Kenneth Lee Salazar is an American politician who served as the 50th United States Secretary of the Interior in the administration of President Barack Obama from 2009 to 2013. A member of the Democratic Party, he was a United States Senator from Colorado from 2005 to 2009, he and Mel Martinez were the first Hispanic U. S. Senators since 1977. Prior to his election to the U. S. Senate, he served as Attorney General of Colorado from 1999 to 2005. On December 17, 2008, President-elect Obama announced he would nominate Salazar as U. S. Secretary of the Interior; the environmentalist movement's reaction to this nomination was mixed. Salazar supported the nomination of Gale Norton to Secretary of the Interior, President George W. Bush's first appointee who preceded Salazar as Colorado Attorney General. On January 20, 2009, Salazar was confirmed by unanimous consent in the Senate. On January 16, 2013, it was reported that Salazar planned to resign his post as Secretary of the Interior in March 2013, but his resignation was delayed pending Senate confirmation of his successor, Sally Jewell.
On June 10, 2013 he became a partner in the major international law firm of WilmerHale, was tasked with opening a Denver office for the firm. On August 16, 2016, Salazar was appointed to head presidential candidate Hillary Clinton's transition team. Ken Salazar was born in Alamosa, the son of Emma Montoya and Enrique Salazar, his elder brother is former Congressman John Salazar. He grew up near Manassa, in the community of Los Rincones in the San Luis Valley area of south-central Colorado. Salazar attended St. Francis Seminary and Centauri High School in La Jara, graduating in 1973, he attended Colorado College, earning a Bachelor of Arts degree in political science in 1977, received his Juris Doctor from the University of Michigan Law School in 1981. Salazar was awarded honorary degrees from Colorado College and the University of Denver. After graduating, Salazar started private law practice. Although Salazar's Hispanic ancestry is of the Hispanos from what is today the Southwestern United States, with his family there dating back to the 16th century from when that region was part of New Spain, he has identified as Mexican American saying: "I've been taunted, called names—from dirty Mexican to lots of other names—as I was growing up, now as a United States senator."Salazar and his wife, have two daughters and two granddaughters.
In 1986, Salazar became chief legal counsel to Governor Roy Romer. In this position, he authored the Great Outdoors Colorado Amendment, which created a massive land conservation program of which he became chairman. Salazar created the Youth in Natural Resources program, giving thousands of Colorado's youth an opportunity to work and learn about Colorado's natural resources in public schools; the Great Outdoors Colorado program's success was a model for President Obama's America's Great Outdoors Initiative to create a 21st-century agenda for conservation and outdoor recreation. In his cabinet role, he established reforms that forced mining and petroleum operations to better protect the surrounding environment and helped plan and promote Denver's South Platte River Valley redevelopment, transforming the area from an abandoned wasteland to a vibrant economic center. In 1994, Salazar returned to private practice. In 1998, he was elected state attorney general. Police operations were streamlined under Salazar, several new branches of law enforcement were created: the Gang Prosecution Unit, the Environmental Crimes Unit, the General Fugitive Prosecutive Unit, which targeted murderers.
He worked to strengthen consumer protection and anti-fraud laws, as well as to protect children through new policy designed to crack down on sex offenders. As Colorado Attorney General, he led numerous investigations, including into the 1999 Columbine High School massacre. Salazar was awarded the Conference of Western Attorneys General Profile in Courage award for his work. During Salazar's tenure, his office pursued several environmental cleanup cases around the state. In a water contamination case involving the Summitville mine in Rio Grande County, Salazar helped broker a joint settlement in which the federal and state government shared the $5 million settlement proceeds. In 2004, Salazar declared his candidacy for the U. S. Senate seat being vacated by retiring Republican Senator Ben Nighthorse Campbell. Salazar considers himself a moderate and has at times taken positions that are in disagreement with the base of his party—for example, he opposed gay adoption for a number of years, although by 2004 he had reversed that position.
