Ashkenazi Jews known as Ashkenazic Jews or Ashkenazim, are a Jewish diaspora population who coalesced in the Holy Roman Empire around the end of the first millennium. The traditional diaspora language of Ashkenazi Jews is Yiddish, developed after they had moved into northern Europe: beginning with Germany and France in the Middle Ages. For centuries they used Hebrew only as a sacred language, until the revival of Hebrew as a common language in Israel. Throughout their time in Europe, Ashkenazim have made many important contributions to its philosophy, literature, art and science; the term "Ashkenazi" refers to Jewish settlers who established communities along the Rhine river in Western Germany and in Northern France dating to the Middle Ages. Once there, they adapted traditions carried from Babylon, the Holy Land, the Western Mediterranean to their new environment; the Ashkenazi religious rite developed in cities such as Mainz and Troyes. The eminent French Rishon rabbi Shlomo Itzhaki would have a significant influence on the Jewish religion.
In the late Middle Ages, due to religious persecution, the majority of the Ashkenazi population shifted eastward, moving out of the Holy Roman Empire into the areas part of the Polish–Lithuanian Commonwealth. In the course of the late 18th and 19th centuries, those Jews who remained in or returned to the German lands generated a cultural reorientation; the Holocaust of the Second World War decimated the Ashkenazim, affecting every Jewish family. It is estimated that in the 11th century Ashkenazi Jews composed three percent of the world's total Jewish population, while an estimate made in 1930 had them as 92 percent of the world's Jews. Prior to the Holocaust, the number of Jews in the world stood at 16.7 million. Statistical figures vary for the contemporary demography of Ashkenazi Jews, ranging from 10 million to 11.2 million. Sergio Della Pergola, in a rough calculation of Sephardic and Mizrahi Jews, implies that Ashkenazi Jews make up less than 74% of Jews worldwide. Other estimates place Ashkenazi Jews as making up about 75% of Jews worldwide.
Genetic studies on Ashkenazim—researching both their paternal and maternal lineages—suggest a predominant amount of shared Middle Eastern ancestry, complemented by varying percentages of European admixture. These studies have arrived at diverging conclusions regarding both the degree and the sources of their European ancestry, have focused on the extent of the European genetic origin observed in Ashkenazi maternal lineages. Ashkenazi Jews are popularly contrasted with Sephardi Jews, who descend from Jews who settled in the Iberian Peninsula, Mizrahi Jews, who descend from Jews who remained in the Middle East; the name Ashkenazi derives from the biblical figure of Ashkenaz, the first son of Gomer, son of Japhet, son of Noah, a Japhetic patriarch in the Table of Nations. The name of Gomer has been linked to the ethnonym Cimmerians. Biblical Ashkenaz is derived from Assyrian Aškūza, a people who expelled the Cimmerians from the Armenian area of the Upper Euphrates, whose name is associated with the name of the Scythians.
The intrusive n in the Biblical name is due to a scribal error confusing a vav ו with a nun נ. In Jeremiah 51:27, Ashkenaz figures as one of three kingdoms in the far north, the others being Minni and Ararat corresponding to Urartu, called on by God to resist Babylon. In the Yoma tractate of the Babylonian Talmud the name Gomer is rendered as Germania, which elsewhere in rabbinical literature was identified with Germanikia in northwestern Syria, but became associated with Germania. Ashkenaz is linked to Scandza/Scanzia, viewed as the cradle of Germanic tribes, as early as a 6th-century gloss to the Historia Ecclesiastica of Eusebius. In the 10th-century History of Armenia of Yovhannes Drasxanakertc'i Ashkenaz was associated with Armenia, as it was in Jewish usage, where its denotation extended at times to Adiabene, Khazaria and areas to the east, his contemporary Saadia Gaon identified Ashkenaz with the Saquliba or Slavic territories, such usage covered the lands of tribes neighboring the Slavs, Eastern and Central Europe.
