Australian Labor Party
The Australian Labor Party is a major centre-left political party in Australia. The party has been in opposition at the federal level since the 2013 election. Bill Shorten has been the party's federal parliamentary leader since 13 October 2013; the party is a federal party with branches in each territory. Labor is in government in the states of Victoria, Western Australia, in both the Australian Capital Territory and Northern Territory; the party competes against the Liberal/National Coalition for political office at the federal and state levels. It is the oldest political party in Australia. Labor's constitution has long stated: "The Australian Labor Party is a democratic socialist party and has the objective of the democratic socialisation of industry, production and exchange, to the extent necessary to eliminate exploitation and other anti-social features in these fields"; this "socialist objective" was introduced in 1921, but was qualified by two further objectives: "maintenance of and support for a competitive non-monopolistic private sector" and "the right to own private property".
Labor governments have not attempted the "democratic socialisation" of any industry since the 1940s, when the Chifley Government failed to nationalise the private banks, in fact have privatised several industries such as aviation and banking. Labor's current National Platform describes the party as "a modern social democratic party"; the ALP was not founded as a federal party until after the first sitting of the Australian Parliament in 1901. It is regarded as descended from labour parties founded in the various Australian colonies by the emerging labour movement in Australia, formally beginning in 1891. Labor is thus the country's oldest political party. Colonial labour parties contested seats from 1891, federal seats following Federation at the 1901 federal election; the ALP formed the world's first Labour Party government, as well as the world's first social democratic government at a national level. Labor was the first party in Australia to win a majority in either house of the Australian Parliament, at the 1910 federal election.
The Australian Labor Party at both a federal and state/colony level predates, among others, both the British Labour Party and the New Zealand Labour Party in party formation and policy implementation. Internationally, the ALP is a member of the Progressive Alliance network of social-democratic parties, having been a member of the Socialist International. In standard Australian English, the word "labour" is spelled with a ⟨u⟩. However, the political party uses the spelling "Labor", without a ⟨u⟩. There was no standardised spelling of the party's name, with "Labor" and "Labour" both in common usage. According to Ross McMullin, who wrote an official history of the Labor Party, the title page of the proceedings of Federal Conference used the spelling "Labor" in 1902, "Labour" in 1905 and 1908, "Labor" from 1912 onwards. In 1908, James Catts put forward a motion at Federal Conference that "the name of the party be the Australian Labour Party", carried by 22 votes to two. A separate motion recommending state branches to adopt the name was defeated.
There was no uniformity of party names until 1918, when Federal Conference resolved that state branches should adopt the name "Australian Labor Party" – now spelled without a ⟨u⟩. Each state branch had used a different name, due to their different origins. Despite the ALP adopting the spelling without a ⟨u⟩, it took decades for the official spelling to achieve widespread acceptance. In 1954, Labor MP Ted Johnson complained in the Parliament of Western Australia that both Hansard and the daily newspapers were still using the spelling "Labour"; as late as the 1980s, historian Finlay Crisp used the spelling "Labour" in academic works about the party. McMullin has observed that "the way the spelling of'Labor Party' was consolidated had more to do with the chap who ended up being in charge of printing the federal conference report than any other reason"; some sources have attributed the official decision to use "Labor" to King O'Malley, born in the United States and was reputedly an advocate of spelling reform.
It has been suggested that the adoption of the spelling without a ⟨u⟩ "signified one of the ALP's earliest attempts at modernisation", served the purpose of differentiating the party from the Australian labour movement as a whole and distinguishing it from other British Empire labour parties. The decision to include the word "Australian" in the party's name – rather than just "Labour Party" as in the United Kingdom – has been attributed to "the greater importance of nationalism for the founders of the colonial parties"; the Australian Labor Party has its origins in the Labour parties founded in the 1890s in the Australian colonies prior to federation. Labor tradition ascribes the founding of Queensland Labour to a meeting of striking pastoral workers under a ghost gum tree in Barcaldine, Queensland in 1891; the Balmain, New South Wales branch of the party claims to be the oldest in Australia. Labour as a parliamentary party dates from 1891 in New South Wales and South Australia, 1893 in Queensland, in the other colonies.