Salazar fell behind to candidate Mike Miles early in the state's caucus process. The national Democratic Party backed Salazar with contributions from the DSCC, Salazar came back to defeat Miles in the Democratic primary, going on to defeat beer executive Pete Coors of the Coors Brewing Company and win the general election for the Senate seat, his elder brother John had an electoral victory in 2004, winning a race for the U. S. House of Representatives from Colorado's 3rd congressional district, he took office on January 4, 2005. Soon after arriving in the Senate, Salazar generated controversy within his party by introducing United States Attorney General nominee Alberto Gonzales and sitting by his side during Gonzales' confirmation hearings. Salazar was a leading member of a bipartisan group of Senators that developed the Compre
Grazing rights is the right of a user to allow their livestock to feed in a given area. Grazing rights have never been codified in United States law, because such common-law rights derive from the English concept of the commons, a piece of land over which people neighboring landowners, could exercise one of a number of such traditional rights, including livestock grazing. Prior to the 19th century, the traditional practice of grazing the open range in the United States was disputed because of the sheer amount of unsettled open land. However, as the population of the western United States increased in the mid-to-late 19th century, range wars erupted over the ranchers' perceived rights to graze their cattle as the western range deteriorated with overuse. In 1934, the Taylor Grazing Act formally set out the federal government's powers and policy on grazing federal lands in the western United States by establishing the Division of Grazing and procedures for issuing permits to graze federal lands for a fixed period of time.
The Division of Grazing was renamed the US Grazing Service in 1939 and merged in 1946 with the General Land Office to become the Bureau of Land Management, which along with the United States Forest Service oversees public lands grazing in 16 western states today. However, grazing was never established as a legal right in the U. S. and the Taylor Grazing Act authorized only the permitted use of lands designated as available for livestock grazing while specifying that grazing permits "convey no right, title, or interest" to such lands. Although the regulations stipulated by the Taylor Grazing Act apply only to grazing on Bureau of Land Management lands, the Chief of the Forest Service is authorized to permit or suspend grazing on Forest Service administered property, many Forest Service grazing regulations resemble those of the Taylor Grazing Act. In Dalmatia, judgments about grazing rights are a fundamental part of the jurisprudence; the oldest court verdict in Dalmatia in a court case about grazing rights dates from the 14th century.
It is a usufruct of property, which belongs to someone else. Use of someone else's property requires a contract about the usufruct; the court may declare parts of the contract as unlawful. If there is no contract, common law comes to apply; the decisions on, allowed to judge on grazing rights cases were different in the Middle Ages, which reasoned in tradition and in the natural resources in each area, such as water, meadows and others. Some peasants wrote their own statute, like Poljica republic in 1440; some dukes wrote together with some peasants their own statute, like Law codex of Vinodol from 1288. Bureau of Land Management enclosure Leyton Marshes ranchers Tragedy of the commons village green water rights
Canyons of the Ancients National Monument
Canyons of the Ancients National Monument is a national monument protecting an archaeologically-significant landscape located in the southwestern region of the U. S. state of Colorado. The monument's 176,056 acres are managed by the Bureau of Land Management, as directed in the Presidential proclamation which created the site on June 9, 2000. Canyons of the Ancients National Monument is part of the National Landscape Conservation System, better known as the National Conservation Lands; this system comprises 32 million acres managed by the Bureau of Land Management to conserve and restore these nationally significant landscapes recognized for their outstanding cultural and scientific values. Canyons of the Ancients encompasses and surrounds three of the four separate sections of Hovenweep National Monument, administered by the National Park Service; the monument was proclaimed in order to preserve the largest concentration of archaeological sites in the United States Ancestral Puebloan ruins.
As of 2005, over 6,000 individual archeological sites had been identified within the monument. Canyons of the Ancients National Monument is located 9 miles west of Pleasant View, Colorado in southwestern Colorado; the monument's northern and eastern boundaries are canyons. Its western boundary is the Colorado-Utah state border. Lands south are bordered by the Ute Mountain McElmo Creek. Ancient Pueblo people lived in the Canyons of the Ancients in the 10th century. For a fuller understanding of the architecture and life style during this period, pueblo buildings in the Mesa Verde region were built with stone, windows facing south, in U, E and L shapes; the buildings were located more together and reflected deepening religious celebration. Towers were built near kivas and used for look-outs. Pottery became more versatile, including pitchers, bowls and tableware for food and drink. White pottery with black designs emerged. Water management and conservation techniques, including the use of reservoirs and silt-retaining dams emerged during this period.
