Directors Guild of America Award
The Directors Guild of America Awards are issued annually by the Directors Guild of America. The first DGA Award was an “Honorary Life Member” award issued in 1938 to D. W. Griffith; the statues are made by Society Awards. 1948: Joseph L. Mankiewicz – A Letter to Three Wives ¿ 1949: Robert Rossen – All the King's Men ¿ ** 1950: Joseph L. Mankiewicz – All About Eve † ** 1951: George Stevens – A Place in the Sun † 1952: John Ford – The Quiet Man † 1953: Fred Zinnemann – From Here to Eternity † ** 1954: Elia Kazan – On the Waterfront † ** 1955: Delbert Mann – Marty † ** 1956: George Stevens – Giant † 1957: David Lean – The Bridge on the River Kwai † ** 1958: Vincente Minnelli – Gigi † ** 1959: William Wyler – Ben-Hur † ** 1960: Billy Wilder – The Apartment † ** 1961: Robert Wise – West Side Story † ** 1962: David Lean – Lawrence of Arabia † ** 1963: Tony Richardson – Tom Jones † ** 1964: George Cukor – My Fair Lady † ** 1965: Robert Wise – The Sound of Music † ** 1966: Fred Zinnemann – A Man for All Seasons † ** 1967: Mike Nichols – The Graduate † 1968: Anthony Harvey – The Lion in Winter ‡ 1969: John Schlesinger – Midnight Cowboy † ** 1970: Franklin Schaffner – Patton † ** 1971: William Friedkin – The French Connection † ** 1972: Francis Ford Coppola – The Godfather ‡ ** 1973: George Roy Hill – The Sting † ** 1974: Francis Ford Coppola – The Godfather Part II † ** 1975: Miloš Forman – One Flew Over the Cuckoo's Nest † ** 1976: John G. Avildsen – Rocky † ** 1977: Woody Allen – Annie Hall † ** 1978: Michael Cimino – The Deer Hunter † ** 1979: Robert Benton – Kramer vs. Kramer † ** 1980: Robert Redford – Ordinary People † ** 1981: Warren Beatty – Reds † 1982: Richard Attenborough – Gandhi † ** 1983: James L. Brooks – Terms of Endearment † ** 1984: Miloš Forman – Amadeus † ** 1985: Steven Spielberg – The Color Purple § 1986: Oliver Stone – Platoon † ** 1987: Bernardo Bertolucci – The Last Emperor † ** 1988: Barry Levinson – Rain Man † ** 1989: Oliver Stone – Born on the Fourth of July † 1990: Kevin Costner – Dances with Wolves † ** 1991: Jonathan Demme – The Silence of the Lambs † ** 1992: Clint Eastwood – Unforgiven † ** 1993: Steven Spielberg – Schindler's List † ** 1994: Robert Zemeckis – Forrest Gump † ** 1995: Ron Howard – Apollo 13 § 1996: Anthony Minghella – The English Patient † ** 1997: James Cameron – Titanic † ** 1998: Steven Spielberg – Saving Private Ryan † 1999: Sam Mendes – American Beauty † ** 2000: Ang Lee – Crouching Tiger, Hidden Dragon ‡ 2001: Ron Howard – A Beautiful Mind † ** 2002: Rob Marshall – Chicago ‡ ** 2003: Peter Jackson – The Lord of the Rings: The Return of the King † ** 2004: Clint Eastwood – Million Dollar Baby † ** 2005: Ang Lee – Brokeback Mountain † 2006: Martin Scorsese – The Departed † ** 2007: Joel and Ethan Coen – No Country for Old Men † ** 2008: Danny Boyle – Slumdog Millionaire † ** 2009: Kathryn Bigelow – The Hurt Locker † ** 2010: Tom Hooper – The King's Speech † ** 2011: Michel Hazanavicius – The Artist † ** 2012: Ben Affleck – Argo § ** 2013: Alfonso Cuarón – Gravity † 2014: Alejandro G. Iñárritu – Birdman or † ** 2015: Alejandro G. Iñárritu – The Revenant † 2016: Damien Chazelle – La La Land † 2017: Guillermo del Toro – The Shape of Water † ** 2018: Alfonso Cuarón — Roma †† – Director won the Academy Award.
