William O. Douglas
William Orville Douglas was an American jurist and politician who served as an Associate Justice of the Supreme Court of the United States. Nominated by President Franklin D. Roosevelt, Douglas was confirmed at the age of 40, one of the youngest justices appointed to the court, his term, lasting 211 days, is the longest in the history of the Supreme Court. In 1975 Time magazine called Douglas "the most doctrinaire and committed civil libertarian to sit on the court". After an itinerant childhood, Douglas attended Whitman College on a scholarship, he joined the Yale Law School faculty. After serving as the third chairman of the U. S. Securities and Exchange Commission, Douglas was nominated to the Supreme Court, succeeding Justice Louis Brandeis, he was among those considered for the 1944 Democratic vice presidential nomination and was subject to an unsuccessful draft movement prior to the 1948 presidential election. Douglas served on the Court until his retirement in 1975, was succeeded by John Paul Stevens.
Douglas holds a number including the most opinions. Douglas wrote the Court's majority opinion in major cases such as Griswold v. Connecticut, United States v. Paramount Pictures, Inc. Brady v. Maryland, Terminiello v. City of Chicago, he wrote notable concurring or dissenting opinions in cases such as Dennis v. United States, Brandenburg v. Ohio, Terry v. Ohio, he was known as a strong opponent of the Vietnam War and an ardent advocate of environmentalism. Douglas was born in 1898 in Maine Township, Otter Tail County, the son of Julia Bickford and William Douglas, an itinerant Scottish Presbyterian minister from Pictou County, Nova Scotia, his family moved to California, to Cleveland, Washington. At age two Douglas suffered an illness he described as polio, but which revisionist biographers have claimed was intestinal colic, his mother attributed his recovery to a miracle, telling Douglas that one day he would be President of the United States. His father died in Oregon, in 1904, when Douglas was six years old.
Douglas claimed his mother had been left destitute. After moving the family from town to town in the West, his mother, with three young children, settled with them in Yakima, Washington. William, like the rest of the Douglas family, worked at odd jobs to earn extra money, a college education appeared to be unaffordable, he was the valedictorian at Yakima High School and did well enough in school to earn a full academic scholarship to attend Whitman College in Walla Walla, Washington. While at Whitman, Douglas became a member of Beta Theta Pi fraternity, he worked at various jobs while attending school, including as a waiter and janitor during the school year, at a cherry orchard in the summer. Picking cherries, Douglas would say inspired him to a legal career, he once said of his early interest in the law: I worked among the very poor, the migrant laborers, the Chicanos and the I. W. W's. I saw cruelty and hardness, my impulse was to be a force in other developments in the law. Douglas was elected Phi Beta Kappa, participated on the debate team, was elected as student body president in his final year.
After graduating in 1920 with a B. A. in English and economics, he taught English and Latin at Yakima high schools for the next two years, hoping to earn enough to attend law school. "Finally," he said, "I decided it was impossible to save enough money by teaching and I said to hell with it."He traveled to New York, with hopes to attend the Columbia Law School. Douglas drew on his Beta Theta Pi membership to help him survive in New York, as he stayed at one of its houses and was able to borrow $75 from a fraternity brother from Washington, enough to enroll at Columbia. Six months Douglas' funds were running out; the appointments office at the law school told him that a New York firm wanted a student to help prepare a correspondence course for law. Douglas earned $600 for his work. Hired for similar projects, he saved $1,000 by semester's end, his wife Mildred worked as a schoolteacher to support him throughout law school, which he would conceal by lying about which year they were married. Douglas graduated second in his class at Columbia in 1925.
In August 1923, Douglas traveled to La Grande, Oregon, to marry Mildred Riddle, whom he had known in Yakima. After their return to New York, he started work at the firm of Cravath, DeGersdorff and Wood after failing to obtain a Supreme Court clerkship with Justice Harlan F. Stone. Douglas quit the Cravath firm after four months. After one year, he moved back to Yakima, but soon regretted the move and never practiced law in the state. After a time of unemployment and another months-long stint at Cravath, he started teaching at Columbia Law School. Douglas joined the faculty of Yale Law School. There he became an expert on commercial litigation and bankruptcy, was identified with the legal realist movement; this pushed for an understanding of law based less on formalistic legal doctrines and more on the real-world effects of the law. While teaching at Yale, he and fellow professor Thurman Arnold were riding the New Haven Railroad and were inspired to set the sign Passengers will please refrain... to Antonín Dvořák's Humoresque #7.
