Sir Sidney Robert Nolan was one of Australia's leading artists of the 20th century. His oeuvre is among the most prolific in all of modern art, he is best known for his series of paintings on legends from Australian history, most famously Ned Kelly, the bushranger and outlaw. Nolan's stylised depiction of Kelly's armour has become an icon of Australian art. Sidney Nolan was born in Carlton, at that time an inner working-class suburb of Melbourne, on 22 April 1917, he was the eldest of four children. His parents and Dora, were both fifth generation Australians of Irish descent. Nolan moved with his family to the bayside suburb of St Kilda, he attended the Brighton Road State School and Brighton Technical School and left school aged 14. He enrolled at the Prahran Technical College, Department of Design and Crafts, in a course which he had begun part-time by correspondence. From 1933, at the age of 16, he began six years of work for Fayrefield Hats, producing advertising and display stands with spray paints and dyes.
From 1934 he attended night classes sporadically at the National Gallery of Victoria Art School. Nolan was a close friend of the arts patrons John and Sunday Reed, is regarded as one of the leading figures of the so-called "Heide Circle" that included Albert Tucker, Joy Hester, Arthur Boyd and John Perceval. Boyd and Perceval were members of the Boyd artistic family who were centered at "Open Country", Murrumbeena. In 1938, he met and married his first wife, graphic designer Elizabeth Paterson, with whom he had a daughter, but his marriage soon broke up because of his increasing involvement with the Reeds, he joined the Angry Penguins in the 1940s, after deserting from the army during World War II. The Ern Malley hoax poems were seen by Nolan and Sunday Reed as being uncannily prescient in touching on their own personal circumstances; the Malley poems remained a real presence to him throughout his life. He painted and drew hundreds of Malley-themed works and in 1975 said it inspired him to paint his first Ned Kelly series: "It made me take the risk of putting against the Australian bush an utterly strange object."He lived for some time at the Reeds' home, "Heide" outside Melbourne.
Here he painted the first of his famous, iconic "Ned Kelly" series with input from Sunday Reed. Nolan conducted an open affair with Sunday Reed at this time although he married John Reed's sister, Cynthia in 1948, after Sunday refused to leave her husband, he had lived in a ménage à trois with the Reeds for several years and although he spoke to them, visited Heide, but once again in their lifetimes, the years there together have been seen as a dominating factor in the subsequent lives of them all. In November 1976, Cynthia Nolan ended her life by taking an overdose of sleeping pills in a London hotel. In 1978, Nolan married Mary née Boyd, youngest daughter within the Boyd family and married to John Perceval. Nolan painted a wide range of personal interpretations of historical and legendary figures, including explorers Burke and Wills, Eliza Fraser. With time his paintings of Mrs Fraser came to be associated with his growing animus towards Sunday Reed. However, when first painted on Fraser Island in 1947 after he had left Heide, he remained on friendly terms with the Reeds and sent them photos of the works for their approval.
Indeed, he gave one Fraser Island painting to Sunday Reed as a Christmas gift that year. His most famous work is a series of stylised descriptions of the bushranger Ned Kelly in the Australian bush. Nolan left the famous 1946–47 series of 27 Ned Kellys at "Heide", when he left it in charged circumstances. Although he once wrote to Sunday Reed to tell her to take what she wanted, he subsequently demanded all his works back. Sunday Reed returned 284 other paintings and drawings to Nolan, but she refused to give up the 25 remaining Kellys because she saw the works as fundamental to the proposed Heide Museum of Modern Art; because she collaborated with Nolan on the paintings. She gave them to the National Gallery of Australia in 1977 and this resolved the dispute. Nolan's Ned Kelly series follow the main sequence of the Kelly story; however Nolan did not intend the series to be an authentic depiction of these events. Rather, these episodes/series became the setting for the artist's meditations upon universal themes of injustice and betrayal.