‡ – Director did not win the Academy Award. § – Director was not nominated for Academy Award that year. ** - Film won the Academy Award for Best Picture. ¿ – Originally, the DGA used a non-calendar year for its award. Both films competed in the 22nd Academy Awards for 1949, both directors were nominated for Best Director. All the King's Men won Best Picture. 1991: Barbara Kopple – American Dream 1992: Joe Berlinger and Bruce Sinofsky – Brother's Keeper 1993: Terry Zwigoff – Crumb 1994: Steve James – Hoop Dreams 1995: No award 1996: Al Pacino – Looking for Richard 1997: Michael Uys and Lexy Lovell – Riding the Rails 1998: Jerry Blumenthal, Peter Gilbert, Gordon Quinn – Vietnam, Long Time Coming 1999: Nanette Burstein and Brett Morgen – On the Ropes 2000: Chuck Braverman – High School Boot Camp 2001: Chris Hegedus and Jehane Noujaim – Startup.com 2002: Tasha Oldham – The Smith Family 2003: Nathaniel Kahn – My Architect 2004: Byambasuren Davaa and Luigi Falorni – The Story of the Weeping Camel 2005: Werner Herzog – Grizzly Man 2006: Arūnas Matelis – Before Flying Back to Earth 2007: Asger Leth – Ghosts of Cité Soleil 2008: Ari Folman – Waltz with Bashir 2009: Louie Psihoyos – The Cove 2010: Charles Ferguson – Inside Job 2011: James Marsh – Project Nim 2012: Malik Bendjelloul – Searching for Sugar Man 2013: Jehane Noujaim – The Square 2014: Laura Poitras – Citizenfour 2015: Matthew Heineman – Cartel Land 2016: Ezra Edelman – O.
J.: Made in America 2017: Matthew Heineman – City of Ghosts 2015: Alex Garland – Ex Machina 2016: Garth Davis – Lion 2017: Jordan Peele – Get Out 2014: James Burrows and Robert Butler 2015: Joe Pytka 2018: Don Mischer 2012: Alejandro González Iñárritu 1990: James Burrows – Cheers 1991: Peter Bonerz – Murphy Brown 1992: Tom Cherones – Seinfeld 1993: James Burrows – Frasier 1994: David Lee – Frasier 1995: Gordon Hunt – Mad About You 1996: Andy Ackerman – Seinfeld 1997: Andy Ackerman – Seinfeld 1998: Thomas Schlamme – Sports Night 1999: Thomas Schlamme – Sports Night 2000: James Burrows – Will & Grace 2001: Todd Holland – Malcolm in the Middle 2002: Bryan Gordon – Curb Your Enthusiasm 200
Royal Library of the Netherlands
The Royal Library of the Netherlands is based in The Hague and was founded in 1798. The mission of the Royal Library of the Netherlands, as presented on the library's web site, is to provide "access to the knowledge and culture of the past and the present by providing high-quality services for research and cultural experience"; the initiative to found a national library was proposed by representative Albert Jan Verbeek on August 17 1798. The collection would be based on the confiscated book collection of William V; the library was founded as the Nationale Bibliotheek on November 8 of the same year, after a committee of representatives had advised the creation of a national library on the same day. The National Library was only open to members of the Representative Body. King Louis Bonaparte gave the national library its name of the Royal Library in 1806. Napoleon Bonaparte transferred the Royal Library to The Hague as property, while allowing the Imperial Library in Paris to expropriate publications from the Royal Library.