Robert Maynard Hutchins described Douglas as "the most outstanding law professor in the nation". When Hutchins became president of the University of Chicago, Douglas accepted an offer to move there, which he backed out of once he was made a S
Tom C. Clark
Thomas Campbell Clark was an American lawyer who served as the 59th United States Attorney General from 1945 to 1949. He was an Associate Justice of the Supreme Court of the United States from 1949 to 1967. Born in Dallas, Clark graduated from the University of Texas School of Law after serving in World War I, he practiced law in Dallas until 1937, when he accepted a position in the United States Department of Justice. After Harry S. Truman became President of the United States in 1945, he chose Clark as his Attorney General. In 1949, Truman nominated Clark to fill the Supreme Court vacancy caused by the death of Associate Justice Frank Murphy. Clark remained on the court until his retirement in 1967, was succeeded by Thurgood Marshall. Clark retired so that Ramsey Clark, could assume the position of Attorney General. Clark served on the Warren Court, he voted with the Court's majority in the several cases concerning racial segregation, including the landmark case of Brown v. Board of Education.
He wrote the majority opinion in landmark Mapp v. Ohio, which ruled that the Fourth Amendment prohibition against unreasonable searches and seizures applies to the states through the Fourteenth Amendment, he wrote the majority opinion in Heart of Atlanta Motel v. United States, which upheld the public accommodations provision of the Civil Rights Act of 1964, the majority opinions in Garner v. Board of Public Works, Joseph Burstyn, Inc. v. Wilson, Abington School District v. Schempp. Clark was born in Dallas, Texas, on September 23, 1899, the son of Virginia Maxey, William Henry Clark, his parents had moved from Mississippi to Texas. Young Tom attended the local public schools including Dallas High School and received honors for debate and oratory, as well as became an Eagle Scout, he attended the Virginia Military Institute for a year, but returned home for financial reasons. In 1918, Clark volunteered to serve in World War I with the U. S. Army, but his weight was too low. However, the Texas National Guard accepted him, he served as an infantryman and advanced to Sergeant.
After the war ended, Clark enrolled at the University of Texas at Austin, receiving a BA degree in 1921. He began legal studies and received a law degree from the University of Texas School of Law, he was a brother of Delta Tau Delta fraternity, served as their international president. Upon admission to the Texas bar, Clark set up a law practice in his home town from 1922 to 1937, he left private practice to serve Dallas as civil district attorney from 1927 to 1932. He resumed his private practice for four years. Clark, a Democrat, joined the Justice Department in 1937 as a special assistant to the U. S. attorney general, working in the war risk litigation section. He moved to the antitrust division run by legendary trust-buster Thurman Arnold, in 1940 was sent to head up the department's west coast antitrust office; when the Japanese attacked Pearl Harbor the following year, Clark was named by Attorney General Francis Biddle as the Civilian Coordinator of the Alien Enemy Control Program. In this capacity he worked with General John DeWitt, the head of West Coast military forces, as well as his future Supreme Court colleague Earl Warren, attorney general of California, other top federal and state officials in the lead up to the internment of Japanese Americans.
The initial actions involved enforcement of policies to exclude Japanese Americans from areas designated by the military as prohibited, followed by evacuation from "critical zones and areas," and by forcible relocation to inland camps. Clark was not directly involved with the relocation of Japanese Americans to internment camps, having been reassigned to Washington in May 1942, although he acknowledged that the government's relocation program was a mistake In 1943, Clark was promoted to Assistant Attorney General for Antitrust, subsequently became the head of the Justice Department's Criminal Division. Clark was appointed to head up a new War Frauds unit created to investigate and prosecute corruption by government contractors. During this period he worked with, befriended Harry Truman, whose Truman Committee was investigating war frauds. One prominent case Clark was involved with during this period included the successful prosecution of two German spies who came ashore from a German submarine in 1944 to the East Coast of the United States as part of Operation Magpie.
