Laurentian University, incorporated on March 28, 1960, is a mid-sized bilingual university in Greater Sudbury, Canada. While focusing on undergraduate programming, Laurentian houses the east campus of Canada's newest medical school—the Northern Ontario School of Medicine, which opened in 2005, its school of Graduate Studies offers a number of graduate-level degrees. Laurentian is the largest bilingual provider of distance education in Canada; the university's campus is located on the south side of Ramsey Lake, just south of Greater Sudbury's downtown core in the Bell Grove neighbourhood. The city's Idylwylde golf course borders on the university campus to the west and the Lake Laurentian Conservation Area borders on the campus to the south; the Lake Laurentian Conservation Area contains a network of trails used for running, mountain biking and nordic skiing. The university has a federated school structure, similar to that of the University of Toronto; the school has two separate student unions.
Students choose a student association. Laurentian's historical roots lie in the Roman Catholic church; the Collège du Sacré-Coeur was founded by the Society of Jesus in 1913. According to a plaque at the entrance to the R. D. Parker Building, the school began granting degrees in 1957 as the University of Sudbury. A university federation combining representatives from the Roman Catholic and Anglican churches was incorporated as a "non-denominational, bilingual institution of higher learning" in 1960; the new Laurentian University held classes in the University of Sudbury facility, as well as in a variety of locations in the city, including the Sudbury Steelworkers Hall, until its current campus was opened in 1964. The federated colleges included Huntington College, University of Sudbury College, Thorneloe College which joined in 1963. Collège universitaire de Hearst in Hearst is the only remaining affiliated college while both Nipissing University College in North Bay and Algoma University College in Sault Ste.
Marie were affiliated with Laurentian. Nipissing and Algoma were established in 2008 respectively. Laurentian opered a campus in Ontario in 2001 in partnership with Georgian College. In 2016, the university announced that it would shut down operations in Barrie by May 2019. In recent years, the university has expanded its professional programs, launching the Northern Ontario School of Medicine in 2005 and receiving approval to launch the Northern Ontario School of Architecture in 2011. Located in a city where the major industry is mining, Laurentian has strong ties with the mining industry, is one of the few schools in Canada offering mining engineering; the Willett Green Miller Centre, a provincial building located on campus, houses the Ontario Geological Survey, the Ontario Geoscience Laboratories, the J. B. Gammon Mines Library, the Mining and Minerals Division of the Ministry of Northern Development and Mines, it houses the Mining Innovation and Applied Research Corporation, a not-for-profit applied research and technical service company formed through collaboration between Laurentian University and the private and public sectors, the Mineral Exploration Research Centre, a semi-autonomous research and teaching centre whose focus is field-based, collaborative research on mineral deposits and their environments.
The university is a partner in the Sudbury Neutrino Observatory, the world's deepest underground laboratory. The observatory studies the origins of the universe. In 2004, the university, along with Lakehead University, formed the Northern Ontario Medical School. In addition, Laurentian University has a partnership with St. Lawrence College Tri-campus for its Bachelor of Science in Nursing and Bachelor of Business Administration; the university is a member of L'Association des universités de la francophonie canadienne, a network of academic institutions of the Canadian Francophonie. The Board of Governors heads the university with the president. Directly to the left and right of the president is the assistant to the president, the Laurentian University senate. Judith Woodsworth was the president of Laurentian University until 2002, at which time Dominic Giroux became president until she left the university to become President and Vice-Chancellor of Concordia University, Montreal. Aline Chrétien, the wife of former Canadian Prime Minister Jean Chrétien, was named the university's first chancellor on September 22, 2010.
