west before meeting up with US-56 in Kinsley, the Edwards County seat. US-56 and US-183 turn northeast before the highways split after entering Pawnee County. US-56 continues northeast toward Larned, US-183 straightens out to pass through unpopulated areas in Edwards County. In Rush County, US-183 intersects two primary east–west Kansas state highways, K-96 in Rush Center and K-4 in LaCrosse.
US-183 reaches the largest city along its route in Kansas, where a western bypass of the highway provides direct access to Gross Memorial Coliseum and Fort Hays State University. US-183 contains numerous businesses. US-183 runs through town for three miles before crossing Interstate 70, traveled in Hays with traffic between Denver and Kansas City; the interchange of US-183 and I-70 has been designated as the CW2 Bryan J. Nichols Fallen Veterans Memorial Interchange. North of Hays, the highway has been resurfaced and realigned for 23 miles to Plainville, one of two towns in Rooks County US-183 serves. At Plainville, US-183 has a junction with K-18. US-183 continues 15 miles north to the Rooks County seat, where US-24 crosses; the highway enters Phillips County 12 miles north of Stockton. US-183 meets US-36 west, the highways join for a multiplex through the city of Phillipsburg; the highways split in downtown Phillipsburg, US-183 has one last junction with K-383 before exiting the state south of Alma, Nebraska.
US-183 is two-laned throughout Kansas, except for the portion. U. S. Highway 183 enters Nebraska south of Alma, it enters Alma after crossing Harlan County Lake and the Republican River and runs concurrent with U. S. Highway 136 north out of Alma. After separating from US 136, US 183 continues north to Holdrege, where it intersects U. S. Highway 6 and U. S. Highway 34. US 183 continues north from Holdrege and intersects Interstate 80 south of Elm Creek shortly after crossing the Platte River, it proceeds north into Elm Creek and meets U. S. Highway 30. US 183 intersects Nebraska Highway 2 at Ansley, it continues north from Ansley through Sargent and Rose before meeting U. S. Highway 20 in Bassett. At Bassett, US 183 turns west with US 20 before turning north again near Long Pine. US 183 continues north through Springview before entering South Dakota. U. S. Highway 183 enters South Dakota just south of Wewela, it goes north to Colome, where it intersects U. S. Highway 18. US 183 and US 18 go northwest through Winner together US 183 turns north west of Winner.
It goes north to Presho, where it ends. The South Dakota section of U. S. 183, with the exception of a concurrency with U. S. 18, is
Daniel Baker College
Daniel Baker College was founded April 5, 1889 in Brownwood, United States. It was named in memory of the Rev. Dr. Daniel Baker, a Presbyterian circuit-riding minister, who helped organize the first presbytery in Texas in 1840 and Austin College in 1849. Daniel Baker College was founded by Dr. B. T. McClelland, fulfilling the plans of the Austin Presbytery to open a Presbyterian college for west Texas. Dr. McClelland, a Presbyterian minister and a graduate of Oberlin College and Union Theological Seminary in the City of New York, founded the first Presbyterian church in Brownwood in 1886; as the first president of Daniel Baker College, Dr. McClelland singlehandedly kept the college open during its early years, through his own personal determination; the college's mascot was a goat named Hillbilly, which complemented their nickname, its motto was Veritas et Humanitas, meaning "Truth and Humanity." The institution was plagued with financial difficulties and was consolidated with nearby Howard Payne College in 1952.
Its campus was taken over by Howard Payne University and the main building was renovated as the Guy D. Newman Honors Academy. Phil Baxter - songwriter and band leader Novalyne Price Ellis - school teacher and speechwriter whose memoir was adapted into a movie Umphrey Lee - President of Southern Methodist University
In the Western United States and Canada, open range is rangeland where cattle roam regardless of land ownership. Where there are "open range" laws, those wanting to keep animals off their property must erect a fence to keep animals out. Land in open range, designated as part of a "herd district" reverses liabilities, requiring an animal's owner to fence it in or otherwise keep it on the person's own property. Most eastern states and jurisdictions in Canada require owners to herd their livestock; the Western open-range tradition originated from the early practice of unregulated grazing in newly acquired western territories, codified in the laws of Western US states as they developed written statutes. Over time, as the Western lands became more developed the open range laws started to be challenged and were curtailed, but they still exist in certain areas of most western states. Open range conditions existed in Western Canada prior to amendments the Dominion Lands Act in 1889 which prohibited cattle from grazing on unleased land, though the practice did not disappear immediately.