As refinements in construction techniques increased, the Puebloans built larger pueblos, or villages, on top of the pit-houses starting about AD 1090. Lowry Pueblo had just a few rooms and 2 kivas in 1090 and the village was expanded two times about 1103 and 1120 until it had 40 rooms, 8 kivas and one great kiva. Like their ancient neighbors at Hovenweep National Monument and Mesa Verde National Park, the Lowry Pueblo dwellers were farmers and hunters, they grew beans and squash and raised turkeys. They made and decorated pottery. At least 6,000 distinct structures have been identified in the monument, the density of archeological remains is the highest of any region in the United States; the vast majority of stone structures in the national monument are from the Ancient Puebloans era. More than 20,000 sites have been identified. After building basic pit style structures at first, the Puebloans built villages with cliff dwellings. Archaeological ruins include Sweat lodges, kivas and petroglyphs.
Reservoirs with stone and earthen dams, including spillways and numerous check dams, built in case of flash floods. Stone towers which may have been lookout or sentry posts, are found scattered throughout the monument. Unlike other Ancient Pueblo site abandonment, it appears that the people of the Canyons of the Ancients left the sites much earlier than their neighbors, some time in the mid-12th century; some of the artifacts found from the site show a connection to the Chacoan culture, while others are similar to those of the Mesa Verde dwellers. Other Ancient Pueblo people from the area migrated south to Arizona and New Mexico, ancestors to modern pueblo people such as the Hopi and Zuni. Modern Pueblo people are located on reservations in New Mexico, but some in Arizona; the 60,000 people's pueblos and reservations reside in three geographic areas: along the Rio Grande canyon in New Mexico, such as the Taos Pueblo southern New Mexican Zuni, Acuna and Isleta pueblos and reservations Arizona Hopi.
After 1300, hunter-gathers, ancestors of the Ute and Navajo, moved into the southwestern Colorado and southeastern Utah and came to inhabit the region. The ancestors to the Navajo were one of the tribes of the southern division of the Athabaskan language family that migrated south from Alaska and northwestern Canada, most traveling through the Great Basin; the Navajo ancestors were in the area after AD 1300, but at least by the early 16th century. The people from who the Ute descended arrived in the area from the west in this period from 1300 to the 18th century; the Ute's ancestors are hunter-gatherers who, in the 12th century, began migrating east from the present southern California area into a large hunter-gathering territory as far east as the Great Plains and in the canyons and mountains of eastern Utah and Colorado. During this period, the Spanish colonial reach extended to northern New Mexico, where they settled in the 16th century, they introduced items for trade, such as guns and horses and deadly diseases, cultural influence in the forms of religion and forms of government.
In the 18th century, Spanish missionaries visited the area looking for a route to Spanish missions in California. One of the expeditions was that of Spanish friars Silvestre Vélez de Escalante and Francisco Atanasio Domínguez who traveled from New Mexico, through western Colorado to Utah; the first Anglo American people arrived starting with trappers. With the discovery of
John Wright Hickenlooper Jr. is an American politician and businessman who served as the 42nd Governor of Colorado from 2011 to 2019. He is a member of the Democratic Party. In 2019, he announced that he is running for President of the United States in 2020. Born in Narberth, Hickenlooper is a graduate of Wesleyan University. After his career as a geologist, Hickenlooper entered a career in business and cofounded the Wynkoop Brewing Company in Denver. Hickenlooper was elected the 43rd mayor of Denver in 2003, serving two terms, until 2011. After incumbent governor Bill Ritter announced that he would not seek reelection, Hickenlooper announced his intentions to run for the Democratic nomination, in January 2010, he won in an uncontested primary and faced Constitution Party candidate, former representative Tom Tancredo, Republican businessman Dan Maes in the general election, which he won with 51% of the vote. He was re-elected to a second term in 2014, defeating Republican former U. S. representative Bob Beauprez by 49% to 46%.
Hickenlooper was born in Narberth, Pennsylvania, a middle-class area of the suburban Main Line of Philadelphia. He is the son of John Wright Hickenlooper, his paternal great-grandfather Andrew Hickenlooper was a Union general, his paternal grandfather, Smith Hickenlooper, was a United States federal judge. Hickenlooper was raised by his mother from a young age after his father's death. A 1970 graduate of The Haverford School, an independent boys school in Haverford, Pennsylvania, he went on to attend Wesleyan University, where he received a B. A. in English in 1974, a master's degree in geology in 1980. Hickenlooper worked as a geologist in Colorado in the early 1980s. With the decline of the local oil industry, Hickenlooper was laid off. Instead of moving away, he decided to start the Wynkoop Brewing Company brewpub in 1988. Wynkoop and a few other businesses contributed to the redevelopment of the LoDo area following the arrival of major league baseball to the neighborhood; the area was known to be dangerous.
