Climont called "Clivemont" in Old French, "Winberg" in Old Alsatian, is a conical sandstone peak of the Vosges mountains. The mountain, with a cut-off shape, is known from afar by modern-day travellers. Situated today in Alsace to the south-west of the Champ du Feu, Clivemont's 965 metre peak is recognizable from a distance by its trapezoidal shape; the solitary tomb-shaped hill has long been a landmark to the south of the straight voie des saulniers, at the start of the massif running from Ormont. Climont offers an exceptional panorama of the various surrounding valleys; the waterways which originate there include the Fave river in the south-west which flows into the Meurthe above Saint-Dié, the Bruche river and several streams such as the winding Climontaise, which flow into Bourg-Bruche and Schirmeck to the north and the Giessen river to the south-east which flows towards Urbeis. The 360° view reveals Donon and the Val de Bruche to the north, the Val de Villé to the east, the middle Vosges to the south, the Saint-Dié basin to the west.
The mountains, which beyond 650 or 700 metres up belong to the territory of the Urbeis commune, are prized by hill-walkers. The GR532 walking route passes by the south, two routes marked by the Vosges Club lead to the summit where a tower stands in memory of Julius Euting referred to as the "Tour Jules". Climont has given pleasure to travellers from Lorraine on the Saulniers way, announcing the proximity of the Ungersberg massif and its hills overlooking the Alsatian plain, it is a useful landmark for mountain-dwellers. The cone of Climont is identifiable from the Roche Saint-Martin and from the heights of Hadremont north or east of the Kemberg massif, byt at different height to the south of the Fave valley. Today drivers who take the fast route passing around Saint-Dié or entering the Fave valley in the direction of the Lusse tunnel or the Saales col can contemplate the splendid isolation and magnificent evening lighting of Climont's slopes; the dialect name, whether of German or Roman origin, means a cut-off shape, referring to the abrupt slopes which fall from Climont's ledged summit.
"Winberg" comes from a corruption of "Winkberg" or "Winkleberg", just as "Climont" comes from the Latin "clivus mons". The oldest written name for Climont is "cilkenberg", dating from 1195. Legend associates Climont with groups at odds with the norm. Monks and sects, notably Anabaptists, lived on the mountain's slopes. Magical beings living on Climont, spirits of grass, shrubs ad trees said to be the sole examples of their kind, are described as much by their shapes and movements as by their appearances to observers. Paradoxically, a large number of these singular creatures presided over meetings and amorous liaisons; the plants gathered by Saint Jain would have powers of love potions for Isolde. Climont is a mound bearing witness to sandstone of the Triassic, a vestige resulting from effective erosion pushed onto the pedestale of Permian sandstone; this latter formation corresponds to the post-Hercynian peneplain characteristic of the Primary era. In the Saales col, whose flat horizons appear as a peneplain to the eye, there is similarity between the mounds of Climont, Houssot or the hills which continue from Ormont, all to a greater or lesser extent released by erosion.
Note that the final and most recent erosion has arisen from the enclosing faults, which emerged transverse to the Alsatian rift and stretch out towards the Saint-Dié area. They have induced the collapse of Ormont and are active today, creating the sharp relief of the sandstone massif; the countryside of Climont, shaped at the level of deep layers, is an isthmus between the Permian basin of Saint-Dié and lLe Villé. The sandstone mass of Climont is neither nor fissured, which has made it resistant to erosion; the waters on a conical prominence to the west descend via a waterfall towards Le Hang, forming the source of the Bruche. Beneath Le Hang, a dam has allowed a pond to form. Filled by the copious waters in the spring season, it was emptied by a floating of lost logs towards Schirmeck et Strasbourg before 1890. To the west of the hamlet of Climont, going towards Colroy-la-Grande, are the oldest rocks in the Vosges, in the shape of a blade of stones observable at the surface over about 100 meters.