The Kelly saga was a way for Nolan to paint the Australian landscape in new ways, with the story giving meaning to the place. Although the Depression and World War II happened during this period, Nolan decided to concentrate on something other than people struggling in life. Nolan wanted to retell the story of a hero. A hero which now has become a metaphor for humankind—the fighter, the victim, the hero—resisting tyranny with a passion for freedom. Nolan recognised that the conceptual image of the black square had been part of modern art since World War I. Nolan just placed a pair of eyes into Kelly's helmet which animates its formal shape; as in most of the series, Kelly's steel head guard dominates the composition. Nolan concentrates on the Australian outback and shows a different landscape in nearly every painting. Nolan's paintings give the audience an insight into the history of Australia but show others from the world how beautiful Australia is; the intensity of the colours of the land and bush along wit
Monty Python and the Holy Grail
Monty Python and the Holy Grail is a 1975 British independent comedy film concerning the Arthurian legend and performed by the Monty Python comedy group of Graham Chapman, John Cleese, Terry Gilliam, Eric Idle, Terry Jones and Michael Palin, directed by Gilliam and Jones. It was conceived during the hiatus between the third and fourth series of their BBC television series Monty Python's Flying Circus. In contrast to the group's first film, And Now for Something Completely Different, a compilation of sketches from the first two television series, Holy Grail draws on new material, parodying the legend of King Arthur's quest for the Holy Grail. 30 years Idle used the film as the basis for the musical Spamalot. Monty Python and the Holy Grail grossed more than any British film exhibited in the US in 1975. In the US, it was selected as the second best comedy of all time in the ABC special Best in Film: The Greatest Movies of Our Time. In the UK, readers of Total Film magazine ranked it the fifth greatest comedy film of all time.
In 932 AD, King Arthur and his squire, travel throughout Britain searching for men to join the Knights of the Round Table. Arthur recruits Sir Bedevere the Wise, Sir Lancelot the Brave, Sir Galahad the Pure, Sir Robin the Not-Quite-So-Brave-as-Sir-Lancelot, Sir Not-Appearing-in-this-Film, along with their squires and Robin's troubadours. Arthur leads the men to Camelot, but sets off elsewhere; as they turn away, God gives Arthur the task of finding the Holy Grail. Arthur and his men search the land for clues to the Grail, they come to a castle occupied by French soldiers who claim to have the Grail and insult the Englishmen. Arthur and his men come up with a plan to sneak in using a Trojan Rabbit, but they mishandle its execution and are forced away. Arthur decides that the knights should go their separate ways to search for clues to the Grail's whereabouts. A modern-day historian being filmed for a documentary describing the Arthurian legends is abruptly killed by a knight on horseback, triggering a modern-day police investigation.
On the knights' travels and Bedevere attempt to satisfy the strange requests of the dreaded Knights Who Say Ni. Sir Robin avoids a fight with a Three-Headed Giant by running away. Sir Galahad is led by a grail-shaped beacon to Castle Anthrax, populated by 150 nubile young women, but to his chagrin is "rescued" by Lancelot. Lancelot, after finding a note from Swamp Castle believed to be from a lady being forced to marry against her will, rushes to the castle and kills nearly the entire wedding party, only to discover that the note was sent by an effeminate prince. Arthur and his knights regroup and are joined by three new knights as well as Brother Maynard and his monk followers, they meet Tim the Enchanter, who directs them to a cave where the location of the Grail is said to be written, but it is guarded by the deadly Rabbit of Caerbannog. After the Rabbit kills Sirs Gawain and Bors, Arthur uses the Holy Hand Grenade of Antioch, provided by Maynard, to destroy the creature. Inside, they find the inscription from Joseph of Arimathea.
After evading a giant monster, they arrive at the Bridge of Death and must answer three questions from the bridge-keeper to pass. Lancelot answers first and and passes on. Robin and Galahad fail to answer and are thrown over the bridge; when Arthur and Bedevere reach the bridge's end, they cannot find Lancelot, unaware he was arrested by the modern-day policemen investigating the historian's death. Arthur and Bedevere find the Castle of Aarrgh, they amass a large army of knights to assault the castle, when a large police force shows up, arrests Arthur and Bedevere for the historian's death, shuts down the film's production. Fifteen months before the BBC visited the set in May 1974, the Monty Python troupe assembled the first version of the screenplay; when half of the resulting material was set in the Middle Ages, half was set in the present day, the group opted to focus on the Middle Ages, revolving on the legend of the Holy Grail. By the fourth or fifth version of their screenplay, the story was complete, the cast joked the fact that the Grail was never retrieved would be "a big let-down... a great anti-climax".