When it first opened, the rent for Wynkoop's real estate was $1 per square foot per year. Hickenlooper was elected the 43rd mayor of Denver in 2003. Hickenlooper's first tasks included handling the city's budget crisis and changing its career personnel system, his cabinet appointees were young. Municipal elections in Denver are nonpartisan. Hickenlooper won re-election in May 2007, with 88 % of the vote. In 2005, he was named by Time as one of the top five big-city mayors in the U. S. Hickenlooper resigned as mayor at 8 am on January 11, 2011, hours before being inaugurated as Colorado's governor. On January 11, 2011, Hickenlooper was sworn in as the 42nd governor of Colorado. On December 4, 2012, he was elected to serve as vice chair of the Democratic Governors Association, he serves on the Western Governors' Association, served as the chairman of the National Governors' Association from July 2014 to July 2015. On August 25, 2017, it was reported that Republican Governor of Ohio John Kasich was considering the possibility of a 2020 unity ticket to run against Donald Trump with Kasich at the top and Hickenlooper as vice president.
Constitutionally limited to two consecutive terms, Hickenlooper could not run for governor in 2018. Since 2003, Hickenlooper has campaigned for increasing services to the homeless, he announced a "10 Year Plan to End Homelessness" at the U. S. Conference of Mayors in Washington, D. C. In 2000, Colorado voters passed Initiative 20. In 2006, Denver became one of the first major U. S. cities to legalize the medical use of and decriminalize possession of cannabis by those over age 18. Hickenlooper a co-owner of the Wynkoop Brewing Company, opposed the cannabis rescheduling initiative, which voters approved 53.49%–46.51%, but he did say that the vote "reflect a genuine shift in people's attitudes". Under the current Denver Police interpretation of the law, supported by Hickenlooper, the initiative does not usurp the state law, the Colorado Revised Statutes. In 2012, Amendment 64 was added to the Colorado constitution allowing possession of up to one ounce of cannabis for those over 21 for recreational use.
Though Hickenlooper had been publicly against this policy as well, he said he would enforce the will of the people. On January 23, 2015, he said that "This was a bad idea", that other governors should wait and see what the consequences will be; as Colorado's new laws have been implemented and the results become more clear, Hickenlooper has indicated that his views have evolved, stating in May 2016 that Colorado's approach to cannabis legalization is "beginning to look like it might work". On March 20, 2013, Hickenlooper signed bills HB1224, HB1228 and HB1229. HB1224 created a limit of 15 rounds in magazines that could be bought, sold or transferred within the state. HB1229 requires background checks for any firearm transfer within the state, HB1228 taxes firearm transfers to recover costs of the background checks from HB1229. Opponents of these bills gathered enough signatures to trigger special recall elections that resulted in the recall of Democratic senate president John Morse, Democratic senator Angela Giron.
Democratic senator Evie Hudak resigned rather than face her own recall election on this issue. Hickenlooper is a member of the gun control group Mayors Against Illegal Guns, an organization formed in 2006 and co-chaired by former New York City mayor Michael Bloomberg and former Boston mayor Thomas Menino. In 2018, Hickenlooper supported a Red Flag or Extreme Risk Protectio
Mesa Verde National Park
Mesa Verde National Park is an American national park and UNESCO World Heritage Site located in Montezuma County, Colorado. The park protects some of the best-preserved Ancestral Puebloan archaeological sites in the United States. Established by Congress and President Theodore Roosevelt in 1906, the park occupies 52,485 acres near the Four Corners region of the American Southwest. With more than 5,000 sites, including 600 cliff dwellings, it is the largest archaeological preserve in the United States. Mesa Verde is best known for structures such as Cliff Palace, thought to be the largest cliff dwelling in North America. Starting c. 7500 BCE Mesa Verde was seasonally inhabited by a group of nomadic Paleo-Indians known as the Foothills Mountain Complex. The variety of projectile points found in the region indicates they were influenced by surrounding areas, including the Great Basin, the San Juan Basin, the Rio Grande Valley. Archaic people established semi-permanent rockshelters in and around the mesa.
