Test cricket is the form of the sport of cricket with the longest duration, is considered the game's highest standard. Test matches are played between national representative teams with "Test status", as determined and conferred by the International Cricket Council; the term Test stems from the fact of the form's long, gruelling matches being both mentally and physically testing. Two teams of 11 players each play a four-innings match, it is considered the most complete examination of a team's endurance and ability. The first recognised Test match took place between 15 and 19 March 1877 and was played between England and Australia at the Melbourne Cricket Ground, where Australia won by 45 runs. A Test match to celebrate 100 years of Test cricket was held in Melbourne between 12 and 17 March 1977, in which Australia beat England by 45 runs—the same margin as that first Test. In October 2012, the ICC recast the playing conditions for Test matches, permitting day/night Test matches; the first day/night game took place between Australia and New Zealand at the Adelaide Oval, Adelaide, on 27 November – 1 December 2015.
Women's Test cricket is played over four days, with slight differences in format from men's Tests. Test matches are the highest level of cricket, statistically, their data form part of first-class cricket. Matches are played between national representative teams with "Test status", as determined by the International Cricket Council; as of June 2017, twelve national teams have Test status, the most promoted being Afghanistan and Ireland on 22 June 2017. Zimbabwe's Test status was voluntarily suspended, because of poor performances between 2006 and 2011. In January 2014, during an ICC meeting in Dubai, the pathway for new potential Test nations was laid out with the winners of the next round of the ICC Intercontinental Cup playing a 5-day match against the bottom ranked Test nation. If the Associate team defeats the Test nation they could be added as the new Test country and granted full membership. A list of matches, defined as "Tests", was first drawn up by Australian Clarence Moody in the mid-1890s.
Representative matches played by simultaneous England touring sides of 1891–92 and 1929–30 are deemed to have "Test status". In 1970, a series of five "Test matches" was played in England between England and a Rest of the World XI; these matches scheduled between England and South Africa, were amended after South Africa was suspended from international cricket because of their government's policy of apartheid. Although given Test status, this was withdrawn and a principle was established that official Test matches can only be between nations. Despite this, in 2005, the ICC ruled that the six-day Super Series match that took place in October 2005, between Australia and a World XI, was an official Test match; some cricket writers and statisticians, including Bill Frindall, ignored the ICC's ruling and excluded the 2005 match from their records. The series of "Test matches" played in Australia between Australia and a World XI in 1971–72 do not have Test status; the commercial "Supertests" organised by Kerry Packer as part of his World Series Cricket enterprise and played between "WSC Australia", "WSC World XI" and "WSC West Indies" from 1977 to 1979 have never been regarded as official Test matches.
There are twelve Test-playing men's teams. The teams all represent individual, independent nations, except for England, the West Indies and Ireland. Test status is conferred upon a group of countries by the International Cricket Council. Teams that do not have Test status can play in the ICC Intercontinental Cup designed to allow non-Test teams to play under conditions similar to Tests; the teams are listed below with the date of each team's Test debut: England Australia South Africa West Indies New Zealand India Pakistan Sri Lanka Zimbabwe Bangladesh Ireland Afghanistan In the mid 2010s, the ICC evaluated proposals for dividing Test cricket into two tiers, with promotion and relegation between Tier-1 and Tier-2. These proposals were opposed by others; these proposals were not implemented. A standard day of Test cricket consists of three sessions of two hours each, the breaks between sessions being 40 minutes for lunch and 20 minutes for tea; however the times of sessions and intervals may be altered in certain circumstances: if bad weather or a change of innings occurs close to a scheduled break, the break may be taken immediately.