Graham Chapman said. Neither Terry Gilliam nor Terry Jones had directed a film before, described it as a learning experience in which they would learn to make a film by making an entire full-length film; the cast humorously described the novice directing style as employing the level of mutual disrespect always found in Monty Python's work. The film's initial budget of £200,000 was raised by convincing 10 separate investors to contribute £20,000 apiece. Three of those investors were the rock bands Pink Floyd, Led Zeppelin, Genesis, who were persuaded to help fund the film by Tony Stratton-Smith, head of Charisma Records. According to Terry Gilliam, the Pythons turned to rock stars like Pink Floyd, Led Zeppelin and Elton John for finance as the studios refused to fund the film and rock stars saw it as "a good tax write-off" due to UK income tax being "as high as 90%" at the time. Monty Python and the Holy Grail was shot on location in Scotland around Doune Castle, Glen Coe, the owned Castle Stalker.
The many castles seen throughout the film were either Doune Castle shot from different angles or hanging miniatu
University of Wollongong
The University of Wollongong is an Australian public research university located in the coastal city of Wollongong, New South Wales 80 kilometres south of Sydney. As of 2017 the university has an enrolment of more than 32,000 students, an alumni base of more than 131,859 and over 2,000 staff members. In 1951, a division of the New South Wales University of Technology was established in Wollongong for the conduct of diploma courses. In 1961, the Wollongong University College of the University of New South Wales was constituted and the college was opened in 1962. In 1975 the University of Wollongong was established as an independent institution. Since its establishment, the university has conferred more than 100,000 degrees and certificates, its students predominantly from the local Illawarra region, are now from over 140 countries, with international students accounting for more than 30 percent of total. The University of Wollongong has developed into a multi-campus institution, both domestically and globally.
The Wollongong campus, the university's main campus, is on the original site five kilometres north-west of the city centre, covers an area of 82.4 hectares with 94 permanent buildings. In addition, there are university education centres in Bega, Batemans Bay, Moss Vale and Shoalhaven, New South Wales, as well as three Sydney campuses, including the UOW Sydney Business School, the South Western Sydney campus in Liverpool and Southern Sydney campus in Loftus. Overseas, the university has a presence in United Arab Emirates; the University of Wollongong traces its origins to 1951. The foundation of the university was in 1951 when a division of The New South Wales University of Technology was established in Wollongong. In 1962, the division became the Wollongong College of the University of New South Wales. On 1 January 1975, the New South Wales Parliament incorporated the University of Wollongong as an independent institution of higher learning consisting of five faculties with Michael Birt as its inaugural vice chancellor.
In 1976, Justice Robert Marsden Hope was installed as chancellor of the university. As of 1982, the university amalgamated the Wollongong Institute of Higher Education which had begun life in 1962 as the Wollongong Teachers' College. In 1951, a foundation of the University of Wollongong was founded as a division of the New South Wales University of Technology in Wollongong. A decade the division became the Wollongong College of the University of New South Wales. In 1972, the library could fit 280 students. In 1975, the University of Wollongong gained its autonomy as an independent institution of higher learning by the New South Wales Parliament. In 1976, the library could fit 530 students. In 1977, the Faculty of Computer Science developed a version of Unix for the Interdata 7/32 called UNSW 01, this was the first non-PDP Unix. In the late 70s, Tim Berners-Lee sourced TCP/IP software, an integral element of the World Wide Web, from the University of Wollongong. In 1981, Ken McKinnon was appointed Vice-Chancellor, overseeing the amalgamation of the university with the Wollongong Institute of Education in 1982.