She was succeeded by Steve Paikin on October 26, 2013. Laurentian University's affiliate universities each have a chancellor; the chancellor is a ceremonial role, has little participation in the day-to-day operations of the university. The chancellor for the affiliated University of Sudbury is Sudbury lawyer André Lacroix. University administration is the responsibility of the Board of Governors, headed by the chairperson of the Board of Governors; as of 2016 this post is held by Jennifer Witty. Stanley G. Mullins R. J. A. Cloutier Edward J. Monahan Henry Best John Daniel Ross Paul Jean Watters Judith Woodsworth Dominic Gi
ONroute is the operating brand name of Host Kilmer Service Centres, a Canadian service company which operates highway rest areas along Highway 400 and Highway 401 in the province of Ontario. The company is a joint venture between international hospitality company HMSHost and Canadian businessman Larry Tanenbaum's investment company Kilmer van Nostrand; the "ONroute" name is a modified version of the word "enroute" using the province's postal abbreviation: "ON". Construction of Ontario Highways 400 and 401 began in the early 1950s, with the last section of 401 completed in 1968. Both roads were intended as bypasses, going around populated areas instead of through them and therefore had few services. A series of rest stops was constructed as part of the highway in the 1960s in rural areas to provide a full-service restaurant and a service station. All but a few of these dated from the same era with strong similarity in design. From the late 1980s to 2010, rest areas on the two highways were individually franchised to different fast food operators and gasoline distributors.
The government of Ontario selected HKSC as the new franchisee for all of its rest areas in 2010. Since 2010-11, HKSC has demolished the 1960s-era rest stops, leaving most rest stops out of operation for a year or more, used the sites to construct new ONroute service stations. Most of the remaining redevelopment projects were completed in 2013. Partners in the redevelopment projects included EllisDon Construction, Quadrangle Architects and Bruce Mau Design. All of the redeveloped locations were designed to meet the LEED certification standards of the Canadian Green Building Council, as well as current standards of accessibility for travellers with disabilities; the rest areas on Highway 401 at Ingersoll and Newcastle, as well as the southbound rest area on Highway 400 at Maple were redeveloped in the late 1990s, before the ONroute design, the original structures remain in service. Unlike all other ONRoute rest areas, Esso remains as the gasoline distributor at these locations; each ONroute location features a Canadian Tire gas station.
While each location offers a different selection of fast food providers, all locations feature some combination of A&W, Big Smoke Burger, Brioche Dorée, Burger King, Cold Stone Creamery, East Side Mario's Pronto, Extreme Pita, KFC, Taco Bell, Mr. Sub, New York Fries, Pizza Pizza, PurBlendz, Swiss Chalet, Tim Hortons, Wendy's or Yogen Früz outlets, as well as a Nicholby's Express or The Market convenience store. In some cases, selection is more limited or prices higher than in non-highway locations of the same-brand chains. Tim Hortons is found at every ONroute location. In addition, the westernmost and easternmost locations along Highway 401 feature Ontario Tourist Information Centres, as they serve as "gateway" locations for tourists entering the province from Michigan or Quebec. All ONroute locations provide free wi-fi connection, courtesy of CIBC. ONroute locations are located along Highway 401's entire length, while there are only 4 rest areas located on Highway 400 along the freeway's southern section between Toronto and Barrie.
As of 2016, ONroute locations are open along Highway 401 in Tilbury, West Lorne, Ingersoll, Cambridge, Port Hope, Greater Napanee, Mallorytown, Morrisburg and Bainsville, along Highway 400 in Vaughan, King City and Innisfil. In most locations, individual ONroute service centres are accessible only from one carriageway of the highway, with a separate nearby ONroute location serving the other carriageway. Bainsville is the only current exception, having only a westbound location, with services for eastbound motorists available at a similar freeway rest area located on Quebec's Autoroute 20 just east of the provincial boundary; the former Highway 400 location in Cookstown was accessible directly by southbound motorists but could be reached by northbound traffic exiting on westbound Highway 89 turning at a driveway just west of Highway 400, but it has since been relocated to another location only accessible by southbound motorists. ONroute
University of Toronto
The University of Toronto is a public research university in Toronto, Canada, located on the grounds that surround Queen's Park. It was founded by royal charter in 1827 as King's College, the first institution of higher learning in the colony of Upper Canada. Controlled by the Church of England, the university assumed the present name in 1850 upon becoming a secular institution; as a collegiate university, it comprises eleven colleges, which differ in character and history, each with substantial autonomy on financial and institutional affairs. It has two satellite campuses in Mississauga; the university is ranked as the best Canadian university, according to various major publications. Academically, the University of Toronto is noted for influential movements and curricula in literary criticism and communication theory, known collectively as the Toronto School; the university was the birthplace of insulin and stem cell research, was the site of the first practical electron microscope, the development of deep learning, multi-touch technology, the identification of the first black hole Cygnus X-1, the development of the theory of NP-completeness.
