Ambrosius Brueghel was a Flemish painter from the famous Brueghel family of artists. Less prolific and less well-known than a number of his family members, his oeuvre is not well understood and is believed to comprise Baroque still lifes, garland paintings as well as landscapes. Ambrosius Brueghel was born in Antwerp as the son of Jan Brueghel the Elder and Catharina van Marienburg, his father was one of the leading painters in Antwerp and the son of the famous Renaissance painter Pieter Brueghel the Elder. His older -brother Jan Brueghel the Younger was a painter and took over the workshop of their father on his death in 1625, his sister Anna married the prominent court painter David Teniers the Younger in 1637. Ambrosius is known to have collaborated with his brother-in-law on some landscapes with genre scenes, his sister Paschasia married the painter Hieronymous van Kessel the Younger. Another sister Catharina married the painter Jan Baptist Borrekens; as his father died when Ambrosius was only seven years old, he was placed under the guardianship of prominent painters Hendrick van Balen, Cornelis Schut and Pieter de Jode the Elder.
Hendrick van Balen fostered his artistic training. It is possible. Ambrosius is believed to have had plans to travel abroad after 10 September 1639 as he made a will on that date; the making of a will was customary at the time for persons. It is not clear whether he made that trip or whether it was short as a few months after that date he is still recorded in Antwerp and in August 1641 he is in Antwerp making a settlement with his brother Jan and his brother-in-law David Teniers who were his new guardians. Ambrosius Brueghel became a member of the Antwerp Guild of Saint Luke in 1645. In 1649 he became a member of the chamber of rhetoric De Violieren. On 21 February of the same year he married Anna Clara van Triest, from a well-to-do family; the couple would have four children. The artist was appointed ` wijkmeester' of his district. In 1650, Ambrosius Brueghel visited his brother Jan in Paris, he served as deacon of the Guild in 1653, 1665, 1671 and 1673. Ambrosius Brueghel's work has been described as being in the same style as that of his father.
The problem is that only few works have been attributed to this artist and many of the attributions have been challenged. Still lifes have been attributed to Ambrosius Brueghel, but none of these attributions are firm. A vanitas still life discovered in 1966 of a large vase of flowers marked AB was attributed to Ambrosius but it is now given to Adriaen van Nieulandt; the only painting, attributed to the artist with some level of certainty is the Holy Virgin and Child in a flower garland. This painting falls in the genre of garland paintings, a special type of still life developed in Antwerp by artists including his father Jan Brueghel the Elder, his guardian Hendrick van Balen, Frans Francken the Younger, Peter Paul Rubens and Daniel Seghers, they show a flower garland around a devotional image or portrait. This genre was inspired by the cult of veneration and devotion to Mary prevalent at the Habsburg court and in Antwerp generally. Landscapes by Ambrosius have been recorded in the estate of the family of his guardian Hendrick van Balen.
A landscape signed and dated Ambrosius Breughel fecit 1653 was in 1876 in the collection of J. Lenglart in Lille, while another Landscape with figures by his brother-in-law David Teniers the Younger, signed Ambrosius Broeghel, was in the Fahnenburg near Düsseldorf in 1894; the location of these paintings is now unknown. Media related to Ambrosius Brueghel at Wikimedia Commons
Pieter Bruegel the Elder
Pieter Bruegel the Elder was the most significant artist of Dutch and Flemish Renaissance painting, a painter and printmaker from Brabant, known for his landscapes and peasant scenes. He was a formative influence on Dutch Golden Age painting and painting in general in his innovative choices of subject matter, as one of the first generation of artists to grow up when religious subjects had ceased to be the natural subject matter of painting, he painted no portraits, the other mainstay of Netherlandish art. After his training and travels to Italy, he returned in 1555 to settle in Antwerp, where he worked as a prolific designer of prints for the leading publisher of the day. Only towards the end of the decade did he switch to make painting his main medium, all his famous paintings come from the following period of little more than a decade before his early death, when he was in his early forties, at the height of his powers; as well as looking forwards, his art reinvigorates medieval subjects such as marginal drolleries of ordinary life in illuminated manuscripts, the calendar scenes of agricultural labours set in landscape backgrounds, puts these on a much larger scale than before, in the expensive medium of oil painting.