Today, Test matches are scheduled to be played across five consecutive days
John McGlashan College
John McGlashan College is a state integrated boarding school for boys, located in the suburb of Maori Hill in Dunedin, New Zealand. The school caters for 548 students from years 7 to 13, including 120 boarders and up to 30 international students; the school is named after John McGlashan, a significant Presbyterian lawyer, public servant and educationalist, was founded after his daughters' gift of the family home and estate in 1918 on the provision that a Presbyterian school was established for boys. Established as a Presbyterian private school, John McGlashan College integrated into the state system in 1989. John McGlashan College has two halls for boarding. Junior Hall is where bedrooms for year nine and ten boarders; some housemasters stay in Junior Hall. The newer Senior Hall is where common bedrooms are for year 11, 12 and 13 boarders. John McGlashan College has been an IB World School since December 1999, it is the only school in Dunedin. In 2011, 4 female students studied at the college full-time.
Their original school, private Anglican girls' school, St Margaret's College, had been damaged in the 2011 Christchurch earthquake. While being enrolled at nearby state integrated Anglican girls' school St Hilda's Collegiate School, the girls took classes at McGlashan as it was the only other IB school in the South Island. John McGlashan College has a relationship with Ichikawa Gakuen, a large private school near Tokyo, Japan. There is an annual exchange with the Centre International de Valbonne and Lycée Regional Valbonne Sophia-Antipolis in France for those who take part in the French program at the college; the German Exchange is a nationwide exchange and is supported by the college through its German program. There is a wide range of sports available at the College, including rugby, cricket, hockey, volleyball, trapshooting, skiing and golf; the College is located next to the Balmacewen Golf Course, the college encourages their students to join the golf club. In recent years the College's 1st XV has been aided by an annual exchange with Whitgift School.
Every student upon arrival at the John McGlashan College is assigned to one of the four school houses. The houses compete in annually for the Minors Cup; the four Elvideg cup competitions are in the college Athletics in term one, the Cross-country in term two, the Haka competition in term three, the College Swimming-sports in term four, all are compulsory for students to participate in. The interhouse Minors competition consists of Golf, Rugby sevens, Twenty20 Cricket, Hockey, Table Tennis and Volleyball; the houses are: Balmacewen - Named for John McGlashan's wife. Burns - Named for Thomas Burns, an early settler and presbyterian minister Ross - Named for Lady Ross, an early benefactor to the college Gilray - Named for Colin Gilray, the longest serving principal of the college; the only non-original house of John McGlashan College. Charles Begg – radiologist and historian Neil Begg – paediatrician and cricketer Tony Dodds – triathlete Eion Edgar – businessman and philanthropist Ron Elvidge – rugby union player Andrew Hore – rugby union player Hugo Inglis – field hockey player Robert Jopp – athlete Clarke Johnstone – equestrian Neil Purvis – rugby union player Michael Rae – cricketer Murray Rose – politician Dougal Stevenson – broadcaster Edward Stewart – All Black Hamish Walker – politician List of schools in New Zealand John McGlashan College Website Presbyterian Church of Aotearoa New Zealand John McGlashan College Sports Website
Bert Sutcliffe, was a New Zealand Test cricketer. Sutcliffe was a successful left-hand batsman, his batting achievements on tour in England in 1949, which included four fifties and a century in the Tests, earned him the accolade of being one of Wisden's Five Cricketers of the Year. He captained New Zealand in four Tests in the early 1950s, losing three of them and drawing the other. None of Sutcliffe's 42 Tests resulted in a New Zealand victory. In 1949 Sutcliffe was named the inaugural New Zealand Sportsman of the Year, in 2000 was named as New Zealand champion sportsperson of the decade for the 1940s. Sutcliffe was born at New Zealand, he was a brilliant schoolboy cricketer, spent two years at teacher training college before joining the army. He scored in matches he was able to play while serving with New Zealand forces in Egypt and Italy in the Second World War, his first-class career didn't get under way until he returned to New Zealand in 1946 from service in Japan after the war. Sutcliffe established himself when he scored 197 and 128 in the same match against MCC at Dunedin in 1946–47.