Open range management has been practiced in other areas, such as Caribbean and the eastern state of South Carolina during the colonial period. The practice was used in Mexico, some argue it may have been the predecessor to the open range practice in the American West, which borrowed many other cattle raising techniques from Mexico. Unlike the eastern United States, the western prairies of the 19th century were vast and uncultivated, with scarce separated sources of water; until the invention of barbed wire in the 1870s, it was more practical to fence the livestock out of developed land, rather than to fence it in. As the United States government acquired western territories, land not yet placed into private ownership was publicly owned and available for grazing cattle, though conflicting land claims and periodic warfare with Native Americans of the Great Plains placed some practical limits on grazing areas at various times. Free-roaming range cattle calved, were moved between grazing lands, driven to market by cowboys.
Branding was used to identify cattle belonging to different owners. Unbranded cattle were known as "mavericks" and could become the property of anyone able to capture and brand the unmarked animal; the invention of barbed wire in the 1870s allowed cattle to be confined to designated areas to prevent overgrazing of the range. In Texas and surrounding areas, increased population required ranchers to fence off their individual lands; this brought considerable drama to western rangeland. Its invention made fencing huge expanses cheaper than hiring cowboys for handling cattle, indiscriminate fencing of federal lands occurred in 1880s without any regards to land ownership or other public needs, such as mail delivery and movement of other kinds of livestock. Various state statutes, as well as vigilantes, tried to enforce or combat fence-building with varying success. In 1885, federal legislation outlawed the enclosure of public land. By 1890, illegal fencing had been removed. In the north, overgrazing stressed the open range, leading to insufficient winter forage for the cattle and starvation during the harsh winter of 1886–1887, when hundreds of thousands of cattle died across the Northwest, leading to collapse of the cattle industry.
By the 1890s, barbed wire fencing was standard in the northern plains, railroads had expanded to cover most of the nation, meat packing plants were built closer to major ranching areas, making long cattle drives from Texas to the railheads in Kansas unnecessary. Hence, the age of the open range was gone and large cattle drives were over. Meanwhile, ranches multiplied all over the developing West. Where there are "open range" laws, people wanting to keep animals off their property must erect a legal fence to keep animals out, as opposed to the "herd district" where an animal's owner must fence it in or otherwise keep it on the person's own property. Most eastern states and jurisdictions in Canada require owners to herd their livestock. Many states in the west, e.g. Texas, are at least nominally still open-range states. In modern times, free roaming cattle can be a danger in developed areas. Most western states those that are nominally open at the state level, now limit open range to certain areas.
Under open range law today, if livestock break through a "legal fence" the livestock owner is liable for damages of the fenced property. Conversely, the livestock owner is not liable in the absence of the "legal fence." An exception exists for "unruly" animals meaning breeding bulls and stallions, which are supposed to be restricted by the owner. On roadways within an open range area, in a cow-car collision on a roadway, the rancher was at one time not liable, but recent law changes beginning in the 1980s increased rancher liability, first requiring cattle be kept off federal highways other developed roads, in some cases, limited open range grazing only to certain times of the year. In some states, such as Montana, case law on the open range has, for all practical purposes, eliminated it altogether, though statutes may remain on the books. Today, a vehicle has a much higher chance of hitting a wild animal than livestock. Laws are still in flux. In Arizona, livestock must be fenced in within incorporated areas, but are still listed only as a potential nuisance for unincorporated suburbs.
Therefore, in that state, bills are being pushed "to get rid of this antiquated law from 19th cen
José de Azlor y Virto de Vera
José de Azlor y Virto de Vera, the Marquis of San Miguel de Aguayo, was the governor of the Mexican provinces of Coahuila and Texas between 1719 and 1722. During his tenure, Aguayo retook eastern Texas from New France without firing a shot, he established or reestablished seven missions and three presidios, quadrupled the number of Spanish soldiers stationed in Texas. Aguayo and his wife were owners of a large estate, or latifundio, in Coahuila, his descendants expanded the landholdings. The Aguayo dynasty continued until 1825. Aguayo was descended from a noble Spanish family from Aragon, he came to his title through his marriage to Ignacia Xaviera, becoming the second Marquis de San Miguel de Aguayo. In 1712 the couple moved from Spain to Coahuila to manage her inherited land, one of the largest latifundios in all of the Americas; the couple established their headquarters in San Francisco de los Patos. Aguayo expanded the family's land holdings and gained control of many of the scarce water sources in the Chihuahua Desert of Coahuila.