The Wollongong Institute of Education had originated in 1971 as the Teachers College This merger formed the basis of the contemporary university. In 1983, the Faculty of Commerce was established along with the School of Creative Arts, followed by the creation of the Faculty of Education in 1984. In 1984 the commencement of the new Wollongong University building program began, which led to the construction and opening of the Illawarra Technology Centre, Weerona College, Union Mall, URAC, multi-storey carpark and heated swimming pool. In 1993, the University of Wollongong Dubai Campus in Dubai, the United Arab Emirates was established. In 2000, the Shoalhaven campus was opened at Nowra on the New South Wales south coast; the Bega campus was opened. In 2001, the Southern Highlands campus opened at Moss Vale. In 2008, the university opened the first building at Wollongong Innovation Campus on a 20-hectare site at Brandon Park in Wollongong. In August, the Faculty of Science Dean, Rob Whelan, took up a new role as president of the University of Wollongong in Dubai.
In 2009, the Chancellor, Mike Codd AC, announced his retirement after three four-year terms. His replacement, effective on 1 October, was Jillian Broadbent AO. Ms Jillian Broadbent, who has a banking background, is on the Board of the Reserve Bank of Australia, she became the third Chancellor after Mr Michael Codd. In 2010, the New South Wales Health Minister, Carmel Tebbutt, opened the $30 million Illawarra Health and Medical Research Institute in July. In August, a $20 million building housing the Sydney Business School and the UOW/TAFE Digital Media Centre opened at the Innovation Campus; the centre was named the Mike Codd Building in honour of a former Chancellor, Michael Codd AC.' In 2014, work began on the $20 million iAccelerate building at the Innovation Campus, which offers space for up to 200 budding entrepreneurs to develop their ideas. In 2
Eric Idle is an English comedian, voice actor, singer-songwriter, musician and comedic composer. Idle was a member of the British surreal comedy group Monty Python, a member of the parody rock band The Rutles, the author of the Broadway musical Spamalot. Idle was born in Harton Hospital, in South Shields, County Durham, to which his mother had been evacuated from the north west of England, his mother, Norah Barron, was a health visitor, his father, Ernest Idle, served in the Royal Air Force during World War II, only to be killed in a road accident while hitch-hiking home for Christmas in December 1945. Idle spent part of his childhood in Wallasey on the Wirral peninsula, attended St George's Road primary school, his mother had difficulty coping with a full-time job and bringing up a child, so when Idle was seven, she enrolled him in the Royal Wolverhampton School as a boarder. At this time, the school was a charitable foundation dedicated to the education and maintenance of children who had lost one or both parents.
Idle is quoted as saying: "It was a physically abusive, harsh environment for a kid to grow up in. I got used to dealing with groups of boys and getting on with life in unpleasant circumstances and being smart and funny and subversive at the expense of authority. Perfect training for Python."Idle stated that the two things that made his life bearable were listening to Radio Luxembourg under the bedclothes and watching the local football team, Wolverhampton Wanderers. Despite this, he disliked other sports and would sneak out of school every Thursday afternoon to the local cinema. Idle was caught watching the X-rated film BUtterfield 8 and stripped of his prefecture, though by that time he was head boy. Idle had refused to be senior boy in the school cadet force, as he supported the Campaign for Nuclear Disarmament and had participated in the yearly Aldermaston March. Idle maintains that there was little to do at the school, boredom drove him to study hard and win a place at Cambridge University.
Idle attended Pembroke College, where he studied English. At Pembroke, he was invited to join the prestigious Cambridge University Footlights Club by the president of the Footlights Club, Tim Brooke-Taylor, Footlights Club member Bill Oddie. Idle started at Cambridge only a year after future fellow-Pythons Graham John Cleese, he was the first to allow women to join the club. Idle starred in the children's television comedy series Do Not Adjust Your Set co-starring his future Python fellows Terry Jones and Michael Palin. Terry Gilliam provided animations for the show; the show's cast included comic actors David Jason and Denise Coffey. Idle appeared as guest in some episodes of the television series At Last the 1948 Show, which co-featured Cleese and Chapman. Idle wrote for Python by himself, at his own pace, although he sometimes found it difficult in having to present material to the others and make it seem funny without the back-up support of a partner; the other Pythons worked in teams and Cleese admitted that this was unfair – when the Pythons voted on which sketches should appear in a show, "he only got one vote".