In modern times, Samuel Krauss identified the Biblical "Ashkenaz" with Khazaria. Sometime in the Early Medieval period, the Jews of central and eastern Europe came to be called by this term. Conforming to the custom of designating areas of Jewish settlement with biblical names, Spain was denominated Sefarad, France was called Tsarefat, Bohemia was called the Land of Canaan. By the high medieval period, Talmudic commentators like Rashi began to use Ashkenaz/Eretz Ashkenaz to designate Germany, earlier known as Loter, where in the Rhineland communities of Speyer and Mainz, the most important Jewish communities arose. Rashi uses leshon Ashkenaz to describe German speech, Byzantium and Syrian Jewish letters referred to the Crusaders as Ashkenazim. Given the close links between the Jewish communities of France a
Marshall Schreiber Herskovitz is an American film director and producer, the President Emeritus of the Producers Guild of America. Among his productions are Traffic, The Last Samurai, Blood Diamond, I Am Sam. Herskovitz has directed Jack the Bear and Dangerous Beauty. Herskovitz was a creator and executive producer of the television shows thirtysomething, My So-Called Life, Once and Again, wrote and directed several episodes of all three series. Herskovitz was born in Philadelphia, the son of Frieda and Alexander Herskovitz, his family is Jewish. He was married to screenwriter Susan Shilliday from 1981–1993, they have two daughters. Herskovitz married Landry Major in 2015. Herskovitz has long been "one of the film industry's most active and passionate environmentalists." He serves on the advisory board of The Climate Mobilization, a grassroots advocacy group calling for a national economic mobilization against climate change on the scale of the home front during World War II, with the goal of 100% clean energy and net zero greenhouse gas emissions by 2025.
Thirtysomething won numerous Primetime Emmy Awards, including Outstanding Drama series in 1988. That year it won Outstanding Writing in a Drama series for an episode that Herskovitz co-wrote with Paul Haggis; the show received the Best Drama Series award at the Golden Globes that year. Herskovitz himself was honored by both the Writers Guild and Directors Guild for his work on the series. Traffic was nominated for Best Picture at the 73rd Academy Awards in 2001. Once and Again was nominated for Best Drama Series of 1999 at the Golden Globes. Jack the Bear Legends of the Fall Dangerous Beauty Desperate Measures Shakespeare in Love Traffic I Am Sam Lone Star State of Mind The Last Samurai Crash Blood Diamond In the Valley of Elah Defiance Love & Other Drugs About Alex Boys of Abu Ghraib Jack Reacher: Never Go Back The Great Wall Nashville American Assassin Woman Walks Ahead Marshall Herskovitz on IMDb Art Film Talk #23 Marshall Herskovitz – Interview about Quarterlife, November 30, 2007
William Dwight Schultz is an American actor and voice artist. He is known for his roles as Captain "Howling Mad" Murdock on the 1980s action series The A-Team, as Reginald Barclay in Star Trek: The Next Generation, Star Trek: Voyager and the film Star Trek: First Contact, he is known in animation as the mad scientist Dr. Animo in the Ben 10 series, Chef Mung Daal in the children's animated series Chowder, Eddie the Squirrel in CatDog. Schultz was born in Baltimore, Maryland, of German descent, is a Roman Catholic, he attended Towson University. Schultz's breakthrough role was the character of Captain "Howling Mad" Murdock on The A-Team, he subsequently appeared in several films, including The Fan, starred in Fat Man and Little Boy as J. Robert Oppenheimer. In the early 1990s, he had a recurring role as Lieutenant Reginald Barclay in Star Trek: The Next Generation, reprised the role in Star Trek: Voyager and the film Star Trek: First Contact. Schultz had a role in the Babylon 5 episode'The Long Dark' as a former soldier still suffering the effects of war.