These "formations of scales" belong to an old Precambrian pedestal. These formations, submitted to intense pressures and crushing by the action of faults, contain gneiss with amphibole and garnet, known as Climont gneiss, but syenitic granite; these crushed rocks or myelonites witness to an ancient metamorphism which occurred well before the shale deposits of Le Villé. A former stubble for cow grazing, once wider and now uncultivated, occupied the landmark summit of the Saulniers path. Herds of goats appreciated the tough pasture of the slopes exposed and covered with small young oaks, deciduous trees for the most part exlipsing the little surviving softwood, pines on the soil of gullies and firs in the shady basins. At the edges of the mound under the Easter basin near the houses of the Climont hamlet, meadows and fields show the agricultural vitality of the mountain communities during cold periods; the hamlet is a separate area to the east of the limits of Urbeis and commune centre. It is tra
Bourg-Bruche is a commune in the Bas-Rhin department in Grand Est in north-eastern France. Communes of the Bas-Rhin department INSEE commune file
Canal de la Bruche
The Canal de la Bruche is a canal in eastern France that connected Soultz-les-Bains, near Molsheim, to the city of Strasbourg. It was built in 1682 by the famous military engineer Vauban, principally to transport sandstone from the quarries of Soultz for use in the construction of the fortifications of Strasbourg; the last commercial load was carried in 1939 and the canal formally closed in 1957, after bridges damaged during World War II were rebuilt with insufficient headroom for navigation. The canal is 20 kilometres long and has 11 locks on its course, with a total rise of 30 metres, it parallels the Bruche river, taking its water supply from the confluence of the Bruche and Mossig rivers at Wolxheim, with a secondary supply downriver at Kolbsheim. It enters the Ill river at Montagne Verte in Strasbourg, just downstream of the confluence of the Bruche and Ill, some 2.5 kilometres upstream of the centre of the city. When the canal was built, the Ill provided navigable connections to the city and the Rhine, in years to the Canal du Rhone au Rhine and the Canal de la Marne au Rhin.
Although no longer navigable, the canal is retained in water, is now managed by the Conseil Départemental du Bas-Rhin. The towpath has been converted into a cycle path, which forms part of the 3,900-kilometre long EuroVelo 5 route that links London with Brindisi. List of canals in France
Sandstone is a clastic sedimentary rock composed of sand-sized mineral particles or rock fragments. Most sandstone is composed of quartz or feldspar because they are the most resistant minerals to weathering processes at the Earth's surface, as seen in Bowen's reaction series. Like uncemented sand, sandstone may be any color due to impurities within the minerals, but the most common colors are tan, yellow, grey, pink and black. Since sandstone beds form visible cliffs and other topographic features, certain colors of sandstone have been identified with certain regions. Rock formations that are composed of sandstone allow the percolation of water and other fluids and are porous enough to store large quantities, making them valuable aquifers and petroleum reservoirs. Fine-grained aquifers, such as sandstones, are better able to filter out pollutants from the surface than are rocks with cracks and crevices, such as limestone or other rocks fractured by seismic activity. Quartz-bearing sandstone can be changed into quartzite through metamorphism related to tectonic compression within orogenic belts.
Sandstones are clastic in origin. They are formed from cemented grains that may either be fragments of a pre-existing rock or be mono-minerallic crystals; the cements binding these grains together are calcite and silica. Grain sizes in sands are defined within the range of 0.0625 mm to 2 mm. Clays and sediments with smaller grain sizes not visible with the naked eye, including siltstones and shales, are called argillaceous sediments; the formation of sandstone involves two principal stages. First, a layer or layers of sand accumulates as the result of sedimentation, either from water or from air. Sedimentation occurs by the sand settling out from suspension. Once it has accumulated, the sand becomes sandstone when it is compacted by the pressure of overlying deposits and cemented by the precipitation of minerals within the pore spaces between sand grains; the most common cementing materials are silica and calcium carbonate, which are derived either from dissolution or from alteration of the sand after it was buried.
Colors will be tan or yellow. A predominant additional colourant in the southwestern United States is iron oxide, which imparts reddish tints ranging from pink to dark red, with additional manganese imparting a purplish hue. Red sandstones are seen in the Southwest and West of Britain, as well as central Europe and Mongolia; the regularity of the latter favours use as a source for masonry, either as a primary building material or as a facing stone, over other forms of construction. The environment where it is deposited is crucial in determining the characteristics of the resulting sandstone, which, in finer detail, include its grain size and composition and, in more general detail, include the rock geometry and sedimentary structures. Principal environments of deposition may be split between terrestrial and marine, as illustrated by the following broad groupings: Terrestrial environmentsRivers Alluvial fans Glacial outwash Lakes Deserts Marine environmentsDeltas Beach and shoreface sands Tidal flats Offshore bars and sand waves Storm deposits Turbidites Framework grains are sand-sized detrital fragments that make up the bulk of a sandstone.