The first election contested by Labour candidates was the 1891 New South Wales election, when Labour candidates won 35 of 141 seats. The major parties were the Protectionist and Free Trade parties and Labour held the balance of power, it offered parliamentary support in exchange for policy concessions. The United Labor Party of
Parliament of Australia
The Parliament of Australia is the legislative branch of the government of Australia. It consists of three elements: the Senate and the House of Representatives; the combination of two elected chambers, in which the members of the Senate represent the states and territories while the members of the House represent electoral divisions according to population, is modelled on the United States Congress. Through both chambers, there is a fused executive, drawn from the Westminster system; the upper house, the Senate, consists of 76 members: twelve for each state, two each for the territories, Northern Territory and the Australian Capital Territory. Senators are elected using the single transferable vote proportional representation system and as a result, the chamber features a multitude of parties vying for power; the governing party or coalition has not held a majority in the Senate since 1981 and needs to negotiate with other parties and Independents to get legislation passed. The lower house, the House of Representatives consists of 150 members, each elected using full-preference instant-runoff voting from single-member constituencies known as electoral divisions.
This tends to lead to the chamber being dominated by two major political groups, the centre-right Coalition and the centre-left Labor Party. The government of the day must achieve the confidence of this House in order to gain and remain in power. Although elections can be called early, every three years the full House of Representatives and half of the Senate is dissolved and goes up for reelection. A deadlock-breaking mechanism known as a double dissolution can be used to dissolve the full Senate as well as the House in the event that the Upper House twice refuses to pass a piece of legislation passed by the Lower House; the two Houses meet in separate chambers of Parliament House on Capital Hill in Canberra, Australian Capital Territory. The Commonwealth of Australia came into being on 1 January 1901 with the federation of the six Australian colonies; the inaugural election took place on 29 and 30 March and the first Australian Parliament was opened on 9 May 1901 in Melbourne by Prince George, Duke of Cornwall and York King George V.
The only building in Melbourne, large enough to accommodate the 14,000 guests was the western annexe of the Royal Exhibition Building. After the official opening, from 1901 to 1927 the Parliament met in Parliament House, which it borrowed from the Parliament of Victoria, it had always been intended. This was a compromise at Federation due to the rivalry between the two largest Australian cities and Melbourne, which both wished to become the new capital; the site of Canberra was selected for the location of the nation's capital city in 1908. A competition was announced on 30 June 1914 to design Parliament House, with prize money of £7,000. However, due to the start of World War I the next month, the competition was cancelled, it was re-announced in August 1916, but again postponed indefinitely on 24 November 1916. In the meantime, John Smith Murdoch, the Commonwealth's Chief Architect, worked on the design as part of his official duties, he had little personal enthusiasm for the project, as he felt it was a waste of money and expenditure on it could not be justified at the time.
He designed the building by default. The construction of Old Parliament House, as it is called today, commenced on 28 August 1923 and was completed in early 1927, it was built by the Commonwealth Department of Works, using tradesmen and materials from all over Australia. The final cost was about £600,000, more than three times the original estimate, it was designed to house the parliament for a maximum of 50 years until a permanent facility could be built, but was so used for more than 60 years. The building was opened on 9 May 1927 by the Duchess of York; the opening ceremonies were both splendid and incongruous, given the sparsely built nature of Canberra of the time and its small population. The building was extensively decorated with British Empire and Australian flags and bunting. Temporary stands were erected bordering the lawns in front of the Parliament and these were filled with crowds. A Wiradjuri elder, Jimmy Clements, was one of only two aboriginal Australians present, having walked for about a week from Brungle Station to be at the event.