By 1000 BCE, the Basketmaker culture emerged from the local Archaic population, by 750 CE the Ancestral Puebloans had developed from the Basketmaker culture. The Mesa Verdeans survived using a combination of hunting and subsistence farming of crops such as corn and squash, they built the mesa's first pueblos sometime after 650, by the end of the 12th century, they began to construct the massive cliff dwellings for which the park is best known. By 1285, following a period of social and environmental instability driven by a series of severe and prolonged droughts, they abandoned the area and moved south to locations in Arizona and New Mexico, including Rio Chama, Pajarito Plateau, Santa Fe; the first occupants of the Mesa Verde region, which spans from southeastern Utah to northwestern New Mexico, were nomadic Paleo-Indians who arrived in the area c. 9500 BCE. They followed herds of big game and camped near rivers and streams, many of which dried up as the glaciers that once covered parts of the San Juan Mountains receded.
The earliest Paleo-Indians were the Clovis culture and Folsom tradition, defined by the way in which they fashioned projectile points. Although they left evidence of their presence throughout the region, there is little indication that they lived in central Mesa Verde during this time. After 9600 BCE, the area's environment grew warmer and drier, a change that brought to central Mesa Verde pine forests and the animals that thrive in them. Paleo-Indians began inhabiting the mesa in increasing numbers c. 7500, though it is unclear whether they were seasonal occupants or year-round residents. Development of the atlatl during this period made it easier for them to hunt smaller game, a crucial advance at a time when most of the region's big game had disappeared from the landscape. 6000 BCE marks the beginning of the Archaic period in North America. Archaeologists differ as to the origin of the Mesa Verde Archaic population; the Archaic people developed locally, but were influenced by contact and intermarriage with immigrants from these outlying areas.
The early Archaic people living near Mesa Verde utilized the atlatl and harvested a wider variety of plants and animals than the Paleo-Indians had, while retaining their nomadic lifestyle. They inhabited the outlying areas of the Mesa Verde region, but the mountains, mesa tops, canyons, where they created rockshelters and rock art, left evidence of animal processing and chert knapping. Environmental stability during the period drove population migration. Major warming and drying from 5000 to 2500 might have led middle Archaic people to seek the cooler climate of Mesa Verde, whose higher elevation brought increased snowpack that, when coupled with spring rains, provided plentiful amounts of water. By the late Archaic, more people were living in semi-permanent rockshelters that preserved perishable goods such as baskets and mats, they started to make a variety of twig figurines that resembled sheep or deer. The late Archaic is marked by increased trade in exotic materials such as turquoise. Marine shells and abalone from the Pacific coast made their way to Mesa Verde from Arizona, the Archaic people worked them into necklaces and pendants.
Rock art flourished, people lived in rudimentary houses made of mud and wood. Their early attempts at plant domestication developed into the sustained agriculture that marked the end of the Archaic period, c. 1000. With the introduction of corn to the Mesa Verde region c. 1000 BCE and the trend away from nomadism toward permanent pithouse settlements, the Archaic Mesa Verdeans transitioned into what archaeologists call the Basketmaker culture. Basketmaker II people are characterized by their combination of foraging and farming skills, use of the atlatl, creation of finely woven baskets in the absence of earthen pottery. By 300, corn had become the preeminent staple of the Basketmaker II people's diet, which relied less and less on wild food sources and more on domesticated crops. In addition to the fine basketry for which they were named, Basketmaker II people fashioned a variety of household items from plant and animal materials, including sandals, pouches and blankets, they made clay pipes and gaming pieces.
Basketmaker men were short and muscular, averaging less than 5.5 feet tall. Their skeletal remains reveal signs of hard labor and extensive travel, incl
Michael Farrand Bennet is an American businessman and politician serving as the senior United States Senator from Colorado, a seat he has held since 2009. A member of the Democratic Party, he was appointed to the seat when Ken Salazar resigned to become Secretary of the Interior. Bennet worked as managing director for the Anschutz Investment Company, chief of staff to then-Denver Mayor John Hickenlooper, superintendent of Denver Public Schools. Bennet is the son of Douglas J. Bennet, a former State Department official and president of Wesleyan University. Early in his career, Bennet worked for Ohio Governor Richard Celeste, he went on to receive his Juris Doctor degree, after which he worked as a law clerk and as Counsel to the U. S. Deputy Attorney General in the Clinton Administration. Bennet became superintendent of the Denver public school system in July 2005. In late 2008 Bennet was speculated to be a candidate for Obama's United States Secretary of Education, he was appointed by Governor Bill Ritter to fill the U.
