Wheat is a grass cultivated for its seed, a cereal grain, a worldwide staple food. The many species of wheat together make up the genus Triticum; the archaeological record suggests that wheat was first cultivated in the regions of the Fertile Crescent around 9600 BCE. Botanically, the wheat kernel is a type of fruit called a caryopsis. Wheat is grown on more land area than any other food crop. World trade in wheat is greater than for all other crops combined. In 2016, world production of wheat was 749 million tonnes, making it the second most-produced cereal after maize. Since 1960, world production of wheat and other grain crops has tripled and is expected to grow further through the middle of the 21st century. Global demand for wheat is increasing due to the unique viscoelastic and adhesive properties of gluten proteins, which facilitate the production of processed foods, whose consumption is increasing as a result of the worldwide industrialization process and the westernization of the diet.
Wheat is an important source of carbohydrates. Globally, it is the leading source of vegetal protein in human food, having a protein content of about 13%, high compared to other major cereals but low in protein quality for supplying essential amino acids; when eaten as the whole grain, wheat is a source of dietary fiber. In a small part of the general population, gluten – the major part of wheat protein – can trigger coeliac disease, noncoeliac gluten sensitivity, gluten ataxia, dermatitis herpetiformis. Cultivation and repeated harvesting and sowing of the grains of wild grasses led to the creation of domestic strains, as mutant forms of wheat were preferentially chosen by farmers. In domesticated wheat, grains are larger, the seeds remain attached to the ear by a toughened rachis during harvesting. In wild strains, a more fragile rachis allows the ear to shatter and disperse the spikelets. Selection for these traits by farmers might not have been deliberately intended, but have occurred because these traits made gathering the seeds easier.
As the traits that improve wheat as a food source involve the loss of the plant's natural seed dispersal mechanisms domesticated strains of wheat cannot survive in the wild. Cultivation of wheat began to spread beyond the Fertile Crescent after about 8000 BCE. Jared Diamond traces the spread of cultivated emmer wheat starting in the Fertile Crescent sometime before 8800 BCE. Archaeological analysis of wild emmer indicates that it was first cultivated in the southern Levant, with finds dating back as far as 9600 BCE. Genetic analysis of wild einkorn wheat suggests that it was first grown in the Karacadag Mountains in southeastern Turkey. Dated archeological remains of einkorn wheat in settlement sites near this region, including those at Abu Hureyra in Syria, suggest the domestication of einkorn near the Karacadag Mountain Range. With the anomalous exception of two grains from Iraq ed-Dubb, the earliest carbon-14 date for einkorn wheat remains at Abu Hureyra is 7800 to 7500 years BCE. Remains of harvested emmer from several sites near the Karacadag Range have been dated to between 8600 and 8400 BCE, that is, in the Neolithic period.
With the exception of Iraq ed-Dubb, the earliest carbon-14 dated remains of domesticated emmer wheat were found in the earliest levels of Tell Aswad, in the Damascus basin, near Mount Hermon in Syria. These remains were dated by Willem van Zeist and his assistant Johanna Bakker-Heeres to 8800 BCE, they concluded that the settlers of Tell Aswad did not develop this form of emmer themselves, but brought the domesticated grains with them from an as yet unidentified location elsewhere. The cultivation of emmer reached Greece and Indian subcontinent by 6500 BCE, Egypt shortly after 6000 BCE, Germany and Spain by 5000 BCE. "The early Egyptians were developers of bread and the use of the oven and developed baking into one of the first large-scale food production industries." By 3000 BCE, wheat had reached Scandinavia. A millennium it reached China; the oldest evidence for hexaploid wheat has been confirmed through DNA analysis of wheat seeds, dating to around 6400-6200 BCE, recovered from Çatalhöyük.