He made 722 runs at 103.14 in 1946–47 with three centuries, 911 runs at 111.22 in 1947–48 with four centuries, 511 runs at 85.16 in 1948–49 with three centuries. On the 1949 tour of England, he scored 243 and 100 not out in the same match against Essex at Southend, going on to total 2,627 runs on the tour at an average of 59.70. He made two triple-hundreds in his career with 355 for Otago against Auckland in 1949–50 and 385 against Canterbury in 1952–53; the score of 385 stood as the record highest score by a left-handed batsman until 1994, when Brian Lara hit 501. Playing for New Zealand against India at New Delhi in 1955–56, he scored 230 not out, a record for New Zealand. Sutcliffe is noted for an innings of 80 not out against South Africa in Johannesburg on Boxing Day 1953. New Zealand's batsmen were routed by South African fast bowler Neil Adcock on a green wicket. Sutcliffe was hit in the head by Adcock and, having left the field to receive hospital treatment, returned to the crease swathed in bandages.
He took on the bowling, until the ninth wicket fell. The New Zealand fast bowler Bob Blair, next man in, was understood to be back at the team hotel distraught as his fiancee had been killed in the Tangiwai disaster two days earlier. Sutcliffe started to walk off only to see Blair walk out. Despite the presence of 23,000 fans, silence enveloped the ground. 33 runs were added in 10 minutes. New Zealand lost the Test match by a considerable margin. Notwithstanding this, the noted New Zealand cricket writer Dick Brittenden said: "It was a great and glorious victory, a story every New Zealand boy should learn at his mother's knee", he wrote his memoirs, Between Overs: Memoirs of a Cricketing Kiwi, in 1963, although his Test career still had two years to go. After Sutcliffe retired from cricket he became a coach. In the 1985 New Year Honours, Sutcliffe was made a Member of the Order of the British Empire, for services to cricket. In 2010 The Last Everyday Hero: The Bert Sutcliffe Story, a biography by Richard Boock, was published.
The Cricket Society chose it as its cricket book of the year in 2011. New Zealand Cricket awards the Bert Sutcliffe Medal annually to those it deems have made outstanding service to cricket in New Zealand over a lifetime. Sutcliffe is described in Barclays World of Cricket as one of New Zealand's "most productive and cultured batsmen", he is noted to be moving back and across the stumps more than many batsmen in his time like Geoffrey Boycott, which lays a foundation to more modern and contemporary batsmen since the 80's to deal with fast bowlers. List of Otago representative cricketers List of Auckland representative cricketers Media related to Bert Sutcliffe at Wikimedia Commons Bert Sutcliffe at ESPNcricinfo A. H. McLintock, ed.. "SUTCLIFFE, Bert". An Encyclopaedia of New Zealand. Ministry for Culture and Heritage / Te Manatū Taonga. Retrieved 30 May 2013. ACS Famous Cricketers Series, No. 23, Bert Sutcliffe
Batting average (cricket)
In cricket, a player's batting average is the total number of runs they have scored divided by the number of times they have been out. Since the number of runs a player scores and how they get out are measures of their own playing ability, independent of their teammates, batting average is a good metric for an individual player's skill as a batter; the number is simple to interpret intuitively. If all the batter's innings were completed, this is the average number of runs they score per innings. If they did not complete all their innings, this number is an estimate of the unknown average number of runs they score per innings; each player has several batting averages, with a different figure calculated for each type of match they play, a player's batting averages may be calculated for individual seasons or series, or at particular grounds, or against particular opponents, or across their whole career. Batting average has been used to gauge cricket players' relative skills since the 18th century.