S. Senate seat vacated by Ken Salazar when Salazar became Secretary of the Interior in January 2009. Bennet was elected in the 2010 Senate election, he chaired the Democratic Senatorial Campaign Committee for the 2014 cycle and was reelected in the 2016 elections. Bennet was born in New Delhi while his father, Douglas J. Bennet, was serving as an aide to Chester Bowles the U. S. ambassador to India. Douglas Bennet ran the United States Agency for International Development under President Jimmy Carter, served as President and CEO of National Public Radio, Assistant Secretary of State for International Organization Affairs in the Clinton Administration, his grandfather, Douglas Bennet, had been an economic adviser in Franklin D. Roosevelt's administration. Bennet's mother, Susanne Christine, emigrated to the United States with her family in 1950, her parents survived imprisonment in the Warsaw Ghetto. Bennet's mother is a retired elementary school librarian. Bennet grew up in Washington, D. C. as his father served as an aide among others.
Bennet was held back in second grade because of his struggle with dyslexia. He was enrolled at St. Albans School, an elite all-boys preparatory school, served as a page on Capitol Hill. In 1987 Bennet earned his B. A. degree in history from Wesleyan University, the alma mater of his father and grandfather. At Wesleyan Bennet was a member of Beta Theta Pi. Bennet earned his J. D. degree from Yale Law School, where he was the Editor-in-Chief of the Yale Law Journal. From 1988 until 1990, when he left to attend Yale, he served as an aide to Ohio Governor Richard Celeste. After law school he served as a law clerk for the 4th Circuit Court of Appeals and as an associate to Washington attorney Lloyd Cutler, he served as Counsel to the Deputy Attorney General during Bill Clinton's administration. Douglas Bennet worked in the Clinton White House as well, as Assistant Secretary of State for International Organization Affairs. Following a stint as an assistant to the U. S. attorney in Connecticut, Bennet moved West.
After living in Montana, he moved with his fiancé to Colorado in 1997. Bennet worked for six years in Denver as Managing Director for the Anschutz Investment Company, where he led the reorganization of an oil company and helped consolidate three movie theater chains into the Regal Entertainment Group. While working for Anschutz, Bennet befriended fellow Wesleyan alumnus John Hickenlooper, informally advising the latter's successful campaign for mayor of Denver. Moving back into public service, Bennet served for two years as Hickenlooper's Chief of Staff. Bennet was appointed superintendent of Denver Public Schools on June 27, 2005, taking office on July 1, he had no experience as a school administrator. In 2008 Bennet persuaded the Denver Board of Education to enter into a 30-year, $750 million financial bond transaction with variable interest rates designed to fluctuate as economic conditions changed; the New York Times wrote that "In short order, the transaction went awry because of stress in the credit markets, problems with the bond insurer and plummeting interest rates."
As of 2010 the school system had paid $115 million in interest and other fees, at least $25 million more than it anticipated. Bennet was among the many officials whose names were circulated for United States Secretary of Education in the Obama Administration, filled by Arne Duncan. Bennet and his wife were early supporters of Obama's presidential bid during the 2008 Democratic primaries and he was among those who advised Obama on education issues. On January 3, 2009, he was named by Colorado Governor Bill Ritter to fill the seat in the United States Senate vacated by United States Secretary of the Interior Ken Salazar on January 20. Ritter chose Bennet after interviewing several prominent Colorado Democrats, Bennet took the job with the blessing of Hickenlooper. Upon taking office on January 21, 2009, he stated that he would seek election at the end of his term in 2010. In his January 2011 article in Time titled "Shaking Schools Up in an Already Tumultuous Year," Andrew J. Rotherham said of Bennet: "If the federal No Child Left Behind Act is modified this year, or if anything else of significance happens in Washington on education policy, this Colorado Democrat will be at the center of it."