The first identifiable bread wheat with sufficient gluten for yeasted breads has been identified using DNA analysis in samples from a granary dating to 1350 BCE at Assiros in Macedonia. From Asia, wheat continued to spread across Europe. In the British Isles, wheat straw was used for roofing in the Bronze Age, was in common use until the late 19th century. Technological advances in soil preparation and seed placement at planting time, use of crop rotation and fertilizers to improve plant growth, advances in harvesting methods have all combined to promote wheat as a viable crop; when the use of seed drills replaced broadcasting sowing of seed in the 18th century, another great increase in productivity occurred. Yields of pure wheat per unit area increased as methods of crop rotation were applied to long cultivated land, the use of fertilizers became widespread. Improved agricultural husbandry has more included threshing machines and reaping machines, tractor-drawn cultivators and planters, better varieties.
Great expansion of wheat production occurred as new arable land was farmed in the Americas and Australia in the 19th and 20th centuries. Leaves emerge from the shoot apical meristem in a telescoping fashion until the transition to reprod
Bencubbin, Western Australia
Bencubbin is a town in Western Australia in the North Eastern Wheatbelt, 275 km north-east of Perth. The town lies within the Shire of Mount Marshall and is home to 294 people as of 2011. Surveyor General John Septimus Roe first surveyed the region in 1836 and he was followed by sandalwood cutters and stockmen, but it was not until 1908 that the first permanent settlers arrived; the name "Bencubbin" comes from the Aboriginal word for "place of the snakes" and is now applied to the rock to the north of the town. The aboriginal word is spelt "Gnylbencubbing" and is not the rock known as Mount Marshall. Mount Marshall is south-east of Bencubbin, whereas the rock known as Gnylbencubbing is at the northern edge of the township. Mount Marshall is named after Captain Marshall MacDermott, the first manager of the Western Australian branch of the Bank of Australasia; these two rocks and Wiacubbing Hill are three of the largest outcrops around Bencubbin. The name was suggested for the railway station at terminus of the Wyalkatchem to Mount Marshall railway line, by J Hope, the Chief Draftsman, in 1913.
The townsite was gazetted in 1917. The first Bencubbin police station was founded in 1923. In 1932 the Wheat Pool of Western Australia announced that the town would have two grain elevators, each fitted with an engine, installed at the railway siding; the town supermarket was destroyed by a fire in 2006. The fire was brought under control in two hours causing no injuries and causing over A$100,000; the Police Station manned by two officers saw them assist to keep the town running. A makeshift store was set up to provide valuable supplies to the community The surrounding areas produce wheat and other cereal crops; the town is a receival site for Cooperative Bulk Handling. Bencubbin, along with the town Beacon make up the shire of Mt. Marshall which falls under the electorate of Durack; the Shire of Mt Marshall has 7 elected Councillors who are elected by the residents of the Shire on the third Saturday in October every second year. The Council meets to address the issues of the shire on the last Tuesday of every month.
According to the 2011 census conducted in Western Australia in 2011, 90.1% of the population of bencubbin were born in Australia. The predominant ethnicity of Bencubbin consists from immigrants of British and Irish heritage who settled in the region from the 1890s on wards. Due to such a large influx of immigrants from western Europe, the main religion today in Bencubbin are denominations of Christianity Anglican, Uniting Church and 21.3% state no religious affiliation. English is the most spoken language with 96.2% of the township speaking only English. The Bencubbin township participates in numerous sporting leagues including golf, hockey and the most popular being Australian football, a code of football indigenous to Australia http://www.bencubbin.com/pages/sporting-clubs.php. The Bencubbin football club, known colloquially as the demons, participates in the central Wheatbelt football league. An amateur sporting league that consists of six clubs from surrounding townships who have competed against each other since 1968, where Bencubbin was a founding member of the league.