Most players have career batting averages in the range of 20 to 40. This is the desirable range for wicket-keepers, though some fall short and make up for it with keeping skill; until a substantial increase in scores in the 21st century due to improved bats and smaller grounds among other factors, players who sustained an average above 50 through a career were considered exceptional, before the development of the heavy roller in the 1870s an average of 25 was considered good. All-rounders who are more prominent bowlers than batsmen average something between 20 and 30. 15 and under is typical for specialist bowlers. A small number of players have averaged less than 5 for a complete career, though a player with such an average is a liability unless an exceptional bowler as Alf Valentine, B. S. Chandrasekhar or Glenn McGrath were. Career records for batting average are subject to a minimum qualification of 20 innings played or completed, in order to exclude batsmen who have not played enough games for their skill to be reliably assessed.
Under this qualification, the highest Test batting average belongs to Australia's Sir Donald Bradman, with 99.94. Given that a career batting average over 50 is exceptional, that only five other players have averages over 60, this is an outstanding statistic; the fact that Bradman's average is so far above that of any other cricketer has led several statisticians to argue that, statistically at least, he was the greatest athlete in any sport. Disregarding this 20 innings qualification, the highest career test batting average is 112, by Andy Ganteaume, a Trinidadian Keeper-batsman, dismissed for 112 in his only test innings. Batting averages in One Day International cricket tend to be lower than in Test cricket, because of the need to score runs more and take riskier strokes and the lesser emphasis on building a large innings, it should be remembered in relation to the ODI histogram above, that there were no ODI competitions when Bradman played. If a batter has been dismissed in every single innings this statistic gives the average number of runs they score per innings.
However, for a batter with innings which finished not out, the true average number of runs they score per innings is unknown as it is not known how many runs they would have scored if they could have completed all their not out innings. This statistic is an estimate of the average number of runs. If their scores have a geometric distribution this statistic is the maximum likelihood estimate of their true unknown average. Batting averages can be affected by the number of not outs. For example, Phil Tufnell, noted for his poor batting, has an respectable ODI average of 15, despite a highest score of only 5 not out, as he scored an overall total of 15 runs from 10 innings, but was out only once. A batter who has not been dismissed in any of the innings over which their average is being calculated does not have a batting average, as dividing by zero does not give a result. Highest career batting averages in Test matches. Table shows players with at least 20 innings completed. * denotes not out. Last updated: 14 October 2018.
Highest career batting averages in First-class cricket as follows: Source: Cricinfo Statsguru. Table shows players with at least 50 innings batted, note this table has no requirement for minimum number of runs scored. * denotes not out. Last updated: 10 November 2018. Alternative measures of batting effectiveness have been developed, including: Strike rate measures a different concept to batting average – how the batter scores – so it does not supplant the role of batting average, it is used in limited overs matches, where the speed at which a batter scores is more important than it is in first-class cricket. A system of player rankings was developed to produce a better indication of players' current standings than is provided by comparing their averages. Cricket statistics Batting average Bowling average
In cricket, a player's bowling average is the number of runs they have conceded per wicket taken. The lower the bowling average is, the better the bowler is performing, it is one of a number of statistics used to compare bowlers used alongside the economy rate and the strike rate to judge the overall performance of a bowler. When a bowler has taken only a small number of wickets, their bowling average can be artificially high or low, unstable, with further wickets taken or runs conceded resulting in large changes to their bowling average. Due to this, qualification restrictions are applied when determining which players have the best bowling averages. After applying these criteria, George Lohmann holds the record for the lowest average in Test cricket, having claimed 112 wickets at an average of 10.75 runs per wicket. A cricketer's bowling average is calculated by dividing the numbers of runs they have conceded by the number of wickets they have taken; the number of runs conceded by a bowler is determined as the total number of runs that the opposing side have scored while the bowler was bowling, excluding any byes, leg byes, or penalty runs.
The bowler receives credit for any wickets taken during their bowling that are either bowled, hit wicket, leg before wicket or stumped. B o w l i n g a v e r a g e = R u n s c o n c e d e d W i c k e t s t a k e n A number of flaws have been identified for the statistic, most notable among these the fact that a bowler who has taken no wickets can not have a bowling average, as dividing by zero does not give a result; the effect of this is that the bowling average can not distinguish between a bowler who has taken no wickets and conceded one run, a bowler who has taken no wickets and conceded one hundred runs. The bowling average does not tend to give a true reflection of the bowler's ability when the number of wickets they have taken is small in comparison to the number of runs they have conceded. In his paper proposing an alternative method of judging batsmen and bowlers, Paul van Staden gives an example of this: Suppose a bowler has bowled a total of 80 balls, conceded 60 runs and has taken only 2 wickets so that..