However, he says that Idle was an independent person and worked best on his own. Idle himself admitted this was sometimes difficult: "You had to convince five others, and they were not the most un-egotistical of writers, either." Idle's work in Python is characterised by an obsession with language and communication: many of his characters have verbal peculiarities, such as the man who speaks in anagrams, the man who says words in the wrong order, the butcher who alternates between rudeness and politeness every time he speaks. A number of his sketches involve extended monologues, he would spoof the unnatural language and speech patterns of television presenters. Unlike Palin, Idle is said to be the master of insincere characters, from the David Frost-esque Timmy Williams, to small-time crook Stig O'Tracy, who tries to deny the fact that organised crime master Dinsdale Piranha nailed his head to the floor; the second-youngest member of the Pythons, Idle was closest in spirit to the students and teenagers who made up much of Python's fanbase.
Python sketches dealing most with contemporary obsessions like pop music, sexual permissiveness and recreational drugs are Idle's work characterised by double entendre, sexual references, other "naughty" subject matter – most famously demonstrated in "Nudge Nudge." Idle wrote "Nudge, Nudge" for Ronnie Barker, but it was rejected because there was'no joke in the words'. A competent guitarist, Idle composed many of the group's most famous musical numbers, most notably "Always Look on the Bright Side of Life", the closing number of Life of Brian, which has grown to become a Python signature tune, he was responsible for the "Galaxy Song" from The Meaning of Life and "Eric the Half-a-Bee", a whimsical tune that first appeared on the Previous Record album. After the success of Python in the early 1970s, all six members pursued solo projects. Idle's first solo work was Radio Five; this ran for two seasons from 1973 to 1974 and involved Idle performing sketches and links to records, with himself playing nearly all the multi-tracked parts.
On television, Idle created Rutland Weekend Television, a sketch show on BBC2, written by himself, with music by Neil Innes. RWT was
Sir Michael Edward Palin, is an English comedian, actor and television presenter. He was a member of the comedy group Monty Python. Since 1980 he has made a number of travel documentaries. Palin wrote most of his comedic material with fellow Python member Terry Jones. Before Monty Python, they had worked on other shows such as the Ken Dodd Show, The Frost Report, Do Not Adjust Your Set. Palin appeared in some of the most famous Python sketches, including "Argument Clinic", "Dead Parrot sketch", "The Lumberjack Song", "The Spanish Inquisition", "Bicycle Repair Man" and "The Fish-Slapping Dance". Palin continued co-writing Ripping Yarns, he has appeared in several films directed by fellow Python Terry Gilliam and made notable appearances in other films such as A Fish Called Wanda, for which he won the BAFTA Award for Best Actor in a Supporting Role. In a 2005 poll to find The Comedians' Comedian, he was voted the 30th favourite by fellow comedians and comedy insiders. After Python, he began a new career as a travel travel documentarian.
His journeys have taken him across the world, including the North and South Poles, the Sahara Desert, the Himalayas, Eastern Europe and North Korea. Having been awarded a CBE for services to television in the 2000 New Year Honours, Palin received a knighthood in the 2019 New Year Honours for services to travel and geography. From 2009–2012 Palin was the president of the Royal Geographical Society. On 12 May 2013, Palin was made a BAFTA fellow, the highest honour, conferred by the organisation. Palin was born in Ranmoor, the second child and only son of Edward Moreton Palin. and Mary Rachel Lockhart. His father was a Shrewsbury School and Cambridge University-educated engineer working for a steel firm, his maternal grandfather, Lieutenant-Colonel Richard Lockhart Ovey, DSO, was High Sheriff of Oxfordshire in 1927. He was educated at Shrewsbury School, his sister Angela was nine years older. Despite the age gap the two had a close relationship until her suicide in 1987, he has ancestral roots in County Donegal.
