Kim Dae-jung, or Kim Dae Jung, was a South Korean politician who served as President of South Korea from 1998 to 2003. He was the only Korean Nobel Prize recipient in history, he was sometimes referred to as the "Nelson Mandela of South Korea". Kim was born on 6 January 1924, but he registered his birth date to 3 December 1925 to avoid conscription during the time when Korea was under Japanese colonial rule. Kim was the second of seven children to middle-class farmers. Kim was born in Sinan in what was the Jeolla province. Kim's family had moved to the nearby port city of Mokpo, he adopted the Japanese name Toyota Taichu during the Japanese colonial period. Kim graduated from Mokpo Commercial Middle School in 1943 at the top of the class. After working as a clerk for a Japanese-owned shipping company, he became its owner and became rich. Kim escaped Communist capture during the Korean War. Kim first entered politics in 1954 during the administration of Korea's first president, Syngman Rhee. Although he was elected as a representative for the National Assembly in 1961, a military coup led by Park Chung-hee, who assumed dictatorial powers, voided the elections.
He was able to win a seat in the House in the subsequent elections in 1963 and 1967 and went on to become an eminent opposition leader. As such, he was the natural opposition candidate for the country's presidential election in 1971, he nearly defeated Park, despite several handicaps on his candidacy which were imposed by the ruling regime. A talented orator, Kim could command unwavering loyalty among his supporters, his staunchest support came from the Jeolla region, where he reliably garnered upwards of 95% of the popular vote, a record that has remained unsurpassed in South Korean politics. Kim was killed in August 1973, when he was kidnapped from a hotel in Tokyo by KCIA agents in response to his criticism of President Park's yushin program, which granted near-dictatorial powers. Years Kim reflected on these events during his 2000 Nobel Peace Prize lecture: I have lived, continue to live, in the belief that God is always with me. I know this from experience. In August of 1973, while exiled in Japan, I was kidnapped from my hotel room in Tokyo by intelligence agents of the military government of South Korea.
The news of the incident startled the world. The agents took me to their boat at anchor along the seashore, they tied me up, blinded me, stuffed my mouth. Just when they were about to throw me overboard, Jesus Christ appeared before me with such clarity. I begged him to save me. At that moment, an airplane was sent down from Heavens by the almighty God Himself to rescue me from the moment of death. Philip Habib, the US ambassador in Seoul, had interceded for him with the South Korean government. Although Kim returned to South Korea, he was banned from politics and imprisoned in 1976 for having participated in the proclamation of an anti-government manifesto and sentenced for five years in prison, reduced to house arrest in 1978. During this period, he was designated a prisoner of conscience by Amnesty International. Kim had his political rights restored in 1979. In 1980, Kim was arrested and sentenced to death on charges of sedition and conspiracy in the wake of another coup by Chun Doo-hwan and a popular uprising in Gwangju, his political stronghold.
Pope John Paul II sent a letter to then-South Korean President Chun Doo-hwan on 11 December 1980, asking for clemency for Kim, a Catholic, with the intervention of the United States government, the sentence was commuted to 20 years in prison. He was given exile in the U. S. and temporarily settled in Boston and taught at Harvard University as a visiting professor to the Center for International Affairs. During his period abroad, he authored a number of opinion pieces in leading western newspapers that were critical of the South Korean government. On March 30, 1983, Kim presented a speech on human rights and democracy at Emory University in Atlanta and accepted an honorary Doctor of Laws degree by the institution. Two years in 1985, he returned to his homeland. Kim was again put under house arrest upon his return to Seoul, but resumed his role as one of the principal leaders of the opposition; when Chun Doo-hwan succumbed to the popular demands in 1987 and allowed the country's first honest presidential election, Kim Dae-jung and the other leading opposition figure, Kim Young-sam promised to unite behind one candidate.