Dame Nellie Melba sang the National anthem. The Duke of York unlocked the front doors with a golden key, led the official party into King's Hall where he unveiled the statue of his father, King George V; the Duke opened the first parliamentary session in the new Senate Chamber. In 1978 the Fraser Government decided to proceed with a new building on Capital Hill, the Parliament House Construction Authority was created. A two-stage competition was announced, for which the Authority consulted the Royal Australian Institute of Architects and, together with the National Capital Development Commission, made available to competitors a brief and competition documents; the design competition drew 329 entries from 29 countries. The competition winner was the Philadelphia-based architectural firm of Mitchell/Giurgola, with the on-site wor
Liberal Party of Australia
The Liberal Party of Australia is a major centre-right political party in Australia, one of the two major parties in Australian politics, along with the centre-left Australian Labor Party. It was founded in 1944 as the successor to the United Australia Party; the Liberal Party is the largest and dominant party in the Coalition with the National Party of Australia. In two states and territories of Australia the parties have merged, forming the Country Liberal Party of the Northern Territory and the Liberal National Party of Queensland. Except for a few short periods, the Liberal Party and its predecessors have operated in similar coalitions since the 1920s; the party's leader is Scott Morrison and its deputy leader is Josh Frydenberg. The pair were elected to their positions at the August 2018 Liberal leadership ballot, with Frydenberg and Morrison as replacements for Julie Bishop and Malcolm Turnbull the latter of whom Morrison succeeded as Prime Minister of Australia. Now the Morrison Government, the party had been elected at the 2013 federal election as the Abbott Government which took office on 18 September 2013.
At state and territory level, the Liberal Party is in office in three states: Will Hodgman, Premier of Tasmania since 2014, Gladys Berejiklian, Premier of New South Wales since 2017 and Steven Marshall, Premier of South Australia since 2018. The party is in opposition in the states of Victoria and Western Australia, in both the Australian Capital Territory and the Northern Territory; the party's ideology has been referred to as conservative, liberal-conservative, conservative-liberal, classical liberal. The Liberal Party tends to promote economic liberalism. Two past leaders of the party, Sir Robert Menzies and John Howard, are Australia's two longest-serving Prime Ministers; the Liberal Party has spent more time in government than any other federal political party in Australian history. The Liberals' immediate predecessor was the United Australia Party. More broadly, the Liberal Party's ideological ancestry stretched back to the anti-Labor groupings in the first Commonwealth parliaments; the Commonwealth Liberal Party was a fusion of the Free Trade Party and the Protectionist Party in 1909 by the second prime minister, Alfred Deakin, in response to Labor's growing electoral prominence.
The Commonwealth Liberal Party merged with several Labor dissidents to form the Nationalist Party of Australia in 1917. That party, in turn, merged with Labor dissidents to form the UAP in 1931; the UAP had been formed as a new conservative alliance in 1931, with Labor defector Joseph Lyons as its leader. The stance of Lyons and other Labor rebels against the more radical proposals of the Labor movement to deal the Great Depression had attracted the support of prominent Australian conservatives. With Australia still suffering the effects of the Great Depression, the newly formed party won a landslide victory at the 1931 Election, the Lyons Government went on to win three consecutive elections, it avoided Keynesian pump-priming and pursued a more conservative fiscal policy of debt reduction and balanced budgets as a means of stewarding Australia out of the Depression. Lyons' death in 1939 saw. Menzies served as Prime Minister from 1939 to 1941 but resigned as leader of the minority World War II government amidst an unworkable parliamentary majority.
The UAP, led by Billy Hughes, disintegrated after suffering a heavy defeat in the 1943 election. Menzies called a conference of conservative parties and other groups opposed to the ruling Australian Labor Party, which met in Canberra on 13 October 1944 and again in Albury, New South Wales in December 1944. From 1942 onward Menzies had maintained his public profile with his series of "The Forgotten People" radio talks—similar to Franklin D. Roosevelt's "fireside chats" of the 1930s—in which he spoke of the middle class as the "backbone of Australia" but as having been "taken for granted" by political parties. Outlining his vision for a new political movement in 1944, Menzies said:... hat we must look for, it is a matter of desperate importance to our society, is a true revival of liberal thought which will work for social justice and security, for national power and national progress, for the full development of the individual citizen, though not through the dull and deadening process of socialism.