By a significant margin, it receives the most annual scientific research funding of any Canadian university. It is one of two members of the Association of American Universities outside the United States, the other being McGill University in Montreal, Canada; the Varsity Blues are the athletic teams that represent the university in intercollegiate league matches, with long and storied ties to gridiron football and ice hockey. The earliest recorded college football game was played in the University of Toronto's University College in the 1860s; the university's Hart House is an early example of the North American student centre serving cultural and recreational interests within its large Gothic-revival complex. The University of Toronto has educated three Governors General of Canada, four Prime Ministers of Canada, four foreign leaders, fourteen Justices of the Supreme Court; as of March 2019, ten Nobel laureates, five Turing Award winners, 94 Rhodes Scholars, one Fields Medalist have been affiliated with the university.
The founding of a colonial college had long been the desire of John Graves Simcoe, the first Lieutenant-Governor of Upper Canada. As an Oxford-educated military commander who had fought in the American Revolutionary War, Simcoe believed a college was needed to counter the spread of republicanism from the United States; the Upper Canada Executive Committee recommended in 1798 that a college be established in York, the colonial capital. On March 15, 1827, a royal charter was formally issued by King George IV, proclaiming "from this time one College, with the style and privileges of a University... for the education of youth in the principles of the Christian Religion, for their instruction in the various branches of Science and Literature... to continue for to be called King's College." The granting of the charter was the result of intense lobbying by John Strachan, the influential Anglican Bishop of Toronto who took office as the college's first president. The original three-storey Greek Revival school building was built on the present site of Queen's Park.
Under Strachan's stewardship, King's College was a religious institution aligned with the Church of England and the British colonial elite, known as the Family Compact. Reformist politicians opposed the clergy's control over colonial institutions and fought to have the college secularized. In 1849, after a lengthy and heated debate, the newly elected responsible government of Upper Canada voted to rename King's College as the University of Toronto and severed the school's ties with the church. Having anticipated this decision, the enraged Strachan had resigned a year earlier to open Trinity College as a private Anglican seminary. University College was created as the nondenominational teaching branch of the University of Toronto. During the American Civil War, the threat of Union blockade on British North America prompted the creation of the University Rifle Corps, which saw battle in resisting the Fenian raids on the Niagara border in 1866; the Corps was part of the Reserve Militia lead by Professor Henry Croft.
Established in 1878, the School of Practical Science was precursor to the Faculty of Applied Science and Engineering, nicknamed Skule since its earliest days. While the Faculty of Medicine opened in 1843, medical teaching was conducted by proprietary schools from 1853 until 1887, when the faculty absorbed the Toronto School of Medicine. Meanwhile, the university continued to confer medical degrees; the university opened the Faculty of Law in 1887, followed by the Faculty of Dentistry in 1888, when the Royal College of Dental Surgeons became an affiliate. Women were first admitted to the university in 1884. A devastating fire in 1890 gutted the interior of University College and destroyed 33,000 volumes from the library, but the university restored the building and replenished its library within two years. Over the next two decades, a collegiate system took shape as the university arranged federation with several ecclesiastical colleges, including Strachan's Trinity College in 1904; the university operated the Royal Conservatory of Music from 1896 to 1991 and the Royal Ontario Museum from 1912 to 1968.
The University of Toronto Press was founded in 1901 as Canada's first academic publishing house. The Faculty of Forestry, founded in 1907 with Bernhard Fernow as dean, was Canada's first university faculty devoted to forest science. In 1910, the Faculty of Education opened its laboratory school, the University of Toro
Greater Sudbury referred to as Sudbury, is a city in Ontario, Canada. It is the largest city in Northern Ontario by population, with a population of 161,531 at the Canada 2016 Census. By land area, it is the fifth largest in Canada, it is administratively a single-tier municipality, thus not part of any district, county, or regional municipality. The Sudbury region was sparsely inhabited by the Ojibwe people of the Algonquin group for thousands of years prior to the founding of Sudbury following the discovery of nickel ore in 1883 during the construction of the transcontinental railway. Greater Sudbury was formed in 2001 by merging the cities and towns of the former Regional Municipality of Sudbury with several unincorporated townships. Being located inland, the local climate is seasonal with average January lows of around −18 °C and average July highs of 25 °C; the population resides in an urban core and many smaller communities scattered around 300 lakes and among hills of rock blackened by historical smelting activity.