However, due to a dispute between the two men, Kim Dae-jung split off from the main opposition party, the Reunification Democratic Party, formed the Peace Democratic Party to run for the presidency. As a result, the opposition vote was split in two, ex-general Roh Tae-woo – Chun Doo-hwan's hand-picked successor – won with only 36.5% of the popular vote. Kim Young-sam receiving 28% and Kim Dae-jung 27% of the vote. In 1992, Kim made yet another failed bid for the presidency, this time against Kim Young-sam, who had merged the RDP with the ruling Democratic Justice Party to form the Democratic Liberal Party. Many thought Kim Dae-jung's political career was over when he took a hiatus from politics and departed for the United Kingdom to take a position at Clare Hall, Cambridge University as a visiting scholar. However, in 1995 he began his fourth quest for the presidency; the situation became favorable for him when the public revolted against the incumbent government in the wake of the nation's economic collapse in the Asian fina
The Nation is the oldest continuously published weekly magazine in the United States, the most read weekly journal of progressive political and cultural news and analysis. It was founded on July 1865, as a successor to William Lloyd Garrison's The Liberator, it is published by its namesake owner The Nation Company, L. P. at 33 Irving Place, New York City, associated with The Nation Institute. The Nation has news bureaus in Washington, D. C. London, South Africa, with departments covering architecture, corporations, environment, legal affairs, music and disarmament, the United Nations. Circulation peaked at 187,000 in 2006 but by 2010 had dropped to 145,000 in print, although digital subscriptions had risen to over 15,000; the Nation was established in July 1865 at 130 Nassau Street in Manhattan. Its founding publisher was Joseph H. Richards, the editor was Edwin Lawrence Godkin, an immigrant from Ireland who had worked as a correspondent of the London Daily News and The New York Times. Godkin sought to establish what one sympathetic commentator characterized as "an organ of opinion characterized in its utterance by breadth and deliberation, an organ which should identify itself with causes, which should give its support to parties as representative of these causes."In its "founding prospectus" the magazine wrote that the publication would have "seven main objects" with the first being "discussion of the topics of the day, above all, of legal and constitutional questions, with greater accuracy and moderation than are now to be found in the daily press."
The Nation pledged to "not be the organ of any party, sect or body" but rather to "make an earnest effort to bring to discussion of political and social questions a critical spirit, to wage war upon the vices of violence and misrepresentation by which so much of the political writing of the day is marred."In the first year of publication, one of the magazine's regular features was The South As It Is, dispatches from a tour of the war-torn region by John Richard Dennett, a recent Harvard graduate and a veteran of the Port Royal Experiment. Dennett interviewed Confederate veterans, freed slaves, agents of the Freedmen's Bureau, ordinary people he met by the side of the road; the articles, since collected as a book, have been praised by The New York Times as "examples of masterly journalism."Among the causes supported by the publication in its earliest days was civil service reform—moving the basis of government employment from a political patronage system to a professional bureaucracy based upon meritocracy.
The Nation was preoccupied with the reestablishment of a sound national currency in the years after the American Civil War, arguing that a stable currency was necessary to restore the economic stability of the nation. Related to this was the publication's advocacy of the elimination of protective tariffs in favor of lower prices of consumer goods associated with a free trade system. Wendell Phillips Garrison, son of William Lloyd Garrison, was Literary Editor from 1865 to 1906; the magazine would stay at Newspaper Row for 90 years. In 1881, newspaperman-turned-railroad-baron Henry Villard acquired The Nation and converted it into a weekly literary supplement for his daily newspaper the New York Evening Post; the offices of the magazine were moved to the Evening Post's headquarters at 210 Broadway. The New York Evening Post would morph into a tabloid, the New York Post, a left-leaning afternoon tabloid, under owner Dorothy Schiff from 1939 to 1976. Since it has been a conservative tabloid owned by Rupert Murdoch, while The Nation became known for its "far left" ideology.