He obtained ownership of the sources of water near the village of Parras, sold water to the farmers in the area. Parras was prominent for large production of wine and brandy; the first winery in the Americas was in Parras. During the War of the Quadruple Alliance, Great Britain and France, who were aligned together against Spain, attempted to take over Spanish interests in North America. In June 1719, seven Frenchmen from Natchitoches, Louisiana took control of the eastern Texas mission of San Miguel de los Adaes from its sole defender, who did not know that the countries were at war; the French soldiers said that 100 additional soldiers were coming, the Spanish colonists and remaining soldiers abandoned the area and fled to San Antonio. That year, Aguayo was named the governor of the provinces of Texas, he had raised an army of 500 soldiers. His departure was delayed a year, however, as he dealt with Indian troubles in Coahuila and a devastating drought that killed more than 80% of the horses he had purchased for the expedition.
The drought ended with torrential rains, which made the journey impossible until late 1720. Just before he departed, the fighting in Europe halted. Felipe V ordered Aguayo not to invade French Louisiana, but to find a way to retake eastern Texas without using force; the expedition took along more than 2800 horses, 6400 sheep, many goats. This increased the number of domesticated animals in the region and marked the beginning of Spanish ranching in Texas. On March 20, 1721, the Aguayo expedition crossed the Rio Grande into Texas. In July 1721, while approaching the Neches River, Aguayo's expedition met Louis St. Denis, commander of the French forces in the area, leading a raid with the objective of taking control of the Spanish mission at San Antonio de Bexar. Realizing that he was badly outnumbered, St. Denis agreed to abandon eastern Texas and return to Louisiana. Aguayo ordered the building of a new Spanish fort, Nuestra Señora del Pilar de los Adaes, located near present-day Robeline, only 12 mi from the French settlement at Natchitoches.
The new fort became the first capital of Spanish Texas. The six eastern Tejas missions were reopened, Presidio Dolores, now known as Presidio de los Tejas, was moved from the Neches River to a site near mission Purísima Concepción near the Angelina River; the Spaniards built another fort, Presidio Nuestra Señora de Loreto de la Bahía, known as La Bahía, on the site of the former French Fort Saint Louis. Nearby they established a mission, Espíritu Santo de Zúñiga, for the Coco and Cujane Indians. Ninety men were left to staff the garrison. On June 13, 1722, having returned to Mexico City from the expedition, Aguayo resigned from the governorship of Coahuila and Texas. At the beginning of his expedition, Texas had consisted only of San Antonio and 60 soldiers; the Aguayo expedition strengthened the Spanish claim to Texas. In 1724, Aguayo was honored by the Spanish king with a promotion to Field Marshall. Aguayo died on 9 March 1734. Aguayo's daughter, the Marchioness of Aguayo married into another large landholding family in 1735 and she gained title to additional lands.
In the 1760s the Aguayo landholdings totaled 5,944,278 hectares and their herds of sheep were estimated to number more than 200,000. Their headquarters at Patos had a population of 1,200; the Aguayos themselves were absentee landlords, living in Mexico City as did many large landowners with holdings in the Mexican hinterland. Mismanagement and the hazards of raising livestock in a drought-prone region drove the Aguayo family to sell much of their property to English investors in 1825; the Sánchez Navarro family acquired the entire Aguayo estate in 1840 and thus became the largest landowners in all of the Americas. Chipman, Donald E. Spanish Texas, 1519–1821, Austin, TX: University of Texas Press, ISBN 0-292-77659-4 Weber, David J; the Spanish Frontier in North America, Yale Western Americana Series, New Haven, CT: Yale University Press, ISBN 0-300-05198-0
Texas's 11th congressional district
Texas District 11 of the United States House of Representatives is a congressional district that serves the midwestern portion of the state of Texas. The current Representative from District 11 is Mike Conaway. Texas has had at least 11 districts since 1883. Major cities in the district are Lamesa, Odessa, San Angelo and Brownwood; the district is one of the most Republican districts in the nation. Much of the territory now in the district began shaking off its Democratic roots far sooner than the rest of Texas. For instance, Barry Goldwater did well in much of this area in 1964, Midland itself last supported a Democrat for president in 1948, it was President George W. Bush's strongest district in the entire nation in the 2004 election. While Democrats continued to hold most local offices here well into the 1980s and continued to represent parts of the region through the 1990s, today Republicans dominate every level of government winning by well over 70 percent of the vote. From 1903-2005 the district was contained Waco.
List of United States congressional districts Martis, Kenneth C.. The Historical Atlas of Political Parties in the United States Congress. New York: Macmillan Publishing Company. Martis, Kenneth C.. The Historical Atlas of United States Congressional Districts. New York: Macmillan Publishing Company. Congressional Biographical Directory of the United States 1774–present