In 1815 King William I of the Netherlands confirmed the name of'Royal Library' by royal resolution. It has been known as the National Library of the Netherlands since 1982, when it opened new quarters; the institution became independent of the state in 1996, although it is financed by the Department of Education and Science. In 2004, the National Library of the Netherlands contained 3,300,000 items, equivalent to 67 kilometers of bookshelves. Most items in the collection are books. There are pieces of "grey literature", where the author, publisher, or date may not be apparent but the document has cultural or intellectual significance; the collection contains the entire literature of the Netherlands, from medieval manuscripts to modern scientific publications. For a publication to be accepted, it must be from a registered Dutch publisher; the collection is accessible for members. Any person aged 16 years or older can become a member. One day passes are available. Requests for material take 30 minutes.
The KB hosts several open access websites, including the "Memory of the Netherlands". List of libraries in the Netherlands European Library Nederlandse Centrale Catalogus Books in the Netherlands Media related to Koninklijke Bibliotheek at Wikimedia Commons Official website
Massachusetts the Commonwealth of Massachusetts, is the most populous state in the New England region of the northeastern United States. It borders on the Atlantic Ocean to the east, the states of Connecticut and Rhode Island to the south, New Hampshire and Vermont to the north, New York to the west; the state is named after the Massachusett tribe, which once inhabited the east side of the area, is one of the original thirteen states. The capital of Massachusetts is Boston, the most populous city in New England. Over 80% of Massachusetts's population lives in the Greater Boston metropolitan area, a region influential upon American history and industry. Dependent on agriculture and trade, Massachusetts was transformed into a manufacturing center during the Industrial Revolution. During the 20th century, Massachusetts's economy shifted from manufacturing to services. Modern Massachusetts is a global leader in biotechnology, higher education and maritime trade. Plymouth was the site of the second colony in New England after Popham Colony in 1607 in what is now Maine.
Plymouth was founded in 1620 by passengers of the Mayflower. In 1692, the town of Salem and surrounding areas experienced one of America's most infamous cases of mass hysteria, the Salem witch trials. In 1777, General Henry Knox founded the Springfield Armory, which during the Industrial Revolution catalyzed numerous important technological advances, including interchangeable parts. In 1786, Shays' Rebellion, a populist revolt led by disaffected American Revolutionary War veterans, influenced the United States Constitutional Convention. In the 18th century, the Protestant First Great Awakening, which swept the Atlantic World, originated from the pulpit of Northampton preacher Jonathan Edwards. In the late 18th century, Boston became known as the "Cradle of Liberty" for the agitation there that led to the American Revolution; the entire Commonwealth of Massachusetts has played a powerful commercial and cultural role in the history of the United States. Before the American Civil War, Massachusetts was a center for the abolitionist and transcendentalist movements.
In the late 19th century, the sports of basketball and volleyball were invented in the western Massachusetts cities of Springfield and Holyoke, respectively. In 2004, Massachusetts became the first U. S. state to recognize same-sex marriage as a result of the decision in Goodridge v. Department of Public Health by the Massachusetts Supreme Judicial Court. Many prominent American political dynasties have hailed from the state, including the Adams and Kennedy families. Harvard University in Cambridge is the oldest institution of higher learning in the United States, with the largest financial endowment of any university, Harvard Law School has educated a contemporaneous majority of Justices of the Supreme Court of the United States. Kendall Square in Cambridge has been called "the most innovative square mile on the planet", in reference to the high concentration of entrepreneurial start-ups and quality of innovation which have emerged in the vicinity of the square since 2010. Both Harvard University and the Massachusetts Institute of Technology in Cambridge, have been ranked among the most regarded academic institutions in the world.
Massachusetts' public-school students place among the top tier in the world in academic performance, the state has been ranked as one of the top states in the United States for citizens to live in, as well as one of the most expensive. The Massachusetts Bay Colony was named after the indigenous population, the Massachusett derived from a Wôpanâak word muswach8sut, segmented as mus "big" + wach8 "mountain" + -s "diminutive" + -ut "locative", it has been translated as "near the great hill", "by the blue hills", "at the little big hill", or "at the range of hills", referring to the Blue Hills, or in particular the Great Blue Hill, located on the boundary of Milton and Canton. Alternatively, Massachusett has been represented as Moswetuset—from the name of the Moswetuset Hummock in Quincy, where Plymouth Colony commander Myles Standish, hired English military officer, Squanto, part of the now disappeared Patuxet band of the Wampanoag peoples, met Chief Chickatawbut in 1621; the official name of the state is the "Commonwealth of Massachusetts".