In 1900, Henry Villard's son, Oswald Garrison Villard, inherited the magazine and the Evening Post, sold off the latter in 1918. Thereafter, he remade The Nation into a current affairs publication and gave it an anti-classical liberal orientation. Oswald Villard welcomed the New Deal and supported the nationalization of industries – thus reversing the meaning of "liberalism" as the founders of The Nation would have understood the term, from a belief in a smaller and more restricted government to a belief in a larger and less restricted government. Villard sold the magazine in 1935. Maurice Wertheim, the new owner, sold it in 1937 to Freda Kirchwey, who served as editor from 1933 to 1955; every editor of The Nation from Villard's time to the 1970s was looked at for "subversive" activities and ties. When Albert Jay Nock, not long afterward, published a column criticizing Samuel Gompers and trade unions for being complicit in the war machine of the First World War, The Nation was suspended from the U.
S. mail. During the 1930s, The Nation showed enthusiastic support for the New Deal; the magazine's financial problems in early 1940s prompted Kirchwey to sell her individual ownership of the magazine in 1943, creating a nonprofit organization, Nation Associates, formed out of the money generated from a recruiting drive of sponsors. This organization was responsible for academic responsibilities, including conducting research and organizing conferences, a part of the early history of the magazine. Nation Associates became responsible for the operation and publication of the magazine on a nonprofit basis, with Kirchwey as both president of Nation Associates and editor of The Nation magazine. Before the attack on Pearl Harbor, The Nation called on the United States to enter World War II to resist fascism, after the US entered the war, the publication supported the American war effort, it supported the use of the atomic bomb on Hiroshima. During the late 1940s and again in the early 1950s, a merger was discussed
Cleveland is a major city in the U. S. state of Ohio, the county seat of Cuyahoga County. The city proper has a population of 385,525, making it the 51st-largest city in the United States, the second-largest city in Ohio. Greater Cleveland is ranked as the 32nd-largest metropolitan area in the U. S. with 2,055,612 people in 2016. The city anchors the Cleveland–Akron–Canton Combined Statistical Area, which had a population of 3,515,646 in 2010 and is ranked 15th in the United States; the city is located on the southern shore of Lake Erie 60 miles west of the Ohio-Pennsylvania state border. It was founded in 1796 near the mouth of the Cuyahoga River, it became a manufacturing center due to its location on both the river and the lake shore, as well as being connected to numerous canals and railroad lines. Cleveland's economy relies on diversified sectors such as manufacturing, financial services and biomedicals. Cleveland is home to the Rock and Roll Hall of Fame. Cleveland residents are called "Clevelanders".
The city has many nicknames, the oldest of which in contemporary use being "The Forest City". Cleveland was named on July 22, 1796, when surveyors of the Connecticut Land Company laid out Connecticut's Western Reserve into townships and a capital city, they named it "Cleaveland" after General Moses Cleaveland. Cleaveland oversaw design of the plan for what would become the modern downtown area, centered on Public Square, before returning home, never again to visit Ohio; the first settler in Cleaveland was Lorenzo Carter, who built a cabin on the banks of the Cuyahoga River. The Village of Cleaveland was incorporated on December 23, 1814. In spite of the nearby swampy lowlands and harsh winters, its waterfront location proved to be an advantage, giving access to Great Lakes trade; the area began rapid growth after the 1832 completion of the Erie Canal. This key link between the Ohio River and the Great Lakes connected the city to the Atlantic Ocean via the Erie Canal and Hudson River, via the St. Lawrence Seaway.
Its products could reach markets on the Gulf of Mexico via the Mississippi River. Growth continued with added railroad links. Cleveland incorporated as a city in 1836. In 1836, the city located only on the eastern banks of the Cuyahoga River, nearly erupted into open warfare with neighboring Ohio City over a bridge connecting the two. Ohio City remained an independent municipality until its annexation by Cleveland in 1854; the city's prime geographic location as a transportation hub on the Great Lakes has played an important role in its development as a commercial center. Cleveland serves as a destination for iron ore shipped from Minnesota, along with coal transported by rail. In 1870, John D. Rockefeller founded Standard Oil in Cleveland. In 1885, he moved its headquarters to New York City, which had become a center of finance and business. Cleveland emerged in the early 20th century as an important American manufacturing center, its businesses included automotive companies such as Peerless, People's, Jordan and Winton, maker of the first car driven across the U.