One, William Colepaugh, was an American citizen, while Erich Gimpel, was a native German. The prosecution took place before a military tribunal on Governor's Island in New York, only the third such military trial in the nation's history. One of President Truman's first changes in the cabinet that he inherited from Franklin Roosevelt was his appointment of Tom Clark as attorney general in 1945, a switch made in part because of the close personal and professional relationship shared by the two men. Media coverage of Clark's nomination was favorable, reflected the strength of Clark's legal and political skills; as a short article in Life Magazine stated, "He is a good prosecutor and good lawyer, but most of all he is a thorough politician.". As attorney general, Clark continued to focus a good deal of the department's energy on prosecuting war fraud crimes, as well as aggressively taking on potential antitrust violations. Clark and the White House challenged John Lewis, the head of the United Mine Workers union, threatening a national strike.
Acting on Truman's orders to enforce a law prohibiting strikes against government-run facilit
In United States law, the Establishment Clause of the First Amendment to the United States Constitution, together with that Amendment's Free Exercise Clause, form the constitutional right of freedom of religion. The relevant constitutional text is: "Congress shall make no law respecting an establishment of religion, or prohibiting the free exercise thereof...". The Establishment Clause was based on a number of precedents, including the Constitutions of Clarendon, the Bill of Rights 1689, the Pennsylvania and New Jersey colonial constitutions. An initial draft by John Dickinson was prepared in conjunction with his drafting the Articles of Confederation. In 1789, then-congressman James Madison prepared another draft which, following discussion and debate in the First Congress, would become part of the text of the First Amendment of the Bill of Rights; the second half of the Establishment Clause includes the Free Exercise Clause, which allows individual citizens freedom from governmental interference in both private and public religious affairs.
The Establishment Clause is a limitation placed upon the United States Congress preventing it from passing legislation forcing an establishment of religion. The second half of the Establishment Clause inherently prohibits the government from preventing the free exercise of religion. While the Establishment Clause does prohibit Congress from preferring or elevating one religion over another, it does not prohibit the government's entry into the religious domain to make accommodations for religious observances and practices in order to achieve the purposes of the Free Exercise Clause. Furthermore, it does not prevent the placement of religious symbols on government premises; the Constitutions of Clarendon, a 12th-century English law, had prohibited criminal defendants' using religious laws to seek exemption from criminal prosecution. The 1689 English Bill of Rights secured the rights of all "persons" to be free from establishment of Roman Catholic laws in the government of England; the original Mason-Dixon line was the demarcation line between the Catholic colony of Maryland and the New Jersey and Pennsylvania colonies, which followed the 1689 Bill of Rights and their own colonial constitutions which provided similar protections against the establishment of Catholic laws in government.
A possible additional precursor of the Free Exercise Clause was the Virginia Statute for Religious Freedom. The statute was drafted by Thomas Jefferson in 1777 and was introduced in the Virginia General Assembly in 1779, it did not pass the General Assembly until 1786. James Madison played an important role in its passage; the statute disestablished the Church of England in Virginia and guaranteed freedom of religion exercise to men of all religious faiths, including Catholics and Jews as well as members of all Protestant denominations. The Virginia Statute for Religious Freedom granted these rights to men, whereas the First Amendment to the United States Constitution grants rights to persons, as does the 1689 Bill of Rights and the colonial constitutions in New Jersey and Pennsylvania; the First Amendment is part of a group of 10 Amendments to the United States Constitution known as the Bill of Rights. The idea of adding a Bill of Rights to the Constitution was proposed by George Mason five days before the conclusion of the Constitutional Convention held in Philadelphia in 1787.
His proposal was rejected by the other delegates. Alexander Hamilton argued in The Federalist Papers that a Bill of Rights was unnecessary, claiming that since the Constitution granted limited powers to the federal government, it did not grant the new government the power to abuse the rights that would be secured by a Bill of Rights; the supporters of the Constitution in order to secure its ratification in Massachusetts, agreed to add a group of Amendments to the Constitution after its ratification that would serve as a Bill of Rights. Six more states recommended the addition of a Bill of Rights, the idea gained the support of Jefferson and Madison; when the First Federal Congress met in 1789, Madison implemented the idea by introducing 17 Amendments to the Constitution. By December 1791, ten of his Amendments were ratified by the necessary three quarters of the states, they became part of the US Constitution, thereafter becoming known as "the Bill of Rights"; the Establishment Clause addressed the concerns of members of minority faiths who did not want the federal government to establish a state religion for the entire nation.