Bennet ran for election for a full term as Senator from Colorado in the 2010 election. On September 16, 2009, former Colorado House Speaker Andrew Romanoff announced his campaign to challenge Bennet for the Democratic nomination. Bennet received endorsements from President Obama, U. S. Senator Mark Udall, U. S. Repre
The golden eagle is one of the best-known birds of prey in the Northern Hemisphere. It is the most distributed species of eagle. Like all eagles, it belongs to the family Accipitridae; these birds are dark brown, with lighter golden-brown plumage on their napes. Immature eagles of this species have white on the tail and have white markings on the wings. Golden eagles use their agility and speed combined with powerful feet and massive, sharp talons to snatch up a variety of prey hares, rabbits and other ground squirrels. Golden eagles maintain home ranges or territories that may be as large as 200 km2, they build large nests in cliffs and other high places to which they may return for several breeding years. Most breeding activities take place in the spring. Females lay up to four eggs, incubate them for six weeks. One or two young survive to fledge in about three months; these juvenile golden eagles attain full independence in the fall, after which they wander until establishing a territory for themselves in four to five years.
Once widespread across the Holarctic, it has disappeared from many areas which are now more populated by humans. Despite being extirpated from or uncommon in some of its former range, the species is still widespread, being present in sizeable stretches of Eurasia, North America, parts of North Africa, it is the largest and least populous of the five species of true accipitrid to occur as a breeding species in both the Palearctic and the Nearctic. For centuries, this species has been one of the most regarded birds used in falconry. Due to its hunting prowess, the golden eagle is regarded with great mystic reverence in some ancient, tribal cultures, it is one of the most extensively studied species of raptor in the world in some parts of its range, such as the Western United States and the Western Palearctic. The golden eagle is a large raptor, 66 to 102 centimetres in length, its wings are broad and the wingspan is 1.8 to 2.34 metres. Golden eagles' wingspan is the fifth largest among living eagle species.
Females are larger with a bigger difference in larger subspecies. Females of the large Himalayan golden eagles are about 37% heavier than males and have nearly 9% longer wings, whereas in the smaller Japanese golden eagles, females are only 26% heavier with around 6% longer wings. In the largest subspecies and females weigh 4.05 kilograms and 6.35 kg, respectively. In the smallest subspecies, A. c. japonica, males weigh females 3.25 kg. In the species overall, males average around females around 5.1 kg. The maximum size of golden eagles is debated. Large subspecies are the heaviest representatives of the genus Aquila and this species is on average the seventh-heaviest living eagle species; the golden eagle is the second heaviest breeding eagle in North America and Africa and the fourth heaviest in Asia. For some time, the largest known mass authenticated for a wild female was the specimen from the A. c. chrysaetos subspecies which weighed around 6.7 kg and spanned 2.55 m across the wings. American golden eagles are somewhat smaller than the large Eurasian species, but a massive female, banded and released in 2006 around Wyoming’s Bridger-Teton National Forest became the heaviest wild golden eagle on record, at 7.7 kg.
Captive birds have been measured with a wingspan of 2.81 m and a mass of 12.1 kg, though this mass was for an eagle bred for falconry, which tend to be unnaturally heavy. The standard measurements of the species include a wing chord length of 52–72 cm, a tail length of 26.5–38 cm and a tarsus length of 9.4–12.2 cm. The culmen averages around 4.5 cm, with a range of 3.6 to 5 cm. The bill length from the gape measures around 6 cm; the long and powerful hallux-claw can range from 4.5 to 6.34 cm, about one centimetre longer than in a bald eagle and a little more than one centimetre less than a harpy eagle. Adults of both sexes have similar plumage and are dark brown, with some grey on the inner wing and tail, a paler golden colour on the back of the crown and nape that gives the species its common name. Unlike other Aquila species, where the tarsal feathers are similar in colour to the rest of the plumage, the tarsal feathers of golden eagles tend to be paler, ranging from light golden to white.
In addition, some full-grown birds have white "epaulettes" on the upper part of each scapular feather tract. The bill is dark at the tip, fading to a lighter horn colour, with a yellow cere. Like many accipitrids, the bare portion of the feet is yellow. There are subtle differences in colouration among subspecies, described below. Juvenile golden eagles are similar to adults but tend to be darker, appearing black on the back in East Asia, they have a less faded colour. Young birds are white for about two-thirds of their tail length, ending with a black band. Juvenile eagles have white patches on the remiges at the bases of the inner primaries and the outer secondaries, forming a crescent marking on the wings which tends to be divided by darker feathers. Juvenile birds may have only traces of white on the tail. Compared to the consistently white tail, the white patches on the wing are variable. Juveniles of le