S. Other manufacturers located in Cleveland produced steam-powered cars, which included White and Gaeth, as well as the electric car company Baker; because of its significant growth, Cleveland was known as the "Sixth City" of the US during this period. By 1920, due in large part to the city's economic prosperity, Cleveland became the nation's fifth-largest city; the city counted Progressive Era politicians such as the populist Mayor Tom L. Johnson among its leaders, its industrial jobs had attracted waves of European immigrants from southern and eastern Europe, as well as both black and white migrants from the rural South. In commemoration of the centennial of Cleveland's incorporation as a city, the Great Lakes Exposition debuted in June 1936 along the Lake Erie shore north of downtown. Conceived as a way to energize the city after the Great Depression, it drew four million visitors in its first season, seven million by the end of its second and final season in September 1937; the exposition was housed on grounds that are now used by the Great Lakes Science Center, the Rock and Roll Hall of Fame, Burke Lakefront Airport, among others.
Following World War II, Cleveland continued to enjoy a prosperous economy. In sports, the Indians won the 1948 World Series, the hockey team, the Barons, became champions of the American Hockey League, the Browns dominated professional football in the 1950s; as a result, along with track and boxing champions produced, Cleveland was dubbed "City of Champions" in sports at this time. Businesses proclaimed that Cleveland was the "best location in the nation". In 1940, non-Hispanic whites represented 90.2% of Cleveland's population. Wealthy patrons supported development of the city's cultural institutions, such as the art museum and orchestra; the city's population reached its peak of 914,808, in 1949 Cleveland was named an All-America City for the first time. By the 1960s, the economy slowed, residents sought new housing in the suburbs, reflecting the national trends of suburban growth following the subsidized highways. In the 1950s and 1960s, African Americans worked in numerous cities to gain constitutional rights and relief from racial discrimination.
As change lagged despite federal laws to enforce rights and racial unrest occurred in Cleveland and numerous other industrial cities. In Cleveland, the Hough Riots erupted from July 18 to 23, 1966; the Glenville Shootout took place from July 23 to 25, 1968. In November 1967, Cleveland became the first major American city to elect a black mayor, Carl Stokes. Industrial restructuring in the railroad and steel industries, resulted in the loss of numerous
Rochester, New York
Rochester is a city on the southern shore of Lake Ontario in western New York. With a population of 208,046 residents, Rochester is the seat of Monroe County and the third most populous city in New York state, after New York City and Buffalo; the metropolitan area has a population of just over 1 million people. It is about 73 miles east of Buffalo and 87 miles west of Syracuse. Rochester was one of America's first boomtowns due to the fertile Genesee River Valley, which gave rise to numerous flour mills, as a manufacturing hub. Several of the region's universities have renowned research programs. Rochester is the site of many important innovations in consumer products; the Rochester area has been the birthplace to Kodak, Western Union, French's, Bausch & Lomb and Xerox, which conduct extensive research and manufacturing of industrial and consumer products. Until 2010, the Rochester metropolitan area was the second-largest regional economy in New York State, after the New York City metropolitan area.