Schultz played a dramatic change-of-pace role in the 1992 television film Child of Rage, starring opposite Mel Harris as a compassionate couple who adopt a troubled girl, sexually abused. In November 2009, Schultz confirmed that he and former A-Team co-star Dirk Benedict would make cameo appearances in the feature film The A-Team. Although Dwights part was cut from the film, it was included after the credits as an Easter egg. Shultz hosted a conservative talk radio podcast called Howling Mad Radio, which ended in March 2009, he has guest-hosted on numerous occasions for Michael Savage on The Savage Nation, Jerry Doyle on The Jerry Doyle Show, Rusty Humphries on The Rusty Humphries Show. Schultz married actress Wendy Fulton in 1983, they have one daughter, who serves in the Marines. Schultz is a conservative and in 2012 began regular appearances on The Glazov Gang, an Internet political talk show hosted by Jamie Glazov, managing editor of FrontPage Magazine, he posts political commentaries and podcasts on his official fansite.
Night and Day The Crucifer of Blood The Water Engine Dark Matters Radio with Don Ecker and Special Co-Host Dwight Schultz Howling Mad Radio The Jerry Doyle Show The Laura Ingraham Show The Rusty Humphries Show The Savage Nation Dwight Schultz on IMDb Dwight Schultz at the Internet Broadway Database Dwight Schultz at the Internet Off-Broadway Database Dwight Schultz at the TCM Movie Database Dwight Schultz at AllMovie
Christopher Anthony John Martin is an English singer, musician, record producer, philanthropist. He is the lead co-founder of the rock band Coldplay. Born in Exeter in Devon, Martin went to University College London where he formed a rock band with Jonny Buckland in 1996 called Pectoralz, renamed Coldplay in 1998. Martin, along with the other Coldplay members, achieved worldwide fame with the release of the band's single "Yellow" in 2000, a song that earned the band their first Grammy Award nomination in the Grammy Award for Best Rock Song; the band garnered critical acclaim and several accolades for their subsequent albums including A Rush of Blood to the Head and Viva la Vida, winning a Grammy Award for both and a Brit Award for the former. Coldplay has sold over 90 million records worldwide, making them one of the world's best-selling music artists. One of the highest profile musicians in British popular culture, Martin appeared on Debrett's 2017 list of the most influential people in the United Kingdom.
Christopher Anthony John Martin was born on 2 March 1977 in Exeter, England, is the oldest of five children. His father, Anthony John Martin, of Whitestone House, Exeter, is a retired accountant, his mother, Alison Martin, is a music teacher, his family's caravan and motorhome sales business, Martins of Exeter, was founded by his grandfather John Besley Martin, C. B. E. in 1929, sold by his father to a former employee in 1999. William Willett, the man who campaigned for and made daylight saving time a recognised practice, was Martin's great-great-grandfather. Martin's paternal aunt Elisabeth Jane married Hon. Julian George Winston Sandys, son of Conservative politician Edwin Duncan Sandys, Baron Duncan-Sandys by his wife Diana Churchill, daughter of Prime Minister Winston Churchill; the Conservative politician David Martin is his father's brother. Martin was educated at the pre-preparatory Hylton School and the preparatory Exeter Cathedral School where he found his passion for music. After Exeter Cathedral School, Martin boarded at Sherborne School in Dorset, where he met future Coldplay manager Phil Harvey.
Martin continued his studies at University College London, staying at Ramsay Hall, where he read Ancient World Studies and graduated with first-class honours in Greek and Latin. At UCL, Martin met his future Coldplay bandmates Guy Berryman and Will Champion. While studying at University College London, Martin met Jonny Buckland with whom he decided to form a band—Martin as lead singer and Buckland as lead guitarist, they were joined by Guy Berryman as their drummer. In 1996, they formed the rock band Coldplay known as Pectoralz changed to Starfish temporarily until they were offered the name Coldplay by another band who did not want the name anymore. Since the release of their debut album Parachutes in 2000, the band has had internationally recognised fame and success, their song Yellow from Parachutes entered the charts at Number 4, the hit carried Coldplay to their aforementioned fame. To date, they have released seven studio albums in total including Parachutes, A Rush of Blood to the Head, X&Y, Viva la Vida or Death and All His Friends, Mylo Xyloto, Ghost Stories, A Head Full of Dreams.