Bencubbin have won five premiership titles in their history, third highest overall in the league. Making Bencubbin infamous in the field of geology was the discovery in 1930 of 58 kg, rare and unknown type of meteorite, aptly named "the Bencubbin", it was uncovered whilst ploughing on newly cleared land destined to be a wheat farm just 15 kilometers north-west of Bencubbin. Fragments of the meteorite reside in the Smithsonian Institution, Washington D. C
Granite is a common type of felsic intrusive igneous rock, granular and phaneritic in texture. Granites can be predominantly white, pink, or gray depending on their mineralogy; the word "granite" comes from the Latin granum, a grain, in reference to the coarse-grained structure of such a holocrystalline rock. Speaking, granite is an igneous rock with between 20% and 60% quartz by volume, at least 35% of the total feldspar consisting of alkali feldspar, although the term "granite" is used to refer to a wider range of coarse-grained igneous rocks containing quartz and feldspar; the term "granitic" means granite-like and is applied to granite and a group of intrusive igneous rocks with similar textures and slight variations in composition and origin. These rocks consist of feldspar, quartz and amphibole minerals, which form an interlocking, somewhat equigranular matrix of feldspar and quartz with scattered darker biotite mica and amphibole peppering the lighter color minerals; some individual crystals are larger than the groundmass, in which case the texture is known as porphyritic.
A granitic rock with a porphyritic texture is known as a granite porphyry. Granitoid is a descriptive field term for lighter-colored, coarse-grained igneous rocks. Petrographic examination is required for identification of specific types of granitoids; the extrusive igneous rock equivalent of granite is rhyolite. Granite is nearly always massive and tough; these properties have made granite a widespread construction stone throughout human history. The average density of granite is between 2.65 and 2.75 g/cm3, its compressive strength lies above 200 MPa, its viscosity near STP is 3–6·1019 Pa·s. The melting temperature of dry granite at ambient pressure is 1215–1260 °C. Granite has poor primary permeability overall, but strong secondary permeability through cracks and fractures if they are present. Granite is classified according to the QAPF diagram for coarse grained plutonic rocks and is named according to the percentage of quartz, alkali feldspar and plagioclase feldspar on the A-Q-P half of the diagram.
True granite contains both alkali feldspars. When a granitoid is devoid or nearly devoid of plagioclase, the rock is referred to as alkali feldspar granite; when a granitoid contains less than 10% orthoclase, it is called tonalite. A granite containing both muscovite and biotite micas is called two-mica granite. Two-mica granites are high in potassium and low in plagioclase, are S-type granites or A-type granites. A worldwide average of the chemical composition of granite, by weight percent, based on 2485 analyses: Granite containing rock is distributed throughout the continental crust. Much of it was intruded during the Precambrian age. Outcrops of granite tend to form rounded massifs. Granites sometimes occur in circular depressions surrounded by a range of hills, formed by the metamorphic aureole or hornfels. Granite occurs as small, less than 100 km2 stock masses and in batholiths that are associated with orogenic mountain ranges. Small dikes of granitic composition called aplites are associated with the margins of granitic intrusions.
In some locations coarse-grained pegmatite masses occur with granite. Granite is more common in continental crust than in oceanic crust, they are crystallized from felsic melts which are less dense than mafic rocks and thus tend to ascend toward the surface. In contrast, mafic rocks, either basalts or gabbros, once metamorphosed at eclogite facies, tend to sink into the mantle beneath the Moho. Granitoids have crystallized from felsic magmas that have compositions near a eutectic point. Magmas are composed of minerals in variable abundances. Traditionally, magmatic minerals are crystallized from the melts that have separated from their parental rocks and thus are evolved because of igneous differentiation. If a granite has a cooling process, it has the potential to form larger crystals. There are peritectic and residual minerals in granitic magmas. Peritectic minerals are generated through peritectic reactions, whereas residual minerals are inherited from parental rocks. In either case, magmas will evolve to the eutectic for crystallization upon cooling.