The formation of the party was formally announced at Sydney Town Hall on 31 August 1945. It took the name "Liberal" in honour of the old Commonwealth Liberal Party; the new party was dominated by the remains of the old UAP. The Australian Women's National League, a powerful conservative women's organisation merged with the new party. A conservative youth group Menzies had set up, the Young Nationalists, was merged into the new party, it became the nucleus of the Young Liberals. By September 1945 there were more than 90,000 members, many of whom had not been members of any political party. After an initial loss to Labor at the 1946 election, Menzies led the Liberals to victory at the 1949 election, the party stayed in office for a record 23 years— the longest unbroken run in government at the federal level. Australia experienced prolonged economic growth during the post-war boom period of the Menzies Government and Menzies fulfilled his promises at the 1949 election to end rationing of butter and petrol and provided a five-shilling endowment for first-born children, as well as for others.
While himself an unashamed anglophile, Menzies' government
Philip Ernest Lucock, CBE was an English born Presbyterian minister and politician. Although he was born in England, he spent most of his life in Australia. Born in Eltham, Kent, on 16 January 1916, Philip Lucock emigrated to New Zealand in 1923, where he was educated. In 1937, after working in the retail trade, 21-year-old Lucock emigrated again, this time to Australia, he studied for the ministry at St Andrew's College in Sydney, but suspended his studies to serve in the Royal Australian Air Force between 1941 and 1943 during World War 2. In 1948 Lucock was ordained as a minister of the Presbyterian Church of Australia, he became the minister at St Andrew's Presbyterian Church in New South Wales. One year after he was ordained, Lucock stood as one of four candidates for the Country Party of Australia in the newly created seat of Lyne, he polled third behind Jim Eggins, who won the seat for the Country Party, the Labor candidate Edward Hayes. Lucock did not stand at the 1951 poll, but on the death of Jim Eggins in January 1952 a by-election was called.
Lucock and Donald Lancaster stood for the Country Party against Edward Hayes. The presence of two Country Party candidates split the vote and Hayes took three thousand votes more than either Lucock or Lancaster, but with preferences from Lancaster, Lucock won the seat; when he was sworn in as the member for Lyne on 22 March 1952 Philip Lucock became the first member of the House of Representatives to swear allegiance to Queen Elizabeth II who had ascended to the throne on 6 February. Once elected Philip Lucock served in the government of Sir Robert Menzies as Deputy Speaker of the House of Representatives. Lucock served in this role under Prime Ministers Harold Holt, John Gorton, William McMahon and Malcolm Fraser. At the 1954 election Donald Lancaster, Lucock's running partner for the 1952 by election, stood against him as the Labor Party candidate. Although he gained 11.4 percent of the vote Lancaster's presence did not stop Lucock from gaining re-election. In 1969 the seat of Lyne underwent redistribution, with the electorate area moving southward.
Although the Labor Party increased its vote by 2 thousand, this did not have any great effect on the result of the election, with Philip Lucock winning by more than ten thousand votes. Lyne was again redistributed in 1977 with the electorate again contracting from the north. Lucock retained the seat with a margin of 11.4 percent over Labor. After more than 28 years in the Australian Parliament Philip Lucock retired at the 1980 election, he was succeeded by Bruce Cowan. After leaving Parliament he served as Moderator of the Presbyterian Church, he retired to Queensland, living in the Brisbane suburb of Keperra until his death in 1996. His funeral was held in Brisbane and a memorial service was held at St. Andrew's Presbyterian Church and each were attended by representatives of the Commonwealth Parliament. Election Results - Division of Lyne 1949-1980 1980 Election Results 1977 Election Results 1975 Election Results 1974 Election Results 1972 Election Results 1969 Election Results 1966 Election Results 1963 Election Results 1961 Election Results 1958 Election Results 1955 Election Results 1954 Election Results 1952 By-election Results 1951 Election Results Election ResultsCondolence Motions in the Australian Federal Parliament at the Death of Philip Lucock House Of Representatives Official Hansard Tuesday, 20 August 1996—First Period, P 26–32 Condolences at the Death of Philip Earnest Lucock Senate Official Hansard Wednesday, 21 August 1996, P 8-11 Condolences at the Death of Philip Earnest Lucock
Sir Eric Archibald Willis was an Australian politician, Cabinet Minister and the 34th Premier of New South Wales, serving from 23 January 1976 to 14 May 1976. Born in Murwillumbah in 1922, Willis was educated at Murwillumbah High School and the University of Sydney, where he obtained a Bachelor of Arts with double honours. Enlisting during the Second World War, Willis served on the homefront and served in New Guinea and the Philippines, he continued to serve the Citizen Military Forces until 1958. After serving a period as a geographer, Willis was elected to the New South Wales Legislative Assembly as the Liberal member for Earlwood in 1950, he rose to become a long-serving Deputy Leader of the Liberal Party from 1959 to 1975 under Robert Askin. When the Coalition won the 1965 election, Willis was made a Minister of the Crown as Chief Secretary, Minister for Labour and Industry and Sport but rose to prominence in his role as Minister for Education from 1972 to 1976; when Askin retired in 1975, Willis failed in his attempts to succeed him.