They released several EP's at the beginning of their creation including Safety and The Blue Room. As a solo artist, Martin has written songs for a variety of acts including Jamelia. Martin has collaborated with Ron Sexsmith, the Streets, Ian McCulloch, he sang a part of the vocals for the Band Aid 20 single, "Do They Know It's Christmas?" at the end of 2004. In 2005, Martin collaborated with Nelly Furtado on the track "All Good Things", for her 2006 album, Loose; the two were once rumoured to be a couple, after they both performed at Glastonbury in 2002. Nelly Furtado joked about it, saying, "Yeah, he's my boyfriend—he just doesn't know it yet". Martin's fascination with hip hop was shown in mid-2006 when he collaborated with rapper Jay-Z for the rapper's comeback album Kingdom Come after the two met earlier in the year. Martin put some chords together for a song known as "Beach Chair" and sent them to Jay-Z who enlisted the help of hip-hop producer Dr. Dre to mix it. Coldplay producer Rik Simpson performed the drum beats.
The song was performed on 27 September 2006 by the two during Jay-Z's European tour at Royal Albert Hall. Martin has worked on a solo collaboration with Kanye West, with whom he shared an impromptu jam session during a 2006 concert at Abbey Road Studios, he performed the chorus of "Homecoming", from Kanye West's album Graduation. In 2015, Martin collaborated with producer and DJ Avicii to work on two new tracks for his album, Stories, their first collaboration is named "Heaven". Martin wrote the lyrics, Avicii did the production, Simon Aldred of Cherry Ghost was the vocalist, he provided the vocals for Avicii's True Believer in his Stories album. In September 2016, the Chainsmokers shared two short clips of an upcoming song featuring vocals from Martin; the song, "Something Just Like This", was released on 22 February 2017, has reached number 3 peak on the US Billboard Hot 100. In February 2017, Martin performed A Different Corner on the Brit Awards in honor to George Michael A song he co-wrote called "Homesick" appears on Dua Lipa's self-titled debut album, released in June 2017.
The main influence on Martin and Coldplay is the Scottish rock band Travis, with Martin crediting the band for the creation of
"Fix You" is a song by the British rock band Coldplay. It was written by all four members of the band for their third studio album, X&Y; the track is built around an organ accompanied by piano and guitar in the first half and an alternative rock style in the second half featuring electric guitar and drums. It was released on 5 September 2005 as the second single from X&Y and has reached number 4 on the UK Singles Chart; the song reached number 18 in the United States Billboard Hot Modern Rock Tracks. Promo singles were released for the UK and US. Blythe Danner, the mother of Gwyneth Paltrow and former mother-in-law of Chris Martin, stated in an interview in May 2012 that Martin'wrote the song for Gwyneth when her father died and I weep every time I hear it'."Fix You" was critically acclaimed by music critics. It has been sampled, with different covers and sounds; the music video was garnered as a tribute to the 7 July 2005 London bombings. The guitar solo of "Fix You" is used as the player introduction at all of the National Hockey League's Montreal Canadiens' home games, during the three stars of the game selection after every Los Angeles Kings home win, was played at Staples Center as the Stanley Cup was brought on the ice after the Kings' victory in the 2014 Stanley Cup Final.
The song is used for the 2015–16 New York Islanders inaugural season in Barclays Center. The song was played live at the Steve Jobs memorial/celebration-of-life event at Apple headquarters on 19 October 2011 in Cupertino, California and at One Love Manchester charity concert on 4 June 2017; when writing the song, lead singer Martin intended to use a church-style organ for the track. Unable to gain access to the instrument, Martin instead used an old keyboard that his late father-in-law, Bruce Paltrow, gave to his daughter Gwyneth. However, in other instances Martin has claimed that "Fix You" is influenced by English alternative rock band Elbow's 2003 anthem "Grace Under Pressure"; when asked about the development of the song, Martin said: "My father-in-law Bruce Paltrow bought this big keyboard just before he died. No one had plugged it in. I plugged it in, there was this incredible sound I'd never heard before. All these songs poured out from this one sound. Something has to inspire you, something else takes over.