Sudbury was once a world leader in nickel mining. Mining and related industries dominated the economy for much of the 20th century; the two major mining companies which shaped the history of Sudbury were Inco, now Vale Limited, which employed more than 25% of the population by the 1970s, Falconbridge, now Glencore. Sudbury has since expanded from its resource-based economy to emerge as the major retail, economic and educational centre for Northeastern Ontario. Sudbury is home to a large Franco-Ontarian population that influences its arts and culture; the Sudbury region was sparsely inhabited by the Ojibwe people of the Algonquin group as early as 9,000 years ago following the retreat of the last continental ice sheet. French Jesuits were the first to establish a European settlement when they set up a mission called Sainte-Anne-des-Pins, just before the construction of the Canadian Pacific Railway in 1883; the Sainte-Anne-des-Pins church played a prominent role in the development of Franco-Ontarian culture in the region.
During construction of the railway in 1883, blasting and excavation revealed high concentrations of nickel-copper ore at Murray Mine on the edge of the Sudbury Basin. This discovery brought the first waves of European settlers, who arrived not only to work at the mines, but to build a service station for railway workers. James Worthington, the superintendent of construction on the Northern Ontario segment of the railway, selected the name Sudbury after Sudbury, Suffolk, in England, the hometown of his wife Caroline. Sudbury was incorporated as a town in 1893, its first mayor was Stephen Fournier; the American inventor Thomas Edison visited the Sudbury area as a prospector in 1901. He is credited with the original discovery of the ore body at Falconbridge. Rich deposits of nickel sulphide ore were discovered in the Sudbury Basin geological formation; the construction of the railway allowed exploitation of these mineral resources and shipment of the commodities to markets and ports, as well as large-scale lumber extraction.
Mining began to replace lumber as the primary industry as the area's transportation network was improved to include trams. These enabled workers to work in another. Sudbury’s economy was dominated by the mining industry for much of the 20th century. Two major mining companies were created: Inco in 1902 and Falconbridge in 1928, they became two of the world's leading producers of nickel. Through the decades that followed, Sudbury's economy went through boom and bust cycles as world demand for nickel fluctuated. Demand was high during the First World War, when Sudbury-mined nickel was used extensively in the manufacturing of artillery in Sheffield, England, it bottomed out when the war ended and rose again in the mid-1920s as peacetime uses for nickel began to develop. The town was reincorporated as a city in 1930; the city recovered from the Great Depression much more than any other city in North America due to increased demand for nickel in the 1930s. Sudbury was the fastest-growing city and one of the wealthiest cities in Canada for most of the decade.
Many of the city's social problems in the Great Depression era were not caused by unemployment or poverty, but due to the difficulty in keeping up with all of the new infrastructure demands created by rapid growth — for example, employed mineworkers sometimes ended up living in boarding houses or makeshift shanty towns, because demand for new housing was rising faster than supply. Between 1936 and 1941, the city was ordered into receivership by the Ontario Municipal Board. Another economic slowdown affected the city in 1937, but the city's fortunes rose again with wartime demands during the Second World War; the Frood Mine alone accounted for 40 percent of all the nickel used in Allied artillery production during the war. After the end of the war, Sudbury was in a good position to supply nickel to the United States government when it decided to stockpile non-Soviet supplies during the Cold War; the open coke beds used in the early to mid 20th century and logging for fuel resulted in a near-total loss of native vegetation in the area.
The terrain was made up of exposed rocky outcrops permanently stained charcoal black by the air pollution from the roasting yards. Acid rain added more staining, in a layer that penetrates up to three inches into the once pink-grey granite; the construction of the Inco Superstack in 1972 dispersed sulphuric acid through the air over a much wider area, reducing the acidity of local precipitation. This enabled the city to begin an environmental recovery program. In the late 1970s, private and public interests combined to establis
Emily Carr University of Art and Design
Emily Carr University of Art and Design, known as ECU, is a public post-secondary art school and university located in Vancouver, British Columbia, Canada. Established in 1925 as the Vancouver School of Decorative and Applied Arts, as the first degree-granting institution in British Columbia created for students of both the visual and performing arts, it was named after the Canadian artist Emily Carr in 1978. Emily Carr is one of the oldest post-secondary institutions in British Columbia and the only one, dedicated to professional education and learning in the arts and design. Known as the Vancouver School of Art, it was established in 1925 as the Vancouver School of Decorative and Applied Arts. In 1978, ECU was designated a provincial institute before moving to Granville Island in 1980. A second building on Granville Island was opened in 1995. In 1995, ECU was granted authority to offer bachelor's degrees: BFA and BDes and honorary degrees: Honorary Doctor of Letters, Honorary Doctor of Laws and Honorary Doctor of Technology.