Following the ousting of Askin's successor, Tom Lewis, by the party, Willis was elected as the Parliamentary Leader of the Liberal Party and subsequently became Premier. However, after only four months in office, his Liberal/National Country Party Coalition was defeated at the 1976 election by the Labor Party under Neville Wran. Continuing as Leader of the Opposition, Willis resigned in 1977 and retired from politics a year later. Thereafter he served in various organisations and directorships until his death in May 1999. Willis was born in January 1922 in Murwillumbah, New South Wales, the first son of Archibald Clarence Willis, a butter factory hand and First World War veteran, his wife, Vida Mabel Buttenshaw, his younger brother was President, Max Willis. He was educated at Tyalgum Public School and at Murwillumbah High School, at which he was Dux of his year and won a scholarship to study Arts at the University of Sydney, he received a Bachelor of Arts with double honours in Modern History and Geography from Sydney University in 1942.
He served in the Second Australian Imperial Force from 1941 to 1946 in Army Intelligence in New Guinea and Philippines during the Second World War ending the war with the rank of Sergeant. He remained in the military after demobilisation, being discharged from the regular military on 3 June 1946, he continued to serve in the Citizen Military Forces from 1946, achieving the rank of major in 1948, until retiring in 1958. He married Norma Dorothy Thompson on 11 May 1951 and they had a daughter and two sons. Willis was employed as a senior geographer and investigation officer for Cumberland County Council Willis joined the newly formed Liberal Party of Australia in 1945, after hearing a speech by Sir Robert Menzies, he sought preselection for the federal seat of Evans in the 1949 federal election but was defeated in favour of Frederick Osborne. Instead, he gained preselection for and contested the Labor seat of Lang and gained 45.3 per cent of the vote but was defeated by the sitting member, Dan Mulcahy.
At the June 1950 state election, at the age of 28, Willis was elected to the newly created Legislative Assembly seat of Earlwood, in the inner southwestern suburbs of Sydney, becoming the youngest Member of Parliament. He gained the seat with 55.53% against a single Labor candidate. He soon gained a reputation as rebel in the House, always attacking the Labor Speakers, being expelled from the house more than any other member. At the February 1953 election, Willis narrowly retained his seat with 50.33%, but at the following 1956 election, he increased his margin to 58.04%. During his time as member for Earlwood, Willis catered to the changing demographics of his electorate by creating the first-ever Greek branch of the Liberal Party and formed the first Young Liberals branch in Australia, which counted among its recruits future Prime Minister John Howard. Following the 1959 election, at which Willis retained his seat with 58.43%, the Liberal leadership was vacated by Pat Morton. Willis declined to run for the leadership and Deputy Leader Robert Askin was made Leader.