The Baptists in Virginia, for example, had suffered discrimination prior to the disestablishment of the Anglican church in 1786. As Virginia prepared to hold its elections to the state ratifying convention in 1788, the Baptists were concerned that the Constitution had no safeguard against the creation of a new national church. In Orange County, two federalist candidates, James Madison and James Gordon Jr. were running against two anti-federalists, Thomas Barbour and Charles Porter. Barbour requested to John Leland, an influential Baptist preacher and fervent lifelong proponent of religious liberty, that he write a letter to Barbour outlining his objections to the proposed Constitution. Leland stated in the letter that, among his other concerns, the Constitution had no Bill of Rights and no safeguards for religious liberty and freedom of the press. A number of historians have concluded on the basis of compelling circumstantial evidence that, just prior to the election in March 1788, Madison met with Leland and gained his support of ratification by addressing these concerns and providing him with the necessary reassurances.
In any event, Leland cast his vote for Madison
The American Legion v. American Humanist Association
The American Legion v. American Humanist Association is a current case before the United States Supreme Court dealing with the separation of church and state related to maintaining the Peace Cross, a World War I memorial shaped after a Latin cross, on government-owned land, though built in 1925 with private funds on private lands; the case is a consolidation of two petitions to the court, that of The American Legion who built the cross, of the Maryland-National Capital Park and Planning Commission who own the land and maintain the memorial. Both petitions challenge the Fourth Circuit's ruling that, regardless of the secular purpose the cross was built for in honoring the deceased soldiers, the cross emboldened a religious symbol and had ordered it altered or razed; the 40 feet -tall Peace Cross was constructed in Bladensburg, Maryland by the American Legion with private funding in 1925 to honor the local servicemen that died during World War I. The creators opted for the cross shape as it was similar to the gravemarkers that were left in the war theaters to commemorate the dead buried there, not for the Christianity religious implications.
At the time it was built, the monument was on private land, but the land was donated in 1961 to the Maryland-National Capital Park and Planning Commission, a bi-county agency in Maryland, making it parkland owned by the state. The Commission continued to maintain the Cross as additional highways were laid down across the land; the Commission provided illumination for the monument at night, allowed the Cross to be used as a central point for Memorial Day and Veterans Day observances. Additional war memorials were built on nearby lands. Around 2012, local residents recognized that the placement of the Cross on state lands and the Commission's continued care for it with taxpayer funds may be against the principle of the separation of church and state. A formal lawsuit was filed by the American Humanist Association, an atheist advocacy group, that argued that the Peace Cross violated the Establishment Clause of the Constitution; the case was heard by Judge Deborah Chasanow of the United States District Court for the District of Maryland, which granted summary judgement for the Commission.
Chasanow wrote that by the test established in Lemon v. Kurtzman, Van Orden v. Perry and Town of Greece v. Galloway that the purpose of the Peace Cross was secular to honor fallen soldiers, did not violate the Establishment Clause; the American Humanist Association appealed to the United States Court of Appeals for the Fourth Circuit. The Fourth Circuit reversed the District Court's ruling on a 2-1 basis, with the majority, Judges Stephanie Thacker and James A. Wynn Jr. arguing that despite the Commission's argument on the monument's secular nature, the symbol of the cross had been considered a religious icon for centuries, thus they considered that its installation and maintenance on public lands violated the Establishment Clause. Further, the decision argued that the Commission's continued maintenance of the memorial contributed to entangling the state with a religious figure, further violating the Establishment Clause though the Commissions argued this was for purposes of motorist safety.
The Fourth Circuit concluded that the Commission's maintenance of the Peace Cross has "a primary effect of endorsing religion and excessively entangles the government and religion". The request for an en banc hearing was denied, through dissenters to this decision, including Chief Judge Roger Gregory who dissented on the first ruling, feared that the ruling could affect thousands of cross-shaped memorials on public lands though they were built under similar secular purposes as the Peace Cross. With the refusal, the Fourth Circuit subsequently ordered the Peace Cross to be altered so that it no longer resembled a cross, or to be razed. Both the Commission and the American Legion filed petitions for writ of certiorari to the Supreme Court, asking them to review the Fourth Circuit's decision. Both petitions were consolidated to a single case. Questions asked included whether a memorial having the shape of a cross placed on public lands should be considered a violation of the Establishment Clause or under what past tests should they considered under, whether maintaining such memorials for other interests of the state, such as road safety, creates entanglement under the Establishment Clause.