In 1997, ECU was granted authority to offer Bachelor of Media Arts degrees. In 2006, ECI launched a Master of Applied Arts, opened the Intersections Digital Studio. In 2007, the Great Northern Way consortium made up of Emily Carr, UBC, SFU and BCIT launched the Master of Digital Media program at the Great Northern Way Campus. Emily Carr Institute of Art and Design's arms, supporters and badge were registered with the Canadian Heraldic Authority on April 20, 2007. On April 28th, 2008, the Provincial Government announced that it would amend the University Act at the Legislative Assembly of British Columbia and recognize Emily Carr Institute of Art and Design as a full university, which would be named Emily Carr University of Art and Design; the university began its operation under the new name on September 1, 2008. On September 5th 2017, the university moved from its home on Granville Island to a new campus at 520 East 1st Avenue, near Great Northern Way between Main and Clark streets; the purpose-built building was a former industrial site of Finning International, is in the Mount Pleasant neighborhood of East Vancouver.
Emily Carr specializes in sustainable design, new media, visual arts, interactive media, industrial design, product design, sculpture, communication design and fine arts. Degree programs include: Bachelor of Fine Arts in Animation, Film/Video, Visual Arts, General Fine Arts, or Photography Bachelor of Design in Communication Design, Interaction Design or Industrial Design Bachelor of Media Arts Masters of Fine Arts in Visual Arts Masters of Design In November 2009, Emily Carr University teamed up with Lucasfilm spinoff, Kerner Studios, to announce the establishment of a stereoscopic 3-D research studio. In 2014, two Canada Research Chairs joined Emily Carr, making it the first art and design institution in the country with Canada Research Chairs. In 2015, a third Canada Research Chair joined the university; the university does not directly operate a residence, although student residence is available at the Centre for Digital Media in the Mount Pleasant neighbourhood. The school is located near a large residential area offering off-campus housing options and has established a student housing website to assist students in finding accommodation.
Higher education in British Columbia List of colleges and universities named after people List of universities in British Columbia Official website AUCC profile
BIBSYS is an administrative agency set up and organized by the Ministry of Education and Research in Norway. They are a service provider, focusing on the exchange and retrieval of data pertaining to research and learning – metadata related to library resources. BIBSYS are collaborating with all Norwegian universities and university colleges as well as research institutions and the National Library of Norway. Bibsys is formally organized as a unit at the Norwegian University of Science and Technology, located in Trondheim, Norway; the board of directors is appointed by Norwegian Ministry of Research. BIBSYS offer researchers and others an easy access to library resources by providing the unified search service Oria.no and other library services. They deliver integrated products for the internal operation for research and special libraries as well as open educational resources; as a DataCite member BIBSYS act as a national DataCite representative in Norway and thereby allow all of Norway's higher education and research institutions to use DOI on their research data.
All their products and services are developed in cooperation with their member institutions. BIBSYS began in 1972 as a collaborative project between the Royal Norwegian Society of Sciences and Letters Library, the Norwegian Institute of Technology Library and the Computer Centre at the Norwegian Institute of Technology; the purpose of the project was to automate internal library routines. Since 1972 Bibsys has evolved from a library system supplier for two libraries in Trondheim, to developing and operating a national library system for Norwegian research and special libraries; the target group has expanded to include the customers of research and special libraries, by providing them easy access to library resources. BIBSYS is a public administrative agency answerable to the Ministry of Education and Research, administratively organised as a unit at NTNU. In addition to BIBSYS Library System, the product portfolio consists of BISBYS Ask, BIBSYS Brage, BIBSYS Galleri and BIBSYS Tyr. All operation of applications and databases is performed centrally by BIBSYS.