When he was five years old, Palin had his first acting experience at Birkdale playing Martha Cratchit in a school performance of A Christmas Carol. At the age of 10, still interested in acting, made a comedy monologue and read a Shakespeare play to his mother while playing all the parts. After his school days in 1962 he went on to read modern history at Oxford. With fellow student Robert Hewison he performed and wrote, for the first time, comedy material at a university Christmas party. Terry Jones a student in Oxford, saw that performance and began writing together with Hewison and Palin. In the same year Palin joined the Brightside and Carbrook Co-operative Society Players and first gained fame when he won an acting award at a Co-op drama festival, he performed and wrote in the Oxford Revue with Jones. In 1966 he married Helen Gibbins; this meeting was fictionalised in Palin's play East of Ipswich. The couple have three children: Thomas and Rachel and four grandchildren. Rachel is a BBC TV director, whose work includes MasterChef: The Professionals, shown on BBC Two throughout October and November 2010.
William is Director of Conservation at the Old Royal Naval College, Greenwich and oversaw the 2018-19 restoration of the Painted Hall. A photograph of William as a baby appeared in Monty Python and the Holy Grail as "Sir Not-appearing-in-this-film", his nephew is the theatre designer Jeremy Herbert. After finishing university in 1965 Palin became a presenter on a comedy pop show called Now! for the television contractor Television Wales and the West. At the same time Palin was contacted by Jones, who had left university a year earlier, for assistance in writing a theatrical documentary about sex through the ages. Although this project was abandoned, it brought Palin and Jones together as a writing duo and led them to write comedy for various BBC programmes, such as The Ken Dodd Show, The Billy Cotton Bandshow, The Illustrated Weekly Hudd, they collaborated in writing lyrics for an album by Barry Booth called Diversions. They were in the team of writers working for The Frost Report, whose other members included Frank Muir, Barry Cryer, Marty Feldman, Ronnie Barker, Ronnie Corbett, Dick Vosburgh and future Monty Python members Graham Chapman, John Cleese and Eric Idle.
Although the members of Monty Python had encountered each other over the years, The Frost Report was the first time all the British members of Monty Python worked together. During the run of The Frost Report the Palin/Jones team contributed material to two shows starring John Bird: The Late Show and A Series of Birds. For A Series of Birds the Palin/Jones team had their first experience of writing narrative instead of the short sketches they were accustomed to conceiving. Following The Frost Report the Palin/Jones team worked both as actors and writers on the show Twice a Fortnight with Graeme Garden, Bill Oddie and Jonathan Lynn, the successful children's comedy show Do Not Adjust Your Set with Idle and David Jason; the show featured musical numbers by the Bonzo Dog Doo-Dah Band, including future Monty Python musical collaborator Neil Innes. The animations for Do Not Adjust Your Set were made by Terry Gilliam. Eager to work with Palin sans Jones, Cleese asked him to perform in How to Irritate People together with Chapman and Tim Brooke-Taylor.
The Palin/Jones team were reunited for The Complete and Utt
Monty Python Live at the Hollywood Bowl
Monty Python Live at the Hollywood Bowl is a 1982 British concert comedy film directed by Terry Hughes and starring the Monty Python comedy troupe as they perform many of their sketches at the Hollywood Bowl. The film features Carol Cleveland in numerous supporting roles and Neil Innes performing songs. Present for the shows and participating as an'extra' was Python superfan Kim "Howard" Johnson; the show included filmed inserts which were taken from two Monty Python specials, Monty Python's Fliegender Zirkus, broadcast on German television in 1972. The performance was recorded on videotape during the show's four-day run starting September 26, 1980 and transferred to film. In the wake of Life of Brian's worldwide success, the Pythons planned to release a film consisting of the two German shows redubbed and re-edited, but this proved impractical, so Hollywood Bowl was released instead. Although it contains sketches from the television series, the scripts and performers are not identical to those seen on television.