Among those supporting the Commission and American Legion included numerous veterans groups, the Trump Administration, several Congresspersons. The Court accepted the case in November 2018; the issue of cross-shaped memorials on public lands had been heard in Salazar v. Buono in 2010; this had made it difficult to use Salazar such as this one. Oral arguments were heard February 27, 2019. Observers to the court believed the justices were in majority to support reversing the Fourth Circuit, believing that the memorial as built had secular purposes reflecting the way soldiers were memorialized at the time. However, how to qualify this under past case law was left as a question, that if new memorials carrying the cross shape were installed today, they may not be acceptable under the Establishment Clause
Abraham "Abe" Fortas was a U. S. Supreme Court Associate Justice from 1965 to 1969. A native of Memphis, Fortas became a law professor at Yale University, an advisor for the U. S. Securities and Exchange Commission. Fortas worked at the Department of the Interior under President Franklin D. Roosevelt, during that time President Harry S. Truman appointed him to delegations that helped set up the United Nations in 1945. In 1948 Fortas represented Lyndon Johnson in the hotly contested Democratic Senatorial Second Primary electoral dispute, he formed close ties with the president-to-be. Fortas represented Clarence Earl Gideon before the U. S. Supreme Court, in a landmark case involving the right to counsel. Nominated by Johnson to the Supreme Court in 1965, Fortas was confirmed by the Senate, maintained a close working relationship with the president. In 1968, Johnson tried to elevate Fortas to the position of Chief Justice, but that nomination faced a filibuster at least in part due to ethics problems that caused Fortas to resign from the Court.
Fortas returned to private practice, sometimes appearing before the justices with whom he had served. Fortas was born in Memphis, the son of Rachael/Ray and Wolf/William Fortas, a cabinetmaker, he was the youngest of five children. His parents were Orthodox Jewish immigrants, his father was born in England, to parents from Russia, his mother was born in Russia. Fortas acquired a lifelong love for music from his father, who encouraged his playing the violin, was known in Memphis as "Fiddlin' Abe Fortas", he attended public schools in Memphis, graduating from South Side High School in 1926 at the age of 16. He next attended Southwestern at Memphis, a liberal arts college now called Rhodes College on a scholarship, graduated first in his class in 1930 with a Bachelor of Arts degree in political science. Fortas earned scholarships from both Harvard Law School and Yale Law School but decided to attend Yale, becoming the youngest law student there at 20 years old, he became editor in chief of the Yale Law Journal and graduated cum laude and second in the class of 1933.
One of his professors, William O. Douglas, was impressed with Fortas, Douglas arranged for him to stay at Yale to become an assistant professor of law. Shortly thereafter, Douglas left Yale to run the U. S. Securities and Exchange Commission in Washington, D. C. Fortas commuted between New Haven and Washington, both teaching at Yale and advising the SEC. In 1935, Fortas married Carolyn E. Agger, they had no children, after he became an Associate Justice, they lived at 3210 R Street NW in the Georgetown section of Washington, D. C. Fortas was an amateur musician who played the violin in a quartet, called the "N Street Strictly-no-refunds String Quartet" on Sunday evenings, it included prominent musicians passing through town, such as Isaac Stern. Fortas was a good friend of the first democratically elected Governor of Puerto Rico, Luis Muñoz Marín, calling him "a spectacularly great figure". Fortas visited the island frequently lobbied for the island's interests in Congress, participated in drafting the Constitution of Puerto Rico, gave legal advice to Marín's administration whenever requested.
The Puerto Rican actor José Ferrer portrayed Fortas in the film Gideon's Trumpet. Fortas served as general counsel of the Public Works Administration and as Undersecretary of the Interior during the administration of Franklin D. Roosevelt. While he was working at the U. S. Department of the Interior, the Secretary of the Interior, Harold L. Ickes, introduced him to a young congressman from Texas, Lyndon Johnson. In 1945, Fortas was granted a leave of absence from the Department of Interior to join the Armed Forces of the United States. According to his official biography, within a month, Fortas was discharged because of an arrested case of ocular tuberculosis. In 1945, he was appointed by President Harry Truman as an advisor to the U. S. delegation during the organizational meeting of the United Nations in San Francisco and at the 1946 General Assembly meeting in London. In 1946, after leaving government service, Fortas founded a law firm, Arnold & Fortas, with Thurman Arnold. Former Federal Communications Commission commissioner Paul A. Porter joined the firm in 1947, after the appointment of Fortas to the Supreme Court, the firm was renamed Arnold & Porter.