Willis ran unopposed and subsequently became Deputy Leader. At the March 1962 election, despite losing the election, Willis went on to retain his seat for a fifth time with 57.26%. In 1965, the May general election ended 24 years of Labor government and began Willis's ministerial career, which spanned the entire length of the Coalition Government. After retaining his seat again with 59.95%, he was appointed to the post of Chief Secretary and Minister for Tourism by Premier Askin in May 1965 to June 1972. Willis was appointed Minister for Labour and Industry from 1965 to March 1971 and during that same time he was Minister for Sport. From June 1972 to January 1976 he was Minister for Education, where he presided over a huge expansion of schools and ancillary staff. Willis served as a Fellow of University of Sydney Senate in 1972. Willis was regarded as the outstanding minister of the Askin Government and is considered one of the state's greatest Education Ministers. For his service as Minister, Willis was appointed a Companion of the Order of St Michael and St George on 15 June 1974.
Upon Askin's retirement in January 1975, Willis was seen as the favourite to take the premiership. However, despite Askin's initial support, Willis refused his help, preferring to gain the leadership on his own merits. Askin put his support behind the Minister for Lands, Tom Lewis. Willis, sure he had support, refused to campaign, the party put its support behind Lewis, leading to his election to Premier. Willis was replaced as Deputy by John Maddison. For his service as Deputy Leader he
Barry Robert O'Farrell is a former Australian politician, the 43rd Premier of New South Wales and Minister for Western Sydney from 2011 to 2014. He was the Leader of the New South Wales Liberal Party from 2007 to 2014, was a Member of the New South Wales Legislative Assembly from 1995 to 2015, representing Northcott until 1999 and representing Ku-ring-gai on the Upper North Shore of Sydney from 1999 to 2015, he is President and Independent Board Chair of Diabetes Australia, Chair of the Wests Tigers Rugby League Football Club and CEO of Racing Australia Ltd. Born in Melbourne, his father's Army career saw O'Farrell and his family move around Australia, ending up in Darwin in the Northern Territory, where he finished his education at St John's College. In 1977 O'Farrell moved to Canberra to study at the Australian National University, where he gained a Bachelor of Arts. O'Farrell started his career as a graduate trainee in the Australian Public Service in Canberra. After working for a number of federal and state Liberal Party politicians, O'Farrell served as the State Director of the party in New South Wales from 1992 to 1995.
At the 1995 New South Wales election, O'Farrell was elected to the safe Liberal seat of Northcott in northern Sydney. Following the seat's abolition in the 1998 redistribution he secured selection for the safe seat of Ku-ring-gai in 1999 and held it until 2015. O'Farrell served two periods as Deputy Leader. Following the Liberal-Nationals' defeat at the 2007 state election, O'Farrell challenged Peter Debnam for the Liberal leadership. Debnam withdrew from the contest on the day of the ballot and O'Farrell was elected unopposed as the Leader of the New South Wales Liberal Party and as Leader of the Opposition, he became Premier in a landslide at the 2011 election. On 16 April 2014, O'Farrell announced his intention to resign as party leader and NSW Premier as well as Minister for Western Sydney after misleading a New South Wales Independent Commission Against Corruption investigation. ICAC subsequently found “that there was no intention on Mr O’Farrell’s part to mislead”, he formally resigned on 17 April as Liberal Party leader and was succeeded by Mike Baird, sworn in as Premier on 23 April and took over as Minister for Western Sydney.
On 24 November 2014, O'Farrell announced his intention not to stand for re-election at the 2015 NSW election. The youngest of three children, Barry Robert O'Farrell was born to Kevin and Mae O'Farrell in the Royal Women's Hospital, Melbourne, on 24 May 1959, he is descended from Irish immigrants. The O'Farrells moved to Darwin during his adolescence and he finished his high school education at St John's College. In 1977 O'Farrell began studying at the Australian National University in Canberra, residing at Ursula College. During his second year of study, he was elected President of the Ursula College Student Association. In 1980 he received a Bachelor of Arts in Australian history and Aboriginal studies and has cited Professor Manning Clark and Don Baker as major influences for his continuing interest in Australian history. After serving as a graduate trainee in the Department of Business and Consumer Affairs, in 1980 O'Farrell joined the Liberal Party and worked in the offices of two South Australian Senators, Tony Messner and Gordon Davidson.