While this designation is part of the state's official name, it has no practical implications. Massachusetts has powers within the United States as other states, it may have been chosen by John Adams for the second draft of the Massachusetts Constitution because unlike the word "state", "commonwealth" at the time had the connotation of a republic, in contrast to the monarchy the former American colonies were fighting against. Massachusetts was inhabited by tribes of the Algonquian language family such as the Wampanoag, Nipmuc, Pocomtuc and Massachusett. While cultivation of crops like squash and corn supplemented their diets, these tribes were dependent on hunting and fishing for most of their food. Villages consisted of lodges called wigwams as well as longhouses, tribes were led by male or female elders known as sachems. In the early 1600s, after contact had been made with Europeans, large numbers of the indigenous peoples in the northeast of what is now the United States were killed by virgin soil epidemics such as smallpox, measles and leptospirosis.
Between 1617 and 1619, smallpox killed ap
New York University
New York University is a private research university founded in New York City but now with campuses and locations throughout the world. Founded in 1831, NYU's historical campus is in New York City; as a global university, students can graduate from its degree-granting campuses in NYU Abu Dhabi and NYU Shanghai, as well as study at its 12 academic centers in Accra, Buenos Aires, London, Los Angeles, Paris, Sydney, Tel Aviv, Washington, D. C. For the class that matriculated in the fall of 2019, NYU received nearly 85,000 applications for its undergraduate programs. In 2018, NYU was ranked amongst the top 40 universities worldwide by the Academic Ranking of World Universities, Times Higher Education World University Rankings, U. S. News & World Report. Alumni include heads of state, eminent scientists and entrepreneurs, media figures, founders and CEOs of Fortune 500 companies, astronauts; as of March 2019, 37 Nobel Laureates, 8 Turing Award winners, 5 Fields Medalists, over 30 Academy Award winners, over 30 Pulitzer Prize winners, hundreds of members of the National Academies of Sciences and United States Congress have been affiliated as faculty or alumni.
Globally, NYU is ranked 7th by the Times Higher Education World University Rankings for producing alumni who are millionaires, 4th by Wealth-X for producing ultra high net-worth and billionaire alumni. Albert Gallatin, Secretary of Treasury under Thomas Jefferson and James Madison, declared his intention to establish "in this immense and fast-growing city... a system of rational and practical education fitting and graciously opened to all". A three-day-long "literary and scientific convention" held in City Hall in 1830 and attended by over 100 delegates debated the terms of a plan for a new university; these New Yorkers believed the city needed a university designed for young men who would be admitted based upon merit rather than birthright or social class. On April 18, 1831, an institution was established, with the support of a group of prominent New York City residents from the city's merchants and traders. Albert Gallatin was elected as the institution's first president. On April 21, 1831, the new institution received its charter and was incorporated as the University of the City of New York by the New York State Legislature.
The university has been popularly known as New York University since its inception and was renamed New York University in 1896. In 1832, NYU held its first classes in rented rooms of four-story Clinton Hall, situated near City Hall. In 1835, the School of Law, NYU's first professional school, was established. Although the impetus to found a new school was a reaction by evangelical Presbyterians to what they perceived as the Episcopalianism of Columbia College, NYU was created non-denominational, unlike many American colleges at the time. American Chemical Society was founded in 1876 at NYU, it became one of the nation's largest universities, with an enrollment of 9,300 in 1917. NYU had its Washington Square campus since its founding; the university purchased a campus at University Heights in the Bronx because of overcrowding on the old campus. NYU had a desire to follow New York City's development further uptown. NYU's move to the Bronx occurred in 1894, spearheaded by the efforts of Chancellor Henry Mitchell MacCracken.