The line-up includes some sketches that predated Monty Python's Flying Circus, including the "Four Yorkshiremen sketch", which dated from 1967's At Last the 1948 Show. "Sit on My Face" – A ribald parody of Gracie Fields' "Sing as We Go" from Monty Python's Contractual Obligation Album, performed by Cleese, Chapman and Jones in waiter outfits, sans trousers or underwear. "Colin'Bomber' Harris" – Chapman is his own opponent in the wrestling ring as Cleese delivers play-by-play. This is a mime piece. "Never Be Rude to an Arab" – Jones performs an ostensible anti-racism song filled with demeaning epithets and is subsequently blown up. This sketch has two parts at different points in the show. In the first part, he's dragged offstage by Kim Johnson dressed as a large frog. In the second, he's dragged off by Johnson dressed as a Christmas tree. From Monty Python's Contractual Obligation Album. "The Last Supper" – Michelangelo defends his creative first draft of The Last Supper painting against the objections of the Pope.
This sketch was written and performed by John Cleese for the first Amnesty benefit show A Poke in the Eye in 1976, with Jonathan Lynn as Michelangelo. It is based on a historical incident involving the Renaissance painter Paolo Veronese. "Silly Olympics" – In a filmed section, athletes compete in absurd sporting events of the "Silly Olympiad," an event traditionally held every 3.7 years. The events include The 100m for Runners with No Sense of Direction. On the starting gun, the runners run off in every single direction; the 1,500m for the Deaf. They don't move; the 200m Freestyle for Non-Swimmers. At the starting whistle, they all jump into the water and sink without surfacing, to which the commentator remarks that they'll return to the swimming when they start "fishing the corpses out"; the Marathon for Incontinents. In this, runners fall away from the group every couple of meters to relieve themselves, giving others the lead; this shows them all running into the men's room on the starting gun and running past a water table without any of them getting a drink.
The 3000m Steeplechase for People Who Think They're Chickens. In this, the runners are all doing chicken movements all over the course, seem to be trying to lay eggs on the hurdles; the High Jump features, with one of the Pythons Cleese, dressed as a woman. He takes a run-up jumps ridiculously high over a wall and onto a high balcony; the "Silly Olympics" sketch is from the first Monty Python's Fliegender Zirkus episode, dubbed into English. The original version featured the events "1500m for people and their mothers" and "Hammer throw to America", whereas the latter acted as a link to the next sketch. "Bruces' Philosophers Song" – The University of Woolloomooloo's Philosophy Department throws cans of Foster's Lager at the audience and perform "The Philosophers' Song", accompanied by large Gilliam cutouts, detailing the drinking habits of history's great thinkers and project lyrics for the audience and viewers to sing along to. Eric Idle, Michael Palin, Neil Innes play three Bruces. From the second season of the TV series.
"The Ministry of Silly Walks" – Palin has difficulty gaining funding for his silly walk. This contains colour footage of the same archival'silly walks' film seen in the first episode of the second Python television series. "Camp Judges" – British judges behave unconventionally outside the courtroom. From Monty Python's Flying Circus, series 2. "World Forum/Communist Quiz" – Historical socialist leaders Karl Marx, Che Guevara and Mao Tse-Tung are asked British football trivia questions in a quiz show game hosted by Idle. From Monty Python's Flying Circus, series 2. "I'm the Urban Spaceman" – Neil Innes performs the Bonzo Dog Doo-Dah Band number as Carol Cleveland tap dances and loses timing of the song. The song was performed in Do Not Adjust Your Set. "Crunchy Frog" – Candymaker Jones answers to the police for his disgusting varieties of chocolates. From series 1. "Albatross" – Cleese, dressed as a waitress, attempts to vend a wandering albatross to audience member Jones. The sketch is stopped by the colonel for being too silly
Uluru known as Ayers Rock and gazetted as Uluru / Ayers Rock, is a large sandstone rock formation in the southern part of the Northern Territory in central Australia. It lies 335 km south west of Alice Springs. Uluru is sacred to the Aboriginal people of the area; the area around the formation is home to an abundance of springs, rock caves and ancient paintings. Uluru is listed as a UNESCO World Heritage Site. Uluru and Kata Tjuta known as the Olgas, are the two major features of the Uluṟu-Kata Tjuṯa National Park; the local Anangu, the Pitjantjatjara people, call the landmark Uluṟu. This word is a proper noun, with no further particular meaning in the Pitjantjatjara dialect, although it is used as a local family name by the senior Traditional Owners of Uluru. On 19 July 1873, the surveyor William Gosse sighted the landmark and named it Ayers Rock in honour of the Chief Secretary of South Australia, Sir Henry Ayers. Since both names have been used. In 1993, a dual naming policy was adopted that allowed official names that consist of both the traditional Aboriginal name and the English name.