He does the same with the fantastic and anarchic world developed in Renaissance prints and book illustrations. He is sometimes referred to as "Peasant Bruegel", to distinguish him from the many painters in his family, including his son Pieter Brueghel the Younger. From 1559, he signed his paintings as Bruegel; the two main early sources for Bruegel's biography are Lodovico Guicciardini's account of the Low Countries and Karel van Mander's 1604 Schilder-boeck. Guicciardini recorded that Bruegel was born in Breda, but van Mander specified that Bruegel was born in a village near Breda called "Brueghel", which does not fit any known place. Nothing at all is known of his family background. Van Mander seems to assume he came from a peasant background, in keeping with the over-emphasis on Bruegel's peasant genre scenes given by van Mander and many early art historians and critics. In contrast, scholars of the last sixty years have emphasized the intellectual content of his work, conclude: "There is, in fact, every reason to think that Pieter Bruegel was a townsman and a educated one, on friendly terms with the humanists of his time", ignoring van Mander's dorp and just placing his childhood in Breda itself.
Breda was a significant centre as the base of the House of Orange-Nassau, with a population of some 8,000, although 90% of the 1300 houses were destroyed in a fire in 1534. However, this reversal can be taken to excess. From the fact that Bruegel entered the Antwerp painters' guild in 1551, it is inferred that he was born between 1525 and 1530, his master, according to van Mander, was the Antwerp painter Pieter Coecke van Aelst, whose daughter Mayken Coecke Bruegel married in 1563. Between 1545 and 1550 he was a pupil of Pieter Coecke, who died on 6 December 1550. However, before this Bruegel was working in Mechelen, where he is documented between September 1550 and October 1551 assisting Peeter Baltens on an altarpiece, painting the wings in grisaille. Bruegel got this work via the connections of Mayken Verhulst, the wife of Pieter Coecke. Mayken's father and eight siblings were all artists or married an artist, lived in Mechelen. In 1551 Bruegel became a free master in the Guild of Saint Luke of Antwerp.
He set off for Italy soon after by way of France. He visited Rome and, rather adventurously for the period, by 1552 he had reached Reggio Calabria at the southern tip of the mainland, where a drawing records the city in flames after a Turkish raid, he continued to Sicily, but by 1553 was back in Rome. There he met the miniaturist Giulio Clovio; these works landscapes, have not survived, but marginal miniatures in manuscripts by Clovio are attributed to Bruegel. He left Italy by 1554, had reached Antwerp by 1555, when the set of prints to his designs known as the Large Landscapes were published by Hieronymus Cock, the most important print publisher of northern Europe. Bruegel's return route is uncertain, but much of the debate over it was made irrelevant in the 1980s when it was realized that the celebrated series of large drawings of mountain landscapes thought to have been made on the trip were not by Bruegel at all. However, all the drawings from the trip that are considered authentic are of landscapes.
From his return to Italy in 1554/5 until 1563, the year of his marriage Bruegel lived in Antwerp the publishing centre of northern Europe working as a designer of over forty prints for Cock, though his dated paintings begin in 1557. With one exception, Bruegel did not work the plates himself, but produced a drawing which Cock's specialists worked from, he moved in the lively Humanist circles of the city, his change of name in 1559 can be seen as an attempt to Latinize it. In 1563 he was married in Brussels, where he lived for the remainder
Pieter Brueghel the Younger
Pieter Brueghel the Younger or Pieter Bruegel the Younger was a Flemish painter, known for numerous copies after his father Pieter Bruegel the Elder's work as well as his original compositions. The large output of his studio, which produced for the local and export market, contributed to the international spread of his father's imagery. Traditionally Pieter Brueghel the Younger has been nicknamed "de helse Brueghel" or "Hell Brueghel" because it was believed he was the author of several paintings with fantastic depictions of fire and grotesque imagery; these paintings have now been attributed to his brother Jan Brueghel the Elder. Pieter Brueghel the Younger was born in Brussels, the oldest son of the famous sixteenth-century Netherlandish painter Pieter Brueghel the Elder and Mayken Coecke van Aelst, his father died in 1569. Following the death of his mother in 1578, together with his brother Jan Brueghel the Elder and sister Marie, went to live with their grandmother Mayken Verhulst. Mayken Verhulst was the widow of the prolific artist Pieter Coecke van Aelst and an accomplished artist in her own right, known for her miniature paintings.