The University Heights campus was far more spacious. As a result, most of the university's operations along with the undergraduate College of Arts and Science and School of Engineering were housed there. NYU's administrative operations were moved to the new campus, but the graduate schools of the university remained at Washington Square. In 1914, Washington Square College was founded as the downtown undergraduate college of NYU. In 1935, NYU opened the "Nassau College-Hofstra Memorial of New York University at Hempstead, Long Island"; this extension would become a independent Hofstra University. In 1950, NYU was elected to the Association of American Universities, a nonprofit organization of leading public and private research universities. In the late 1960s and early 1970s, financial crisis gripped the New York City government and the troubles spread to the city's institutions, including NYU. Feeling the pressures of imminent bankruptcy, NYU President James McNaughton Hester negotiated the sale of the University Heights campus to the City University of New York, which occurred in 1973.
In 1973, the New York University School of Engineering and Science merged into Polytechnic Institute of Brooklyn, which merged back into NYU in 2014 forming the present Tandon School of Engineering. After the sale of the Bronx campus, University College merged with Washington Square College. In the 1980s, under the leadership of President John Brademas, NYU launched a billion-dollar campaign, spent entirely on updating facilities; the campaign was set to complete in 15 years, but ended up being completed in 10. In 1991, L. Jay Oliva was inaugurated the 14th president of the university. Following his inauguration, he moved to form the League of World Universities, an international organization consisting of rectors and presidents from urban universities across six continents; the league and its 47 representatives gather every two years to discuss global issues in education. In 2003 President John Sexton launched a $2.5 billion campaign for funds to be spent on faculty and financial aid resources.
Under Sextons leadership, NYU began its radical transformation into a global university. In 2009, the university responded to a series of New York Times interviews that showed a pattern of labor abuses in its fledgling Abu Dhabi location, creating a statement of
Integrated Authority File
The Integrated Authority File or GND is an international authority file for the organisation of personal names, subject headings and corporate bodies from catalogues. It is used for documentation in libraries and also by archives and museums; the GND is managed by the German National Library in cooperation with various regional library networks in German-speaking Europe and other partners. The GND falls under the Creative Commons Zero licence; the GND specification provides a hierarchy of high-level entities and sub-classes, useful in library classification, an approach to unambiguous identification of single elements. It comprises an ontology intended for knowledge representation in the semantic web, available in the RDF format; the Integrated Authority File became operational in April 2012 and integrates the content of the following authority files, which have since been discontinued: Name Authority File Corporate Bodies Authority File Subject Headings Authority File Uniform Title File of the Deutsches Musikarchiv At the time of its introduction on 5 April 2012, the GND held 9,493,860 files, including 2,650,000 personalised names.
There are seven main types of GND entities: LIBRIS Virtual International Authority File Information pages about the GND from the German National Library Search via OGND Bereitstellung des ersten GND-Grundbestandes DNB, 19 April 2012 From Authority Control to Linked Authority Data Presentation given by Reinhold Heuvelmann to the ALA MARC Formats Interest Group, June 2012
Good Rocking Tonight
"Good Rocking Tonight" was a jump blues song released in 1947 by its writer, Roy Brown and was covered by many recording artists. The song includes the memorable refrain, "Well I heard the news, there's good rocking tonight!" The song anticipated elements of roll music. Brown had first offered his song to Wynonie Harris, he approached Cecil Gant that night, but after hearing Brown sing, Gant made a 2:30 AM phone call to Jules Braun, the president of DeLuxe Records. After Brown sang his song over the phone, Braun asked Brown to sing it a second time, he told Gant, "Give him fifty dollars and don't let him out of your sight."Five weeks Brown recorded the song for DeLuxe Records. Only after Brown's record had gained traction in New Orleans did. Harris' version was more energetic than Brown's original version, featuring black gospel style handclapping; this may have contributed to the composition's greater success on the national R&B chart. Brown's original recording hit #13 of the Billboard R&B chart, but Harris' record became a #1 R&B hit and remained on the chart for half a year.