On 15 December 1993, it was renamed "Ayers Rock / Uluru" and became the first official dual-named feature in the Northern Territory. The order of the dual names was reversed to "Uluru / Ayers Rock" on 6 November 2002 following a request from the Regional Tourism Association in Alice Springs. Uluru is one of Australia's most recognisable natural landmarks; the sandstone formation stands 348 m high, rising 863 m above sea level with most of its bulk lying underground, has a total circumference of 9.4 km. Both Uluru and the nearby Kata Tjuta formation have great cultural significance for the Aṉangu people, the traditional inhabitants of the area, who lead walking tours to inform visitors about the local flora and fauna, bush food and the Aboriginal dreamtime stories of the area. Uluru is notable for appearing to change colour at different times of the day and year, most notably when it glows red at dawn and sunset. Kata Tjuta called Mount Olga or the Olgas, lies 25 km west of Uluru. Special viewing areas with road access and parking have been constructed to give tourists the best views of both sites at dawn and dusk.
Uluru is an inselberg "island mountain". An inselberg is a prominent isolated residual knob or hill that rises abruptly from and is surrounded by extensive and flat erosion lowlands in a hot, dry region. Uluru is often referred to as a monolith, although this is a somewhat ambiguous term, avoided by geologists; the remarkable feature of Uluru is its homogeneity and lack of jointing and parting at bedding surfaces, leading to the lack of development of scree slopes and soil. These characteristics led to its survival. For the purpose of mapping and describing the geological history of the area, geologists refer to the rock strata making up Uluru as the Mutitjulu Arkose, it is one of many sedimentary formations filling the Amadeus Basin. Uluru is dominantly composed of some conglomerate. Average composition is 25 -- 35 % quartz and up to 25 % rock fragments; the grains are 2–4 millimetres in diameter, are angular to subangular. The rock fragments include subrounded basalt, invariably replaced to various degrees by chlorite and epidote.
The minerals present suggest derivation from a predominantly granite source, similar to the Musgrave Block exposed to the south. When fresh, the rock has a grey colour, but weathering of iron-bearing minerals by the process of oxidation gives the outer surface layer of rock a red-brown rusty colour. Features related to deposition of the sediment include cross-bedding and ripples, analysis of which indicated deposition from broad shallow high energy fluvial channels and sheet flooding, typical of alluvial fans; the Mutitjulu Arkose is believed to be of about the same age as the conglomerate at Kata Tjuta, to have a similar origin despite the rock type being different, but it is younger than the rocks exposed to the east at Mount Conner, unrelated to them. The strata at Uluru are nearly vertical, dipping to the south west at 85°, have an exposed thickness of at least 2,400 m; the strata dip below the surrounding plain and no doubt extend well beyond Uluru in the subsurface, but the extent is not known.
The rock was sand, deposited as part of an extensive alluvial fan that extended out from the ancestors of the Musgrave and Petermann Ranges to the south and west, but separate from a nearby fan that deposited the sand and cobbles that now make up Kata Tjuta. The similar mineral composition of the Mutitjulu Arkose and the granite ranges to the south is now explained; the ancestors of the ranges to the south were once much larger than the eroded remnants we see today. They were thrust up during a mountain building episode referred to as the Petermann Orogeny that took place in late Neoproterozoic to early Cambrian times, thus the Mutitjulu Arkose is believed to have been deposited at about the same time; the arkose sandstone which makes up the formation is composed of grains that show little sorting based on grain size, exhibit little rounding and the feldspars in the rock are fresh in appearance. This lack of sorting and grain rounding is