For many years, it has been one of Washington's most influential law firms, today is among the largest law firms in the world. In 1948, Lyndon Johnson ran for the Democratic nomination for one of the two seats in the U. S. Senate from Texas. Johnson won the Democratic primary by only 87 votes, his opponent, former Governor of Texas Coke R. Stevenson, persuaded a federal judge to issue an order taking Johnson's name off the general election ballot while the primary results were being contested. There were serious allegations of corruption in the voting process, including 200 votes for Johnson, cast in alphabetical order. Johnson asked Fortas for help, Fortas persuaded Supreme Court Justice Hugo Black to overturn the ruling. Johnson won the general election and became a U. S. Senator. During the Red Scare of the late 1940s and early 1950s, Fortas came to widespread notice as the defense attorney for Owen Lattimore. In 1950, Fortas clashed with Senator Joseph McCarthy when representing Lattimore before the Tydings Committee, before the Senate Internal Security Subcommittee.
Fortas opposed the creation of a presidential commission to investigate the assassination of President John F. Kennedy; when it became clear that multiple investigations were gearing up simultan
United States Reports
The United States Reports are the official record of the rulings, case tables, in alphabetical order both by the name of the petitioner and by the name of the respondent, other proceedings of the Supreme Court of the United States. United States Reports, once printed and bound, are the final version of court opinions and cannot be changed. Opinions of the court in each case are prepended with a headnote prepared by the Reporter of Decisions, any concurring or dissenting opinions are published sequentially; the Court's Publication Office oversees the binding and publication of the volumes of United States Reports, although the actual printing and publication are performed by private firms under contract with the United States Government Publishing Office. For lawyers, citations to United States Reports are the standard reference for Supreme Court decisions. Following The Bluebook, a accepted citation protocol, the case Brown, et al. v. Board of Education of Topeka, for example, would be cited as: Brown v. Bd. of Educ.
347 U. S. 483. This citation indicates that the decision of the Court in the case entitled Brown v. Board of Education, as abbreviated in Bluebook style, was decided in 1954 and can be found in volume 347 of the United States Reports starting on page 483; the early volumes of the United States Reports were published by the individual Supreme Court Reporters. As was the practice in England, the reports were designated by the names of the reporters who compiled them: Dallas's Reports, Cranch's Reports, etc; the decisions appearing in the entire first volume and most of the second volume of United States Reports are not decisions of the United States Supreme Court. Instead, they are decisions from various Pennsylvania courts, dating from the colonial period and the first decade after Independence. Alexander Dallas, a lawyer and journalist, of Philadelphia, had been in the business of reporting these cases for newspapers and periodicals, he subsequently began compiling his case reports in a bound volume, which he called Reports of cases ruled and adjudged in the courts of Pennsylvania and since the Revolution.
This would come to be known as the first volume of Dallas Reports. When the United States Supreme Court, along with the rest of the new Federal Government moved, in 1791, from New York City to the nation's temporary capital in Philadelphia, Dallas was appointed the Supreme Court's first unofficial, unpaid, Supreme Court Reporter. Dallas continued to publish Pennsylvania decisions in a second volume of his Reports; when the Supreme Court began hearing cases, he added those cases to his reports, starting towards the end of the second volume, 2 Dallas Reports, with West v. Barnes. Dallas went on to publish a total of four volumes of decisions during his tenure as Reporter; when the Supreme Court moved to Washington, D. C. in 1800, Dallas remained in Philadelphia, William Cranch took over as unofficial reporter of decisions. In 1817, Congress made the Reporter of Decisions an official, salaried position, although the publication of the Reports remained a private enterprise for the reporter's personal gain.