When John Howard became Leader of the Opposition in 1985, his chief of staff, Gerard Henderson, hired O'Farrell as a Sydney-based adviser. In May 1988, O'Farrell was employed as Chief of Staff for Bruce Baird, a cabinet minister in the New South Wales government. Four years O'Farrell and Tony Abbott sought appointment as the State Director of the New South Wales Liberal Party. O'Farrell succeeded and he held this position until 1995. In 1994, O'Farrell was preselected to replace former Transport Minister and Deputy Liberal Leader, Bruce Baird, in the safe Liberal seat of Northcott and won the seat on 25 March 1995 at the 1995 election with 60.05% of the primary vote, 68.63% after preferences against Andrew Leigh, the Labor candidate, elected in 2010 as the federal Member for Fraser. O'Farrell gave his maiden speech in Parliament on 19 September 1995. On 14 December 1998, State Opposition Leader Kerry Chikarovski appointed O'Farrell Shadow Minister for Small Business and Information Technology.
When his seat of Northcott was abolished in the 1998 redistribution, O'Farrell decided to contest the safe seat of Ku-ring-gai, vacated by the sitting member, Stephen O'Doherty, who had moved to contest the seat of Hornsby following the redistribution. O'Farrell represented Northcott until its abolition on 26 March 1999, his transfer bid was successful at the 1999 election, gaining 56.3% of the primary vote and 70.03% after preferences. When Ron Phillips was defeated at the election, thereby vacating the Deputy Leadership, O'Farrell stood for the position and was elected on 31 March 1999, defeating Chris Hartcher by one vote. Chikarovski appointed him on 19 April 1999 to the senior role of Shadow Minister for Transport, dropping Small Business. At the 1999 republic referendum, O'Farrell voted against the proposal for Australia to become a republic with a president elected by the Parliament of Australia. In 2007, referring to his vote, O'Farrell stated "I'm not going to buy something that I don't believe is a better deal".
In a further Shadow Cabinet reshuffle on 4 January 2002, O'Farrell lost Information Technology and became Shadow Minister for Innovation. However, when John Brogden deposed Chikarovski as Leader on 28 March 2002, O'Farrell lost the Deputy Leade
Division of Lyne
The Division of Lyne is an Australian electoral division in the state of New South Wales. The division is named after Premier of New South Wales at the time of Federation, he was commissioned by the first Governor-General, Lord Hopetoun to form the inaugural Federal Government. He returned the commission; the unsuccessful commissioning of Lyne is known as The Hopetoun Blunder. Lyne subsequently served as a minister in the early Protectionist governments; the division covers parts of southern Port Macquarie Hastings City and the entire Mid-Coast Council local government areas. The current Member for Lyne, since the 2013 federal election, is David Gillespie, a member of the Nationals; the Division of Lyne was created in a redistribution in 1949 and was represented by the National Party for 60 years. This reflects the area's history as a conservative and rural region; the area has undergone significant demographic changes with the arrival of a large number of retired people and city dwellers seeking a sea-change.
Despite these changes the Australian Labor Party has made little headway in increasing its vote. In 1993, after the exclusion of minor candidates, the Nationals' Mark Vaile led over the Liberals by only 233 votes on the third count. Labor had taken a large first-count lead which it held for most of the night, but Vaile won after Liberal preferences flowed overwhelmingly to him. However, had 120 votes gone the other way, the Liberals would have taken the seat. Vaile went on to become leader of the Nationals and Deputy Prime Minister during the latter stages of the Howard Government, he retired in July 2008, triggering a by-election that year. The seat was lost to independent candidate and former state MP Rob Oakeshott, who retained the seat at the 2010 election. Oakeshott announced on 26 June 2013, it was expected that the seat would revert to the Nationals. As expected, David Gillespie, Oakeshott's opponent in 2010 reclaimed the seat for the Nationals. Division of Lyne - Australian Electoral Commission