30. If the bowler takes a wicket with the next ball bowled 20. Due to this, when establishing records for bowling averages, qualification criteria are set. For Test cricket, the Wisden Cricketers' Almanack sets this as 75 wickets, while ESPNcricinfo requires 2,000 deliveries. Similar restrictions are set for one-day cricket. A number of factors other than purely the ability level of the bowler have an effect on a player's bowling average. Most significant among these are the different eras; the bowling average tables in Test and first-class cricket are headed by players who competed in the nineteenth century, a period when pitches were uncovered and some were so badly looked after that they had rocks on them. The bowlers competing in the Howa Bowl, a competition played in South African during the apartheid-era, restricted to non-white players, during which time, according to Vincent Barnes: "Most of the wickets we played on were underprepared. For me, as a bowler, it was great." Other factors which provided an advantage to bowlers in that era was the lack of significant safety equipment.
Other variations are caused by frequent matches against stronger or weaker opposition, changes in the laws of cricket and the length of matches. Due to the varying qualifying restrictions placed on the records by different statisticians, the record for the lowest career bowling average can be different from publication to publication. In Test cricket, George Lohmann is listed as having the superior average by each of the Wisden Cricketers' Almanack, ESPNcricinfo and CricketArchive. Though all three use different restrictions, Lohmann's average of 10.75 is considered the best. If no qualification criteria were applied at all, three players—Wilf Barber, A. N. Hornby and Bruce Murray—would tie for the best average, all having claimed just one wicket in Test matches, without conceding any runs, thus averaging zero. ESPNcricinfo list Betty Wilson as having the best Women's Test cricket average with 11.80, while CricketArchive accept Mary Spear's average of 5.78. In One Day Internationals, the varying criteria set by ESPNcricinfo and CricketArchive result in different players being listed as holding the record.
ESPNcricinfo has the stricter restriction, requiring 1,000 deliveries: by this measure, Joel Garner is the record-holder, having claimed his wickets at an average of 18.84. By CricketArchive's more relaxed requirement of 400 deliveries, John Snow leads the way, with an average of 16.57. In women's One Day International cricket, Caroline Barrs tops the CricketArchive list with an average of 9.52, but by ESPNcricinfo's stricter guidelines, the record is instead held by Gill Smith's 12.53. The record is again split for the two websites for Twenty20 International cricket. George O'Brien's average of 8.20 holds the record using those criteri
Daniel Luca Vettori, ONZM is a New Zealand former cricketer who played for the New Zealand cricket team in all formats and a former captain in all formats. He is the 200th Test cap for New Zealand, he was the captain of New Zealand between 2007 and 2011. Vettori score 3,000 runs, he is the youngest player to have represented New Zealand in Test cricket, having made his debut in 1996–97 at the age of 18, New Zealand's most-capped test cricketer with 112 caps, New Zealand's most capped One-Day cricketer with 284 caps. Vettori was a bowling all-rounder, he is known for his accuracy and guile rather than prodigious turn, his speed variation. He has a Test batting average of around 30 which made him one of the more consistent batsmen in the New Zealand cricket team. In the fourth season of Indian Premier League, he was contracted by Royal Challengers Bangalore for US$550,000. Vettori announced his retirement from all forms of international cricket following the 2015 Cricket World Cup, he was born in Auckland and brought up in Hamilton, attending Marian School and St. Paul's Collegiate School, where he started off playing as a medium-pacer, but transitioned into a spinner.