BIBSYS offer a range of services, both in connection with their products and separate services independent of the products they supply. Open access in Norway Om Bibsys
Seattle Public Library
The Seattle Public Library is the public library system serving Seattle, Washington. It was established by the city in 1890, though there had been efforts to start a Seattle library as early as 1868. There are 26 branches in the system, most of them named after the neighborhoods in which they are located. Included are Mobile Services and the Central Library; the Seattle Public Library founded, until July 2008 administered, the Washington Talking Book & Braille Library. All but one of Seattle's early purpose-built libraries were Carnegie libraries. Although the central Carnegie library has now twice been replaced, all the early 20th century purpose-built branches survive, although some have been subject to significant alterations. Ballard's former Carnegie library has held a number of restaurants, antique stores, etc. but the others have been modernized, remain in use as libraries. The Seattle Public Library system consists of the Central Library and 26 branches and a mobile library system; as of 2011, the Central Location of the library contained about 930,000 books.
Its special collections include an oral history collection, the state document depository, the federal document depository, an aviation history collection, genealogy records, historical documents about Seattle. The 26 branches have one million cataloged physical items including Books, CDs, DVDs. In addition all locations have uncatalogued collections of books that can be borrowed without a library card. Seattle's first attempt to start a library association occurred at a meeting of 50 residents on July 30, 1868, but produced only minimal success over the next two decades; the Ladies' Library Association began a more focused attempt to put together a public library in 1888. They had raised some funds and had obtained a pledge of land from Henry Yesler, but their efforts were cut short by the Great Seattle Fire of 1889. Nonetheless, encouraged by their ideas, the revised October 1890 city charter formally established the Public Library as a branch of the city government; the ladies' influence can be seen in that the charter required that at least two of the five library commissioners be women.
The library was funded by a 10% share of city fines and licenses. The first library opened April 8, 1891 as a reading room on the third floor of the Occidental Block—later the Seattle Hotel—supervised by librarian A. J. Snoke. By December 1891 when books were first allowed to be borrowed, it had 6,541 volumes. Snoke was succeeded in 1893 by John D. Atkinson, succeeded in 1895 by Charles Wesley Smith, who remained in the position until 1907. Smith took over a library that, like all of Seattle, had been impacted by the Panic of 1893: by 1895 its annual budget was only half of what it had been that first year. In its first decade or so, the growing library "developed the traveling habit". In June 1894, it moved across Second Avenue to the Collins Block. By 1895, the budget situation was so dire that Smith experimented with charging borrowers ten cents to borrow a book; as the city grew out, that building was occupied by the Frederick and Nelson department store. At the Rialto, the library for the first time moved to an open-stacks policy, where users could browse through the shelves for themselves instead of presenting a request to a librarian.
In 1898 the library moved again to the former Yesler Mansion, a forty-room building on the site that would become the King County Courthouse. Meanwhile, in 1896, the library established a bindery, a new city charter drastically decreased the power of the library commission and removed the requirement of its having female members; this increased Smith's power, a change which he himself opposed. On the night of January 1, 1901, the Yesler Mansion burned taking most of the library collection with it; the library records were salvaged, along with the 2,000 volumes of the children's collection. Other than those, though the only books salvaged were the 5,000 that were out on circulation at the time; the library operated for a time out of Yesler's barn, which had survived moved to a building, left behind when the University of Washington had moved from downtown to its present campus. By January 6, Andrew Carnegie had promised $200,000 to build a new Seattle library; the new Carnegie library was built not far from the former university campus, occupying the entire block between 4th and 5th Avenues and between Madison and Spring Streets.
The land was purchased for $100,000. In August 1903, the city selected a design submitted by P. J. Weber of Chicago for a building to be constructed of sandstone. Ground was broken in spring 1905 and the library was dedicated December 19, 1906. Shortly after moving to these new permanent quarters, Smith was succeeded in 1907 by Judson T. Jennings. Meanwhile, the library began to grow in other respects. A reference department had been established in 1899. In 1903 a position was established for a children's librarian. In 1904 a plan was established to grow to 12 departments; the periodical division was established in 1906, the art division in 1907, the technology division in 1912. Branch libraries had opened in rented quarters in Fremont, Green Lake, the University District. In 1908, Carnegie donated $105,000 to build permanent bra