The reports themselves were the subject of an early copyright case, Wheaton v. Peters, in which former reporter Henry Wheaton sued current reporter Richard Peters for reprinting cases from Wheaton's Reports in abridged form. In 1874, the U. S. government began creating the United States Reports. The earlier, private reports were retroactively numbered volumes 1–90 of the United States Reports, starting from the first volume of Dallas Reports. Therefore, decisions appearing in these early reports have dual citation forms: one for the volume number of the United States Reports. For example, the complete citation to McCulloch v. Maryland is 17 U. S. 316. Reporter of Decisions of the Supreme Court of the United States Lists of United States Supreme Court cases by volume National Reporter System United States Supreme Court: Information About Opinions United States Supreme Court: Bound Volumes – Lists of PDFs Torrents of United States Reports 502–550
LexisNexis Group is a corporation providing computer-assisted legal research as well as business research and risk management services. During the 1970s, LexisNexis pioneered the electronic accessibility of legal and journalistic documents; as of 2006, the company has the world's largest electronic database for legal and public-records related information. LexisNexis is owned by RELX Group; the story of LexisNexis starts in western Pennsylvania in 1956, when attorney John Horty began to explore the use of CALR technology in support of his work on comparative hospital law at the University of Pittsburgh Health Law Center. In 1965, Horty's pioneering work inspired the Ohio State Bar Association to develop its own separate CALR system, Ohio Bar Automated Research. In 1967, the OSBA signed a contract with Data Corporation, a local defense contractor, to build OBAR based on the OSBA's written specifications. Data proceeded to implement OBAR on Data Central, an interactive full-text search system developed in 1964 as Recon Central to help U.
S. Air Force intelligence analysts search text summaries of the contents of aerial and satellite reconnaissance photographs. In 1968, paper manufacturer Mead Corporation purchased Data Corporation for $6 million to gain control of its inkjet printing technology. Mead hired the Arthur D. Little firm to study the business possibilities for the Data Central technology. Arthur D. Little dispatched a team of consultants to Ohio led by H. Donald Wilson. Mead asked for a practicing lawyer on the team, so the team included Jerome Rubin, a Harvard-trained attorney with 20 years of experience; the resulting study concluded that the nonlegal market was nonexistent, the legal market had potential, OBAR needed to be rebuilt to profitably exploit that market. At the time, OBAR searches took up to five hours to complete if more than one user was online, its original terminals were noisy Teletypes with slow transmission rates of 10 characters per second. OBAR had quality control issues. Wilson and Rubin were installed as president and vice president.
A year Mead bought out the OSBA's interests in the OBAR project, OBAR disappears from the historical record after that point. Wilson was reluctant to implement his own study's recommendation to abandon the OBAR/Data Central work to date and start over. In September 1971, Mead relegated Wilson to vice chairman of the board and elevated Rubin to president of MDC. Rubin promptly pushed the legacy Data Central technology back to Mead Corporation. Under a newly organized division, Mead Technical Laboratories, Data Central continued to operate as a service bureau for nonlegal applications until 1980. With that out of the way, Rubin hired a new team to build from scratch an new information service dedicated to legal research, he coined a new name: LEXIS, from “lex,” the Latin word for law, “IS” for “information service.” After several iterations, the original functional and performance specifications were finalized by Rubin and executive vice president Bob Bennett by the late summer of 1972. System designer Edward Gottsman supervised the implementation of the specifications as working computer code.
At the same time and Bennett orchestrated the necessary keyboarding of the legal materials to be provided through LEXIS, designed a business plan, marketing strategy, training program. MDC's corporate headquarters were moved to New York City, while the data center stayed in Dayton, Ohio. According to Trudi Bellardo Hahn and Charles P. Bourne, LEXIS was the first of the early information services to realize the vision of a future in which large populations of end users would directly interact with computer databases, rather than going through professional intermediaries like librarians. Other early information services in the 1970s crashed into financial and technological constraints and were forced to retreat to the professional intermediary model until the early 1990s. Rubin explained that they were trying “to crack the librarian barrier. Our goal was to get a LEXIS terminal on every lawyer’s desk.” To persuade American lawyers to use LEXIS, MDC targeted them with aggressive marketing and training campaigns.
On April 2, 1973, MDC publicly launched LEXIS at a press conference in New York City, with libraries of New York and Ohio case law as well as a separate library of federal tax materials. By the end of that year, the LEXIS database had reached two billion characters in size and had added the entire United States Code, as well as the United States Reports from 1938 through 1973. By 1974, LEXIS was running on an IBM 370/155 computer in Ohio supported by a set of IBM 3330 disk storage units which could store up to about 4 billion characters, its communications processor could handle 62 terminals with transmission speed at 120 characters per second per user. On this platform, LEXIS was able to execute over 90% of searches within less than five seconds. Over 100 text terminals had been deployed to various legal offices and there were over 4,000 trained LEXIS users. By 1975, the LEXIS database had grown to 5 billion characters and it could handle up to 200 terminals simultaneously. By 1976, the LEXIS database included case law from six states, plus various federal materials.
MDC turned a profit for the first time in 1977. In 1980, LEXIS completed