These grains can be classified into several different categories based on their mineral composition: Quartz framework grains are the dominant minerals in most clastic sedimentary rocks. These physical properties allow the quartz grains to survive multiple recycling events, while allowing the grains to display some degree of rounding. Quartz grains evolve from plutonic rock, which are felsic in origin and from older sandstones that have been recycled. Feldspathic framework grains are the second most abundant mineral in sandstones. Feldspar can be divided into two smaller subdivisions: plagioclase feldspars; the different types of feldspar can be distinguished under a petrographic microscope. Below is a description of the different types of feldspar. Alkali feldspar is a group of minerals in which the chemical composition of the mineral can range from KAlSi3O8 to NaAlSi3O8, this represents a complete solid solution. Plagioclase feldspar is a complex group of solid solution minerals that range in composition from NaAlSi3O8 to CaAl2Si2O8.
Lithic framework grains are pieces of ancient source rock that have yet to weather away to individual mineral grains, called lithic fragments or clasts. Lithic fragments can be any fine-grained or coarse-grained igneous, metamorphic, or sedimentary rock, although the most common lithic fragments found in sedimentary rocks are clasts of volcanic rocks. Accessory minerals are all other mineral grains in a sandstone. Common accessory minerals include micas, olivine and corundum. Many of these accessory grains are more dense than the silicates that
The Rhine is one of the major European rivers, which has its sources in Switzerland and flows in an northerly direction through Germany and The Netherlands to the North Sea. The river begins in the Swiss canton of Graubünden in the southeastern Swiss Alps, forms part of the Swiss-Liechtenstein, Swiss-Austrian, Swiss-German and the Franco-German border flows through the German Rhineland and the Netherlands and empties into the North Sea; the largest city on the Rhine is Cologne, with a population of more than 1,050,000 people. It is the second-longest river in Central and Western Europe, at about 1,230 km, with an average discharge of about 2,900 m3/s; the Rhine and the Danube formed most of the northern inland frontier of the Roman Empire and, since those days, the Rhine has been a vital and navigable waterway carrying trade and goods deep inland. Its importance as a waterway in the Holy Roman Empire is supported by the many castles and fortifications built along it. In the modern era, it has become a symbol of German nationalism.
Among the biggest and most important cities on the Rhine are Cologne, Düsseldorf, Rotterdam and Basel. The variants of the name of the Rhine in modern languages are all derived from the Gaulish name Rēnos, adapted in Roman-era geography as Greek Ῥῆνος, Latin Rhenus; the spelling with Rh- in English Rhine as well as in German Rhein and French Rhin is due to the influence of Greek orthography, while the vocalisation -i- is due to the Proto-Germanic adoption of the Gaulish name as *Rīnaz, via Old Frankish giving Old English Rín,Old High German Rīn, early Middle Dutch Rijn. The diphthong in modern German Rhein is a Central German development of the early modern period, the Alemannic name Rī retaining the older vocalism, as does Ripuarian Rhing, while Palatine has diphthongized Rhei, Rhoi. Spanish is with French in adopting the Germanic vocalism Rin-, while Italian and Portuguese retain the Latin Ren-; the Gaulish name Rēnos belongs to a class of river names built from the PIE root *rei- "to move, run" found in other names such as the Reno in Italy.
The grammatical gender of the Celtic name is masculine, the name remains masculine in German and French. The Old English river name was variously inflected as feminine; the length of the Rhine is conventionally measured in "Rhine-kilometers", a scale introduced in 1939 which runs from the Old Rhine Bridge at Constance to Hoek van Holland. The river is shortened from its natural course due to a number of canalisation projects completed in the 19th and 20th century; the "total length of the Rhine", to the inclusion of Lake Constance and the Alpine Rhine is more difficult to measure objectively. Its course is conventionally divided as follows: The Rhine carries its name without distinctive accessories only from the confluence of the Rein Anteriur/Vorderrhein and Rein Posteriur/Hinterrhein next to Reichenau in Tamins. Above this point is the extensive catchment of the headwaters of the Rhine, it belongs exclusively to the Swiss canton of Graubünden, ranging from Saint-Gotthard Massif in the west via one valley lying in Ticino and Italy in the south to the Flüela Pass in the east.