Rochester's GMP has since ranked just below Buffalo, New York, while exceeding it in per-capita income. The 25th edition of the Places Rated Almanac rated Rochester as the "most livable city" in 2007, among 379 U. S. metropolitan areas. In 2010 Forbes rated Rochester as the third-best place to raise a family in the United States. In 2012 Kiplinger rated Rochester as the fifth-best city in the United States for families, citing low cost of living, top public schools, a low jobless rate. Rochester is a Global city with Sufficiency status; the Seneca tribe of Native Americans lived in and around Rochester until they lost their claim to most of this land in the Treaty of Big Tree in 1797. Settlement before the Seneca tribe is unknown. Development of Rochester followed the American Revolution, forced cession of their territory by the Iroquois after the defeat of Great Britain. Allied with the British, four major Iroquois tribes were forced out of New York; as a reward for their loyalty to the British Crown, they were given a large land grant on the Grand River in Canada.
Rochester was founded shortly after the American Revolution by a wave of English-Puritan descended immigrants from New England who were looking for new agricultural land. They would be the dominant cultural group in Rochester for over a century. On November 8, 1803, Col. Nathaniel Rochester, Maj. Charles Carroll, Col. William Fitzhugh, Jr. all of Hagerstown, purchased a 100-acre tract from the state in Western New York along the Genesee River. They chose the site because its three cataracts on the Genesee offered great potential for water power. Beginning in 1811, with a population of 15, the three founders surveyed the land and laid out streets and tracts. In 1817, the Brown brothers and other landowners joined their lands with the Hundred Acre Tract to form the village of Rochesterville. By 1821, Rochesterville was the seat of Monroe County. In 1823, Rochesterville consisted of 1,012 acres and 2,500 residents, the Village of Rochesterville became known as Rochester. In 1823, the Erie Canal aqueduct over the Genesee River was completed, the Erie Canal east to the Hudson River was opened.
In the early 20th century, after the advent of railroads, the presence of the canal in the center city was an obstacle. By 1830, Rochester's population was 9,200 and in 1834, it was re-chartered as a city. Rochester was first known as "the Young Lion of the West", as the "Flour City". By 1838, Rochester was the largest flour-producing city in the United States. Having doubled its population in only 10 years, Rochester became America's first "boomtown". In 1830-31, Rochester experienced one of the nation's biggest Protestant revivalist movements, led by Charles Finney; the revival has been noted as inspiring other revivals of the Second Great Awakening. A leading pastor in New York, converted in the Rochester meetings gave the following account of the effects of Finney's meetings in that city: "The whole community was stirred. Religion was the topic of conversation in the house, in the office and on the street; the only theater in the city was converted into a livery stable. Grog shops were closed.
Nurseries ringed the city, the most famous of, started in 1840 by immigrants Georg Ellwanger from Germany and Patrick Barry from Ireland. In 1847, Frederick Douglass founded the abolitionist newspaper The North Star in Rochester. Douglass, a former slave and an antislavery speaker and writer, gained a circulation of over 4,000 readers in the United States and the Caribbean; the North Star served as a forum for abolitionist views. The Douglass home burnt down in 1872, but a marker for it is found in Highland Park off South Avenue. Susan B. Anthony, a national leader of the women's suffrage movement, was from Rochester; the Nineteenth Amendment to the United States Constitution, which guaranteed the right of women to vote in 1920, was known as the Susan B. Anthony Amendment because of her work toward its passage, which she did not live to see. Anthony's home is a National Historic Landmark known as the National Susan B. Anthony Museum and House. At the end of the 19th century, anarchi
Central Intelligence Agency
The Central Intelligence Agency is a civilian foreign intelligence service of the federal government of the United States, tasked with gathering and analyzing national security information from around the world through the use of human intelligence. As one of the principal members of the United States Intelligence Community, the CIA reports to the Director of National Intelligence and is focused on providing intelligence for the President and Cabinet of the United States. Unlike the Federal Bureau of Investigation, a domestic security service, the CIA has no law enforcement function and is focused on overseas intelligence gathering, with only limited domestic intelligence collection. Though it is not the only agency of the Federal government of the United States specializing in HUMINT, the CIA serves as the national manager for coordination of HUMINT activities across the U. S. intelligence community. Moreover, the CIA is the only agency authorized by law to carry out and oversee covert action at the behest of the President.