He was among a small minority of international sports stars to wear prescription spectacles while playing sport, only one of few cricketers in the modern era to play Test cricket with spectacles, others including Zimbabwean Charles Coventry, Australian Chris Rogers, West Indian Clive Lloyd. He took his 300th Test wicket in Sri Lanka in 2009, becoming only the second New Zealand bowler to pass that mark and he is New Zealand's leading ODI wicket-taker. Vettori has three 10 wicket hauls in Test cricket, against Sri Lanka and Bangladesh, his best innings figures were achieved at Auckland in 1999–2000 against Australia where he took 7/87. He finished with career best match figures in that game, taking 12/149, they are the second best by a New Zealander, with only Richard Hadlee having taken more in a match. With another 12 wicket effort, against Bangladesh in Chittagong, he became the only New Zealander to have taken a dozen wickets in a Test on two occasions. Vettori is the first left arm spinner in cricket history to take 300+ wickets in both ODIs and Tests.
He was the first left arm spinner in test history to capture 350 test wickets. He's now the second leading wicket taker in test history as a left arm spinner with a haul of 362 wickets just behind Rangana Herath. He's the youngest test cricketer to capture 100 test wickets at the age of 21, he is the bowler to have most dismissed Shane Warne in Tests, getting him out nine times, most notably for 99 in a Test at Perth. In the 1st Test against Pakistan in 2009–10 season, Vettori was himself dismissed for 99, while chasing a world record in centuries batting from position number 8, he is the leading runscorer in test history when batting at number 8 position or lower Daniel Vettori has scored most number of test tons when batting at number 8 position Prior to becoming captain on a permanent basis in 2007, Vettori had captained the Black Caps in ODI cricket on occasions such as when regular captain Stephen Fleming was not available. As of the end of 2006, he had led New Zealand in 11 games, he captained New Zealand at the inaugural Twenty20 World Championship in South Africa.
Subsequently, it was announced that Vettori would captain the Black Caps in all forms of the game: Twenty20s, ODIs and Tests. He was announced to be captain only of the former two. Vettori's captaincy had a rocky start, losing a Test series in England first up. Vettori attracted some criticism in the following ODI series when he engaged in angry shouting from the balcony at The Oval, regarding a controversial run out that had occurred, he refused to shake hands with the England team after the match. This contrasted with Fleming's more languid, laid back style. Vettori stood down from the captaincy and retired from One day Internationals and Twenty20 Internationals after the 2011 World Cup. However, he was called back into the ODI team for the 2013 ICC Champions Trophy, his name is included in the final 15 of the New Zealand team for the 2015 Cricket World Cup to be held in Australia and New Zealand. By that point, he retired from test cricket after his final test match was as an emergency injury cover against Pakistan in November 2014.
Vettori matured into a useful lower-order batsman, having scored 4,000 Test runs, including six centuries as well as 23 half-centuries. Although it took Vettori 47 Tests to score his first 1,000 runs at an average of 17.24, the second thousand took him just 22 Tests at a rate of 42.52 per innings. In December 2006, Vettori began establishing himself as more of an all-rounder, batting at number 5 for New Zealand in the one-day series against Sri Lanka. On 4 December 2009, despite the Black Caps only scoring 99 runs against Pakistan, Vettori became the highest Test run scorer batting at no.8 spot, a record held by Shane Warne. After suffering a dip in form of batting in 2010 Vettori scored a century against Pakistan when he made 110 as New Zealand's lower order resisted to help post a total of 356 all out. Vettori averages a career 30.60 but his average jumps to 57.9 against Pakistan against whom he has three of his six centuries. In July 2014, he played for the MCC side in the Bicentenary Celebration match at Lord's.