It's cloudy." Martin noted that the song is "probably the most important song we've written". During a track-by-track analysis bassist Guy Berryman admitted that the song takes "a bit of inspiration" from Jimmy Cliff's 1969 song "Many Rivers to Cross". Berryman added, "It becomes its own thing, kind of like points of inspiration that kind of lead you down certain paths. Whenever you want to write a song like someone else, it ends up sounding like something different anyway." The song, written in the key of E♭ major, features an organ and piano sound. The song starts with a hushed electric organ ballad, including Martin's falsetto; the song builds with acoustic guitar and piano, along with a string section during the beginning choruses. The sound shifts with a plaintive three-note guitar line, ringing through a rhythmic upbeat drum tempo; the song transitions to its bridge, which roars into an instrumentation of piano notes, electric & bass guitar riffs, a singalong chorus with an anthemic feel.
A synthesiser joins the instrumentation, during the second half of the bridge. The song ends with the beginning chorus, with slow, melancholic piano notes being played in the background; the message throughout the song, in which Martin sings, is words of encouragement: "Lights will guide you home / And ignite your bones / And I will try to fix you." Michele Hatty of USA Weekend reported. Travis Gass of the Bangor Daily News wrote that Martin offers his sympathies for the downtrodden, with "When you love someone but it goes to waste / Could it be worse?". Coldplay released "Fix You" in the UK and US on 5 September 2005 as the second single of their third album; the single was pressed with two B-sides: "The World Turned Upside Down" and "Pour Me". On 14 September 2005, the band released the Fix. In response to Hurricane Katrina, all of the sales went to the American Red Cross Hurricane 2005 Relief and the National Academy of Recording Arts & Sciences' MusiCares Hurricane Relief Fund. Promotional singles were released in the UK and US.
The track peaked at number four in the UK Singles Chart on 17 September 2005. As of 30 July 2011, the song had spent 122 weeks on that chart, it peaked at number 59 on the Billboard Hot 100 and number 18 on the Billboard Hot Modern Rock Tracks. The song charted on the Billboard Pop 100 and Hot Digital Songs; the single appeared in Australia's Singles Chart in the number four position on 18 September 2005, after retiring in the 58 spot. It appeared at number eight on the Irish Singles Chart and spent seven consecutive weeks on the chart. On 14 November 2010, the song re-entered the Australian singles chart at number 37. In 2005, Coldplay performed the song live on the Live 8 event in July, it has become the anthem for the event. In 2009, the song appeared on Coldplay's live album, LeftRightLeftRightLeft. On 19 October 2011, the band played the song at the "Celebrating Steve" event for Apple employees over a global media stream to all the Apple Stores; this event was available for Apple customers via the company website.
On 4 June 2017, Coldplay performed "Fix You" at the One Love Manchester benefit concert for the victims of the 2017 Manchester Arena bombing. The song received widespread acclaim from music critics. In the Rolling Stone Magazine review of the album, critic Kelefa Sanneh wrote: "One of the best is'Fix
David Sanford Milch is an American writer and producer of television series. He has created several television shows, including Deadwood. Milch graduated summa cum laude from Yale University, where he won the Tinker Prize in English and was a member of the Delta Kappa Epsilon chapter, along with future U. S. president George W. Bush, he earned a MFA from the Iowa Writers' Workshop at the University of Iowa. To avoid the draft during the Vietnam War, Milch enrolled in Yale Law School but was expelled for shooting out a police car siren with a shotgun. Milch worked as a writing teacher and lecturer in English literature at Yale. During his teaching career, he assisted Robert Penn Warren and Cleanth Brooks in the writing of several college textbooks on literature. Milch's poetry and fiction have been published in the Southern Review. In 1982, Milch wrote a script for Hill Street Blues, which became the episode "Trial by Fury"; this began his career in television. He worked five seasons on Hill Street Blues as executive story editor and as executive producer.