Anatectic melts are produced by peritectic reactions, but they are much less evolved than magmatic melts because they have not separated from their parental rocks. The composition of anatectic melts may change toward the magmatic melts through high-degree fractional crystallization. Fractional crystallisation serves to reduce a melt in iron, titanium and sodium, enrich the melt in potassium and silicon – alkali feldspar and quartz, are two of the defining constituents of granite; this process operates regardless of the origin of parental magmas to granites, regardless of their chemistry. The composition and origin of any magma that differentiates into granite leave certain petrological evidence as to what the granite's parental rock was; the final texture and composition of a granite are distinctive as to its parental rock. For instance, a granite, derived from partial melting of meta
Ballidu, Western Australia
Ballidu is a town in the Wheatbelt region of Western Australia, about 217 kilometres north of Perth. Ballidu is 34 kilometres north of the town of Wongan Hills which, along with a few other small towns such as Cadoux and Bindi Bindi make up the Shire of Wongan-Ballidu; the name Ballidu is a hybrid name, coming from "balli", a Noongar Aboriginal word meaning "on this side" or "in this direction", "Duli" after a nearby rockhole. The townsite was gazetted with street names of the original settlers. A primary school opened in the town on 4 September 1922, moving into permanent premises in 1924; the streets in Ballidu are named after varieties of wheat. The bulk wheat bins in town opened in 1940. Ballidu has a population of less than 100 people and consists of Ballidu Primary School, the local Art Gallery, a hall, a general store for groceries and essentials; as Ballidu is a farming region, over the years, the town has become smaller. There are only 4 students attending the local school in 2016; each year, the Ballidu Parents and Citizens Association hosts the annual'Bike-it to Ballidu' which consists of teams from the primary school along with adults cycling from Wongan Hills in turn to Ballidu.
The whole ride is 34 km and starts from the Wongan Hills visitor centre ending in Alpha Street, Ballidu. After the ride there is a celebration in Alpha Park; the last competition was held on 14 March 2008. The Contemporary Arts Society hold exhibitions of local artists and other well known Australian Artists. Media related to Ballidu, Western Australia at Wikimedia Commons
Division of O'Connor
The Division of O'Connor is an Australian electoral division in the state of Western Australia. It is one of Western Australia's three rural seats, one of the largest electoral constituencies in the world; the division was named after Charles Yelverton O'Connor, the Engineer-in-Chief of Western Australia who designed Fremantle Harbour and the Goldfields Pipeline. The division was proclaimed at the redistribution of 28 February 1980, was first contested at the 1980 federal election, it has always been a rural seat, was based in the Mid West and Great Southern regions of Western Australia with major population centres in Geraldton and Albany. The division was altered by a redistribution in 2008, taking effect at the 2010 election; the other large country seat in Western Australia, needed to expand in size, but it proved all but impossible to reconfigure Kalgoorlie in a way that would have left O'Connor with any rational basis. It was decided to abolish Kalgoorlie and push O'Connor well to the east to take in most of Kalgoorlie's former southern portion.
The northern portion of the old O'Connor was shifted to the new seat of Durack. It is now centred on the Great Southern and Goldfields-Esperance regions of the state, with major population centres in Albany and Esperance. Local government areas within the electorate as at the 2016 election include Albany, Boyup Brook, Bridgetown-Greenbushes, Broomehill-Tambellup, Bruce Rock, Coolgardie, Cranbrook, Denmark, Dundas, Gnowangerup, Kalgoorlie-Boulder, Kent, Kondinin, Lake Grace, Leonora, Menzies, Narrogin, Pingelly, Ravensthorpe, Wandering, West Arthur, Wickepin and Woodanilling; the seat has always been held by a conservative party. When it was created, its demographics suggested that it should have been held by the National Country Party, despite its large notional Liberal majority. However, severe conflict between rival branches of the state National Party allowed Liberal Wilson Tuckey to take the seat on Labor preferences. Tuckey held it without serious difficulty until his defeat at the 2010 election by Nationals WA candidate Tony Crook with a large swing.