Vettori is of Italian origin. He is married to Mary O'Carroll
One Day International
A One Day International is a form of limited overs cricket, played between two teams with international status, in which each team faces a fixed number of overs 50. The Cricket World Cup is played in this format, held every four years. One Day International matches are called Limited Overs Internationals, although this generic term may refer to Twenty20 International matches, they are major considered the highest standard of List A, limited overs competition. The international one-day game is a late-twentieth-century development; the first ODI was played on 5 January 1971 between Australia and England at the Melbourne Cricket Ground. When the first three days of the third Test were washed out officials decided to abandon the match and, play a one-off one-day game consisting of 40 eight-ball overs per side. Australia won the game by 5 wickets. ODIs were played in white kits with a red ball. In the late 1970s, Kerry Packer established the rival World Series Cricket competition, it introduced many of the features of One Day International cricket that are now commonplace, including coloured uniforms, matches played at night under floodlights with a white ball and dark sight screens, for television broadcasts, multiple camera angles, effects microphones to capture sounds from the players on the pitch, on-screen graphics.
The first of the matches with coloured uniforms was the WSC Australians in wattle gold versus WSC West Indians in coral pink, played at VFL Park in Melbourne on 17 January 1979. This led not only to Packer's Channel 9 getting the TV rights to cricket in Australia but led to players worldwide being paid to play, becoming international professionals, no longer needing jobs outside cricket. Matches played with coloured kits and a white ball became more commonplace over time, the use of white flannels and a red ball in ODIs ended in 2001. In the main the Laws of cricket apply. However, in ODIs, each team bats for a fixed number of overs. In the early days of ODI cricket, the number of overs was 60 overs per side, matches were played with 40, 45 or 55 overs per side, but now it has been uniformly fixed at 50 overs. Stated, the game works as follows: An ODI is contested by two teams of 11 players each; the Captain of the side winning the toss bowl first. The team batting first sets the target score in a single innings.
The innings lasts until the batting side is "all out" or all of the first side's allotted overs are completed. Each bowler is restricted to bowling a maximum of 10 overs. Therefore, each team must comprise at least five competent bowlers; the team batting second tries to score more. The side bowling second tries to bowl out the second team or make them exhaust their overs before they reach the target score in order to win. If the number of runs scored by both teams is equal when the second team loses all its wickets or exhausts all its overs the game is declared a tie. Where a number of overs are lost, for example, due to inclement weather conditions the total number of overs may be reduced. In the early days of ODI cricket, the team with the better run rate won, but this favoured the second team. For the 1992 World Cup, an alternative method was used of omitting the first team's worst overs, but that favoured the first team. Since the late 1990s, the target or result is determined by the Duckworth-Lewis method, a method with statistical approach.
It takes into consideration the fact that the wickets in hand plays a crucial role in pacing the run-rate. In other words, a team with more wickets in hand can play way more aggressively than the team with fewer wickets in hand; when insufficient overs are played to apply the Duckworth-Lewis method, a match is declared no result. Important one-day matches in the latter stages of major tournaments, may have two days set aside, such that a result can be achieved on the "reserve day" if the first day is washed out—either by playing a new game, or by resuming the match, rain-interrupted; the original DL-method however had a few inherent flaws. For example, Tony Lewis, one of the formulators of this method recognized after the match between India and Kenya during the 1999 World Cup held in Bristol, that the original method gave an unfair advantage to the team chasing scores above 350 runs in a 50 overs match. Hence, the method was revised and a new version was released in 2004. There was one more such change made, first implemented on 2009.
Off late, the Duckworth-Lewis-Stern method is used, a modification of the DL-Method suggested by Prof. Steven Stern, it was first implemented during the 2015 World Cup. One of the major changes made to DLS from DL method was based on a historic analysis by Prof. Stern that a team with higher run rate in their initial stages has a greater chance to get to a high score than a team with slow initial run rate, but more wickets in hand; because the game uses a white ball instead of the red one used in first-class cricket, the ball can become discoloured and hard to see as the innings progresses, so the ICC has used various rules to help keep the ball playable. Most ICC has made the use of two new balls, the same strategy, used in the 1992 and 1996 World Cu