Milch earned two Writers Guild Awards, a Humanitas prize, a Primetime Emmy Award while working on that show. Milch created NYPD Blue with Steven Bochco and served as executive producer of that series for seven seasons, he received three Primetime Emmy Awards during his time with the series. Milch co-created the patrol police drama Brooklyn South with Bochco, Bill Clark, William S. Finkelstein in 1997 while still working on NYPD Blue. After NYPD Blue, Milch created. From 2004 to 2006, Milch produced Deadwood, a dramatic series for HBO. Milch served as creator and executive producer; the series received critical acclaim and garnered Milch two Primetime Emmy Award nominations for writing and producing. The series ended in 2006 after three seasons. There were plans for two feature-length movies to conclude the series, but after many rumors, star Ian McShane said the sets had been struck and the films were unlikely to be produced. McShane presented David Milch with the 2006 Outstanding Television Writer Award at the Austin Film Festival.
Milch began production in 2006 on John from Cincinnati, another dramatic series for HBO. The series was canceled after its first season. Initial ratings had been increased steadily. Ratings for the final episode were more than 3 million. In October 2007, HBO renewed its contract with Milch. A pilot was commissioned for Last of the Ninth, "a drama set in the New York Police Department during the 1970s, when the Knapp Commission was formed to ferret out corruption in the force." Collaborating with Milch on Last of the Ninth was former NYPD Blue writer and friend Bill Clark. In December 2008, The Hollywood Reporter stated that Last of the Ninth would not be picked up by the network. In January 2010, Milch announced that he was developing a new drama for HBO entitled Luck, based around the culture of horse racing. Michael Mann directed Dustin Hoffman was cast in the lead role. HBO picked up the series on July 14, 2010; the series ceased production after three horse deaths on set. Milch confirmed that he had signed on for the film adaptation of Quantic Dream's 2010 video game Heavy Rain.
In October 2011, New York magazine reported that Milch, working with NYPD Blue collaborator Steven Bochco, would produce an as yet untitled legal drama for NBC. Set in a high powered Washington, D. C. law firm, the show would center on a lawyer with a dark past named Ted Tapman. In November 2011, HBO announced that it had entered into a deal with David Milch's Redboard Productions to produce films and television series based on the literary works of William Faulkner, while The Wall Street Journal reported that Milch has been working on a project for HBO about the fictional Mississippi county Yoknapatawpha County created by Faulkner. In July 2013 HBO announced at the Television Critics Association Press Tour that Milch was developing a new series for the cable network tentatively titled The Money; the show would depict a dynastic New York media family. Irish actor Brendan Gleeson was cast in the lead role as a family patriarch and media mogul, it was announced on March 2014 that HBO had passed on the project.
On April 20, 2017, Ian McShane announced that Milch has submitted a script for a two-hour Deadwood movie to HBO. " two-hour movie script has been delivered to HBO. If they don’t deliver, blame them." McShane said that he has spoken to Milch about some of the script and hoped to meet for lunch soon to discuss the film. He said of the original cast returning that "we’d all love to do it... It would be nice to see all of the old gang again." The film began production in October 2018. Milch is Jewish, he has been married to Rita Stern since 1982. They have three children. Milch has lost millions of dollars gambling, he has stated. He developed a heart condition in the 1990s. During the filming of NYPD Blue, he suffered a heart attack while arguing with actor David Caruso over the script. Milch is an owner of thoroughbred racehorses; as a co-owner with Mark and Jack Silverman, he won the 1992 Breeders' Cup Juvenile with the colt Gilded Time. Milch owned outright Val Royal. Hill Street Blues Bay City Blues Beverly Hills Buntz Capital News L.
A. Law Murder One NYPD Blue Brooklyn South Total Security Big Apple Deadwood