Brown's single would re-enter the chart in 1949, peaking at #11. Harris had a reputation for carousing, sometimes forgot lyrics, his "Good Rockin'" recording session followed Brown's original lyrics, but by the end, he replaced the last section with a series of raucous "hoy hoy hoy!" interjections, a used expression in jump blues tunes of the time, going back to 1945's "The Honeydripper" by Joe Liggins. The song is a primer of sorts on the popular black music of the era, making lyrical reference to Sweet Lorraine, Sioux City Sue, Sweet Georgia Brown, Elder Brown, Deacon Jones. All of these characters had figured prominently in previous hit songs; the song has been credited with being the most successful record to that point to use the word "rock" not as a euphemism for sex, but as a descriptive for the musical style, a connection which would become clearer in 1954 when a version of "Good Rockin' Tonight" became Elvis Presley's second-ever single. While Brown missed out on the biggest hit version of his song, its success kicked off his own career, which included two #1 R&B hits.
In 1949, he released "Rockin' at Midnight", a sequel to "Good Rockin' Tonight." It reached # 2 on the R&B chart. In 1954, "Good Rockin' Tonight" was the second Sun Records release by Elvis Presley, along with "I Don't Care if the Sun Don't Shine" on the flip side. Presley and his bandmates hewed closer to the original Roy Brown version, but omitted the lyrics' by-then-dated roster of names in favor of a simpler, more energetic "We're gonna rock, rock!" Described as "a flat-out rocker" country radio programmers blanched, older audiences were somewhat mystified. A live show broadcast from Houston DJ Bill Collie's club documented that the crowd "barely responded" to the song. "Blue Moon of Kentucky", the uptempo version of the Bill Monroe classic, has "the fans go stark raving nuts with joy". Both sides of this second record featuring "Elvis Presley and Bill" "stiffed"; the song was used for the biopic Elvis. Elvis Presley – lead vocals, acoustic rhythm guitar Scotty Moore – lead guitar Bill Black – double bass Buddy Holly in 1955 on a demo, posthumously released on various compilation tributes.
Carl Perkins in 1958 on his album "Whole Lotta Shakin'". Jimmy Rushing in 1959 on his album "Rushing Lullabies". Link Wray in 1965 under the name "Good Rockin' Tonight". Paul McCartney recorded the song for the Unplugged album. Montrose recorded the song for their 1973 self-titled debut album. Bruce Springsteen performed the song during his 1978 Darkness Tour as the opening number, he occasionally performed the song on The River Tour in 1980–81. Springsteen performed the song for the first time in 27 years in 2008 on the Magic Tour. A Gene Summers cover version of "Good Rocking Tonight" was included on a French compilation album The Big Beat Show issued by Big Beat Records in 1981. Contraband, an all-star hard rock group recorded their version of the song for their debut self-titled album in 1991. Ricky Nelson recorded the song for his 1958 album Ricky Nelson. Lonnie Lee recorded. Wes Paul Gerrard features this song in his live performances opening up with it in his second set, he will record the song in his new Manchester to Memphis album which he is recording at Sun Studio, Tennessee in May 2010.
Little Willie Littlefield recorded a version for his 1982 album Houseparty. Other cover versions of the song include Buddy Holly, Les Chaussettes Noires, The Treniers, Pat Boone, James Brown, Dread Zeppelin, Commander Cody and His Lost Planet Airmen, Mexican Rock & Roll group Los Teen Tops, Kevin DuBrow, The Honeydrippers and Jerry Lee Lewis; the Doors recorded a version for their 1972 album Full Circle under the title "Good Rockin'". A recording of a 9-year-old Raul Seixas singing to "Good Rocking Tonight" appears as the intro to his debut album, Krig-ha, Bandolo!. Buddy Holly