However, the Liberals regained the seat at the 2013 election. Division of O'Connor - Australian Electoral Commission
Wheatbelt (Western Australia)
The Wheatbelt is one of nine regions of Western Australia defined as administrative areas for the state's regional development, a vernacular term for the area converted to agriculture during colonisation. It surrounds the Perth metropolitan area, extending north from Perth to the Mid West region, east to the Goldfields-Esperance region, it is bordered to the south by the South West and Great Southern regions, to the west by the Indian Ocean, the Perth metropolitan area, the Peel region. Altogether, it has an area of 154,862 square kilometres; the region has 43 local government authorities, with an estimated population of 75,000 residents. The Wheatbelt accounts for three per cent of Western Australia's population; the area, once a diverse ecosystem, where clearing began in the 1890s with the removal of plant species such as eucalypt woodlands and mallee, is now home to around 11% of Australia's critically endangered plants. The Wheatbelt encompasses a range of ecosystems and, as a result, there are a range of industries operating in the region.
In the Interim Biogeographic Regionalisation for Australia there are a number of subdivisions such as the Avon Wheatbelt, a further breakdown of Avon Wheatbelt P1 and Avon Wheatbelt P2, Jarrah Forest, Geraldton Sandplains and Mallee regions. Near the coast, the region receives high rainfall and mild temperatures, its 150 kilometres of coastline is a significant tourist area. In contrast, the eastern fringe is arid, is used for pastoral farming of sheep. Mining of gold and iron ore occurs; the remainder of the region is suited to agriculture, is the source of nearly two thirds of the state's wheat production, half of its wool production, the majority of its lamb and mutton, honey, cut flowers and a range of other agricultural and pastoral products. With a range of climate and economic changes in the region, considerable effort is made by government at all levels to cope with the decline of some communities, create opportunities for ventures that keep population in the region; the Wheatbelt once had an extensive railway system.
It has been reduced in part. Six main highways radiating out from Perth serve the Wheatbelt: Brand Highway, Great Northern Highway, Great Eastern Highway, Great Southern Highway, Brookton Highway, Albany Highway. A network of main roads connects towns within the Wheatbelt to each other, the highways, neighbouring regions, with local roads providing additional links and access to smaller townsites. Roads are named after the towns they connect; the following list is those shires listed in the Wheatbelt as designated by the Wheatbelt Development Commission. Some shires in adjoining regions are traditionally considered part of the Wheatbelt – there are shires in the Great Southern, Goldfields-Esperance and Mid West regions that are dominantly grain growing areas. All but one of the region's local government areas are shires: There are numerous subdivisions of the Wheatbelt, in most cases the separation is by local government areas; the Wheatbelt Development Commission breaks the region up into five sub-regions with five offices: In some schemes, such as one of the Western Australian tourism regions, all of the Wheatbelt is included in the larger Australia's Golden Outback.
However the shires within the Wheatbelt are in tourist terms further divided into internal regions: The Wheatbelt is separated into other designations at various times as well: Wheatbelt North East Wheatbelt Central The Open Wheatbelt Wheatbelt Wheatbelt Development Commission
Australian Broadcasting Corporation
The Australian Broadcasting Corporation is Australia's national broadcaster founded in 1929. It is principally funded by direct grants from the Australian government, but is expressly independent of government and partisan politics; the ABC plays a leading role in journalistic independence and is fundamental in the history of broadcasting in Australia. Modelled on the BBC in the United Kingdom, it was financed by consumer licence fees on broadcasting receivers. Licence fees were abolished in 1973 and replaced principally by direct government grants, as well as revenue from commercial activities related to its core broadcasting mission; the ABC now provides television, radio and mobile services throughout metropolitan and regional Australia and overseas through ABC Australia and Radio Australia. The ABC headquarters is in an inner-city suburb of Sydney, New South Wales. Founded in 1929 as the Australian Broadcasting Company, the ABC was a Government licensed consortium of private entertainment and content providers, authorised under supervision to broadcast on the airwaves using a two-tiered system.