It exerts foreign political influence through its tactical divisions, such as the Special Activities Division. Before the Intelligence Reform and Terrorism Prevention Act of 2004, the CIA Director concurrently served as the head of the Intelligence Community. Despite transferring some of its powers to the DNI, the CIA has grown in size as a result of the September 11 attacks. In 2013, The Washington Post reported that in fiscal year 2010, the CIA had the largest budget of all IC agencies, exceeding previous estimates; the CIA has expanded its role, including covert paramilitary operations. One of its largest divisions, the Information Operations Center, has shifted focus from counter-terrorism to offensive cyber-operations; when the CIA was created, its purpose was to create a clearinghouse for foreign policy intelligence and analysis. Today its primary purpose is to collect, analyze and disseminate foreign intelligence, to perform covert actions. According to its fiscal 2013 budget, the CIA has five priorities: Counterterrorism, the top priority Nonproliferation of nuclear and other weapons of mass destruction.
Warning/informing American leaders of important overseas events. Counterintelligence Cyber intelligence; the CIA has an executive office and five major directorates: The Directorate of Digital Innovation The Directorate of Analysis The Directorate of Operations The Directorate of Support The Directorate of Science and Technology The Director of the Central Intelligence Agency is appointed by the President with Senate confirmation and reports directly to the Director of National Intelligence. The Deputy Director is formally appointed by the Director without Senate confirmation, but as the President's opinion plays a great role in the decision, the Deputy Director is considered a political position, making the Chief Operating Officer the most senior non-political position for CIA career officers; the Executive Office supports the U. S. military by providing it with information it gathers, receiving information from military intelligence organizations, cooperates on field activities. The Executive Director is in charge of the day-to-day operation of the CIA.
Each branch of the military service has its own Director. The Associate Director of military affairs, a senior military officer, manages the relationship between the CIA and the Unified Combatant Commands, who produce and deliver to the CIA regional/operational intelligence and consume national intelligence produced by the CIA; the Directorate of Analysis, through much of its history known as the Directorate of Intelligence, is tasked with helping "the President and other policymakers make informed decisions about our country's national security" by looking "at all the available information on an issue and organiz it for policymakers". The Directorate has four regional analytic groups, six groups for transnational issues, three that focus on policy and staff support. There is an office dedicated to Iraq; the Directorate of Operations is responsible for collecting foreign intelligence, for covert action. The name reflects its role as the coordinator of human intelligence activities between other elements of the wider U.
S. intelligence community with their own HUMINT operations. This Directorate was created in an attempt to end years of rivalry over influence and budget between the United States Department of Defense and the CIA. In spite of this, the Department of Defense organized its own global clandestine intelligence service, the Defense Clandestine Service, under the Defense Intelligence Agency; this Directorate is known to be organized by geographic regions and issues, but its precise organization is classified. The Directorate of Science & Technology was established to research and manage technical collection disciplines and equipment. Many of its innovations were transferred to other intelligence organizations, or, as they became more overt, to the military services. For example, the development of the U-2 high-altitude reconnaissance aircraft was done in cooperation with the United States Air
The Agreed Framework between the United States of America and the Democratic People's Republic of Korea was signed on October 21, 1994, between North Korea and the United States. The objective of the agreement was the freezing and replacement of North Korea's indigenous nuclear power plant program with more nuclear proliferation resistant light water reactor power plants, the step-by-step normalization of relations between the U. S. and the DPRK. Implementation of the agreement was troubled from the start, but its key elements were being implemented until it broke down in 2003. On 12 December 1985, North Korea became a party to the Treaty on the Non-Proliferation of Nuclear Weapons. On 10 April 1992 its NPT safeguards agreement entered into force. In May 1992, North Korea submitted its initial report to the IAEA under that agreement, International Atomic Energy Agency inspections began. Shortly thereafter inconsistencies emerged between the North Korea initial declaration and the Agency's findings, centering on a mismatch between declared plutonium product and nuclear waste solutions and the results of the Agency's analysis.