Traditionally, Lake Toma near the Oberalp Pass in the Gotthard region is seen as the source of the Anterior Rhine and the Rhine as a whole. The Posterior Rhine rises in the Rheinwald below the Rheinwaldhorn; the source of the river is considered north of Lai da Tuma/Tomasee on Rein Anteriur/Vorderrhein, although its southern tributary Rein da Medel is longer before its confluence with the Anterior Rhine near Disentis. The Anterior Rhine springs from Lai da Tuma/Tomasee, near the Oberalp Pass and passes the impressive Ruinaulta formed by the largest visible rock slide in the alps, the Flims Rockslide; the Posterior Rhine starts near the Rheinwaldhorn. One of its tributaries, the Reno di Lei, drains the Valle di Lei on politically Italian territory. After three main valleys separated by the two gorges and Viamala, it reaches Reichenau in Tamins; the Anterior Rhine arises from numerous source streams in the upper Surselva and flows in an easterly direction. One source is Lai da Tuma with the Rein da Tuma, indicated as source of the Rhine, flowing through it.
Into it flow tributaries from the south, some longer, some equal in length, such as the Rein da Medel, the Rein da Maighels, the Rein da Curnera. The Cadlimo Valley in the canton of Ticino is drained by the Reno di Medel, which crosses the geomorphologic Alpine main ridge from the south. All streams in the source area are sometimes captured and sent to storage reservoirs for the local hydro-electric power plants; the culminating point of the Anterior Rhine's drainage basin is the Piz Russein of the Tödi massif of the Glarus Alps at 3,613 metres above sea level. It starts with the creek Aua da Russein. In its lower course the Anterior Rhine flows through a gorge named Ruinaulta; the whole stretch of the Anterior Rhine to the Alpine Rhine confluence next to Reichen
Mutzig is a commune located at the entrance of the Bruche river valley, in the Bas-Rhin department in Grand Est, in north-eastern France. The commune of Mutzig is on the Route des Vins d'Alsace. Evidences of human activities can be traced back to the Paleolithic era with the recent discovery of Neanderthal artifacts; the town Mutzig was first mentioned in the 10th century. It became part of the Prince-Bishopric of Strasbourg in 1308. In the 19th century, several industries were established in Mutzig among which a weapon manufactory on the grounds of the former castle of the Cardinal de Rohan. In 1893, when Alsace was part of the German Empire, Kaiser Wilhelm II ordered the construction of a fort, the Feste Kaiser Wilhelm II, north of the town, as well as military barracks. Communes of the Bas-Rhin department INSEE commune file Mutzig fort website Route des Vins d'Alsace
Molsheim is a commune in the Bas-Rhin department in Grand Est in north-eastern France. The total population in 2006 was 9,382. Molsheim had been a fast-growing city between the French censuses of 1968 and 1999, passing from 5,739 to 9,331 inhabitants, but this increase came to a noticeable halt since; the metropolitan area of Molsheim had 11,760 inhabitants in 2006, from 7,747 in 1968. The old town of Molsheim is well preserved and contains a considerable number of old houses and buildings of Alsatian architecture; the most notable buildings are the medieval Tour des Forgerons, the Renaissance Metzig, the baroque Eglise des Jésuites – an inordinately large church insofar as it could house the entire population of the town when built – and the classical Hôtel de ville. The former monastery La Chartreuse destroyed in the French Revolution, now houses a museum. Molsheim was part of the Holy Roman Empire until 1648, when it found itself located on the French side of the border. Between 1871 and 1919 and again between 1940 and 1944, the German speaking city was part of Germany.
A number of Merovingian tombs, dating from the sixth and seventh centuries were discovered in 1935 to the north of the town, on the Roman road leading from Avolsheim. Molsheim is notable as the home of the Bugatti automotive industry factory. Production of the Bugatti Veyron by Bugatti Automobiles S. A. S. Restarted in Dorlisheim near Molsheim in 2005; the French supercar maker unveiled the world's most expensive car, sold to an unnamed buyer for at least $11m before tax in March 2019. Eminent local Molsheim resident and automotive advisor, Scotte Monte de le Guminyourear, said that this initiative pays appropriate homage to the Type 57 SC Atlantic. Communes of the Bas-Rhin department This article incorporates text from a publication now in the public domain: Chisholm, Hugh, ed.. "Molsheim". Encyclopædia Britannica. 18. Cambridge University Press. P. 677. Town council website Saint George's and Trinity Church at Structurae