The "A" system derived its funds from the licence fees levied on the purchasers of the radio receivers, with an emphasis on building the radio wave infrastructure into regional and remote areas, whilst the "B" system relied on privateers and their capacity to establish viable enterprises using the new technology. Following the general downward economic trends of the era, as entrepreneurial ventures in National infrastructure struggled with viability, the "Company" was subsequently acquired to become a state-owned corporation on 1 July 1932 and renamed as Australian Broadcasting Commission, re-aligning more to the British, BBC model; the Australian Broadcasting Corporation Act 1983 changed the name of the organisation to the Australian Broadcasting Corporation, effective 1 July 1983. Although funded and owned by the government, the ABC remains editorially independent as ensured through the Australian Broadcasting Corporation Act 1983; the ABC is sometimes informally referred to as "Aunty" in imitation of the British Broadcasting Corporation's nickname.
The first public radio station in Australia opened in Sydney on 23 November 1923 under the call sign 2SB with other stations in Melbourne, Adelaide and Hobart following. A licensing scheme, administered by the Postmaster-General's Department, was soon established allowing certain stations government funding, albeit with restrictions placed on their advertising content. Following a 1927 royal commission inquiry into radio licensing issues, the government established the National Broadcasting Service which subsequently took over a number of the larger funded stations, it nationalised the Australian Broadcasting Company, created by entertainment interests to supply programs to various radio stations. On 1 July 1932, the Australian Broadcasting Commission was established, taking over the operations of the National Broadcasting Service and establishing offices in each of Australia's capital cities. Over the next four years the stations were reformed into a cohesive broadcasting organisation through regular program relays, coordinated by a centralised bureaucracy.
The Australian broadcast radio spectrum was constituted of the commercial sector. News broadcasts were restricted, due to pressure from Sir Keith Murdoch, who controlled many Australian newspapers. However, journalists such as Frank Dixon and John Hinde began to subvert the agreements in the late 1930s. In 1939, Warren Denning was appointed to Canberra as the first ABC political correspondent, after Murdoch had refused to allow his newspapers to cover a speech by Joseph Lyons. In 1942 The Australian Broadcasting Act was passed, giving the ABC the power to decide when, in what circumstances, political speeches should be broadcast. Directions from the Minister about whether or not to broadcast any matter now had to be made in writing, any exercise of the power had to be mentioned in the Commission's Annual Report, it was used only once, in 1963. In the same year, "Kindergarten of the Air" began on ABC Radio in Perth, was broadcast nationally. In 1944 18-year-old Patricia Delaney, of Sydney, was the Australian Broadcasting Corporation's only girl cadet announcer, the youngest member of announcing staff.
Australian Broadcasting Corporation, 1920-1949 The ABC commenced television broadcasting in 1956, followed the earlier radio practice of naming the station after the first letter of the base state. ABN-2 Sydney was inaugurated by Prime Minister Robert Menzies on 5 November 1956, with the first broadcast presented by Michael Charlton, James Dibble reading the first television news bulletin. ABV-2 followed two weeks on 18 November 1956. Stations in other capital cities followed: ABQ-2, ABS-2, ABW-2, ABT-2. ABC-3 Canberra opened in 1961, ABD-6 started broadcasting in 1971, both named after the base city. Although radio programs could be distributed nationally by landline, television relay facilities were not in place until the early 1960s; this meant that news bulletins had to be sent to each capital city by teleprinter, to be prepared and presented separately in each city, with filmed materials copied manually and sent to each state. Other television programs at the time included the popular Six O'Clock Rock hosted by Johnny O'Keefe, Mr. Squiggle, as well as operas and plays.
In 1973 New South Wales Rugby League boss Kevin Humphreys negotiated rugby league's first television deal with the ABC. In 1975, colour television was