The latter suggested. In order to find answers to the inconsistencies detected and to determine the completeness and correctness of the initial declaration provided, the IAEA requested access to additional information and to two sites which seemed to be related to the storage of nuclear waste; the DPRK refused access to the sites, on 12 March 1993, North Korea announced its decision to withdraw from the NPT. On 1 April 1993, the IAEA concluded that North Korea was in non-compliance with its Safeguards Agreement, referred this to the UN Security Council. Following UN Security Council resolution 825, which called upon the DPRK to reconsider its decision to withdraw from the Nuclear Non-Proliferation Treaty and allow weapons inspectors from the International Atomic Energy Agency into the country, North Korea "suspended the effectuation" of that withdrawal in June 1993. In November 1993, North Korea proposed to the United States that the two governments negotiate a "package solution" to all of the issues dividing them.
The Clinton Administration accepted this in principle but conditioned such "comprehensive" talks on North Korea acting first to allow a resumption of IAEA inspections and to re-open negotiations with South Korea over nuclear questions. North Korea approached the IAEA in January 1994, offering a single inspection, less comprehensive than those conducted by the IAEA in 1992. After several weeks of tough negotiations, the IAEA announced on February 16, 1994, that North Korea had accepted "the inspection activities" that the Agency had requested. In response, the Clinton Administration agreed to suspend the Team Spirit military exercise with South Korea and begin a new round of talks with North Korea—subject to North Korea allowing full implementation of the IAEA inspection and beginning high level talks with South Korea. Motivation: DPRK announced intention to withdraw from NPT and non-compliance with IAEA safeguards. Signed Date: October 21, 1994 by U. S. Ambassador Robert Gallucci and DPRK Vice-minister Kang Sok-ju Summary: Freeze of North Korean nuclear program, leading to denuclearization of the Korean Peninsula, initial Peace agreement between the United States and North KoreaThe main provisions of the agreement were: DPRK's graphite-moderated 5MWe nuclear reactor, the 50 MWe and 200 MWe reactors under construction, which could produce weapons grade plutonium, would be replaced with two 1000MW light water reactors power plants by a target date of 2003.
Oil for heating and electricity production would be provided while DPRK's reactors were shut down and construction halted, until completion of the first LWR power unit. The amount of oil was 500,000 tons of heavy fuel oil per year; the two sides would move toward full normalization of economic relations. The U. S. would provide formal peace and national security assurances to the DPRK, against the threat or use of nuclear weapons by the U. S; the DPRK would take steps to implement the 1992 Joint Declaration of the Denuclearization of the Korean Peninsula between South and North Korea. The DPRK would remain a party to the Nuclear Non-Proliferation Treaty. IAEA ad hoc and routine inspections would resume for facilities not subject to the freeze. Existing spent nuclear fuel stocks would be stored and disposed of without reprocessing in the DPRK. Before delivery of key LWR nuclear components, the DPRK would come into full compliance with its safeguards agreement with the IAEA. There were some confidential minutes supporting the agreement, which have not been made public.
These are reported to include that full-scope IAEA safeguards would be applied when the major non-nuclear components of the first LWR unit were completed but before the delivery of key nuclear components. The commitments in the agreement were voluntary and non-binding, not approved by the United States Senate as with a treaty, though noted by the United Nations Security Council, it was signed in the wake of North Korea's 90-day advance notification of its intended withdrawal from the Nuclear Non-Proliferation Treaty, a U. S. military buildup near the country, U. S. plans to bomb the active Yongbyon nuclear reactor. The U. S. regarded the Agreed Framework as a non-proliferation agreement, whereas North Korea placed greater value on measures normalizing relations with the U. S. Terms of the pact and consequent agreements included the shutdown of the pilot Yongbyon nuclear reactor, abandoning the construction of two larger nuclear power plants, a