According to the early 17th-century Flemish biographer Karel van Mander Mayken Verhulst was the first teacher of her two grandsons. The Brueghel family moved to Antwerp sometime after 1578 and Pieter entered the studio of the landscape painter Gillis van Coninxloo, his teacher left Antwerp in 1585 and in the 1584/1585 registers of the Guild of Saint Luke, "Peeter Brugel" is listed as an independent master. On 5 November 1588 Pieter married Elisabeth Goddelet; the couple had seven children. One son called Pieter Brueghel III was a painter. Pieter Brueghel the Younger operated a large studio in Antwerp which produced inexpensive copies of his father's work for local sale and export, he was often in financial difficulties due to drinking. He had at least 9 pupils including Andries Daniels, he died in Antwerp, aged 72. Pieter Brueghel the Younger painted landscapes, religious subjects and village scenes. A few flower still life paintings by Pieter have been recorded, his genre paintings of peasants emphasize the picturesque, are regarded by some as lacking Pieter the Elder's subtlety and humanism.
He and his workshop were prolific copyists of Pieter Bruegel the Elder's most famous compositions. His name and work were forgotten in the 18th and 19th centuries until he was rediscovered in the first half of the 20th century. Pieter Brueghel the Younger created original works in the idiom of his father which are energetic and bright and adapted to the 17th-century style. One of the artist's most successful original designs was the painting of The Village Lawyer; the different titles of the work indicate that it may have been interpreted in these different ways in the 17th century. The title The Village Lawyer is the best suited since the person behind the desk is wearing a lawyer's bonnet, the collection of taxes did not occur in such setting and the paperwork and bags on the desk look like those for requests and decrees; the picture shows peasants lining up with presents such as chickens and eggs to please the lawyer, a common occurrence, whereas tithe payments were made in grain. The painting shows his interest in and close observation of village life.
Pieter Brueghel the Younger's workshop made many copies of the composition in different formats. There exist 19 signed and dated versions of this work out of some 25 originals and 35 questionable versions. Another original composition of Pieter Brueghel the Younger is the Whitsun Bride, known in at least five autograph versions. One of the copies was held by the Metropolitan Museum; the picture depicts a Flemish springtime custom of crowning a queen at Whitsuntide. The festival is focused around a flower gathered in the fields by children; this painting distinguishes itself in style and colour from his father's work. The painting uses bright colours, with much vermilion and a rich blue-green in the figures and blue for the sky; the colours display a unity of tone distinctive of the 17th century. The picture displays a unity in drawing and composition. Another original composition by Pieter Brueghel the Younger are four small tondos representing the Four Stages of the River; as his style never evolved from the manner of his early career it is difficult to date his work.
In several cases, it is not clear whether a composition is an original composition by Pieter Brueghel the Younger or a copy after a lost work by his father. Apart from these paintings of his own invention, Pieter Brueghel the Younger copied the famous compositions of his father through a technique called pouncing; this large scale activity was only possible thanks to his well-organized workshop. Comparison of some copies with the originals reveals differences, both in terms of colour as well as the omission or addition of certain details; this may indicate that the copyist re-drafted some sections, or based the copies on prints after original works, rather than on the originals themselves. Pieter the Younger made paintings out of his father’s figural designs, including drawings f
Bruegel is a think tank devoted to policy research on economic issues. Based in Brussels, it launched its operations in 2005 and conducts research in five different focus areas with the aim of improving economic debate and policy-making. Bruegel was recognised as the second best international economics think tank worldwide and the fourth best think tank in the world, according to the 2017 Global Go To Think Tank Report, it has a governance and funding model based on memberships from Member States of the European Union, international corporations, other institutions. Bruegel explains its name as a tribute to Pieter Bruegel, the 16th-century painter whose work epitomizes unvarnished and innovative depictions of life in Europe, it can be read as a reference to a "Brussels European and Global Economic Laboratory" though Bruegel does not consider its name to be an acronym. The think tank was co-founded by the economists Jean Pisani-Ferry and Nicolas Véron in 2002, it was endorsed by former French President Jacques Chirac and German Chancellor Gerhard Schröder at the 40th anniversary of the Elysée Treaty in January 2003.
Former European Commissioner Mario Monti was instrumental in Bruegel's creation and became its first Chairman in early 2005, following the think tanks's legal creation as an International Non-Profit Association under Belgian law and its first Board election in 2004. The Board was successively chaired by Mario Monti, Leszek Balcerowicz, Jean Claude Trichet. Jean Pisani-Ferry was Bruegel's Director from January 2005 to April 2013 before being succeeded in his role by Guntram Wolff. Bruegel moved to its current premises, on Rue de la Charité/Liefdadigheidsstraat 33 in central Brussels, in April 2005. Bruegel's research is divided into five broad research areas: European Macroeconomics & Governance, Global Economics & Governance, Finance & Financial Regulation, Innovation & Competition, Energy & Climate; the research programme is reviewed every three years while the research priorities are developed on a yearly basis in the Fall by the Board after discussions with Bruegel scholars and other stakeholders.
The European Macroeconomics & Governance focus addresses issues relating to the European fiscal, economic and political union. The theme covers topics which discuss how to reform European governance, address market tensions and adjust European macroeconomic policies; the Global Economic & Governance area examines the implications of the interactions between global and EU actors and studies for the international economy. It holds a particular focus on Asian developments, global governance, the ties between the EU and major regional players; the Finance & Financial Regulation research area explores the developments of financial regulation and resolution on both the international and EU level. There is an in-depth focus on the sovereign banking crisis in Europe as well as the movement to re-nationalize financial policy; the Innovation & Competition section analyses the role of information technology, competition policy and technological innovations on economic performance and growth. The Energy & Climate focus contributes to the research on energy security, integrated energy markets, energy efficiency, decarbonisation of the economy, research and innovation in these fields.
Bruegel's scholars publish their research through post on the think tank's blog. For more in-depth analysis of their research topics, they release policy briefs, policy contributions, working papers and blueprints, they have presented testimonies at the European Parliament and various national parliaments. Bruegel hosts events which gather experts, the public and various stakeholders for in-depth discussion on a range of policy issues; the events are livestreamed with the video and audio recordings on Bruegel's website. In 2017, they hosted 73 events throughout the year and released 11 episodes of their podcast series "The Sound of Economics". Bruegel is supported by a wide array of members which contribute the bulk of its financial resources; the majority of its resources comes from state and corporate members. As of March 2017, Bruegel's membership consisted of three categories. State members are Member States of the European Union, which join on a voluntary basis, including Austria, Cyprus, Estonia, France, Hungary, Italy, the Netherlands, Slovakia, Spain and the United Kingdom.
Corporate members are international corporations and firms, many of which are headquartered in the European Union. Institutional members include national and international public financial institutions as well as central banks. Bruegel's board is elected for a three-year term by its members and consists of 12 individuals with backgrounds in government, business and civil society; as of March 2017, its members were Jean-Claude Trichet, Thies Buttner, Karolina Ekholm, Jose Manuel Gonzalez-Paramo, Vincenzo La Via, Rachel Lomax, Isabelle Mateos Y Lago, Simone Mori, Elena Pisonero, Pawel Samecki, Tuomas Saarenheimo, Hans Vijlbrief. The board decides on Bruegel's research agenda, a process, conducted on a yearly basis and includes in-depth consultation of all members, it appoints the director and deputy director, oversees Bruegel's financial management and budget. However, under Bruegel's statute and bylaws, neither the Board nor the members can interfere in research results and publication decisions‚ the responsibility for which remains with the director and individual scholars.
Transparify has awarded Bruegel five stars out of five for transparency, including in 2018. Prospect Magazine Awarded Bruegel the European Economic Think Tank of the Ye
Abraham Brueghel was a Flemish painter from the famous Brueghel family of artists. He emigrated at a young age to Italy where he played an important role in the development of the style of decorative Baroque still lifes. Abraham was born in Antwerp, the son of Jan Brueghel the Younger, the grandson of Jan Brueghel the Elder and the great-grandson of Pieter Brueghel the Elder. Much of his artistic training came from his father Jan Brueghel the Younger, prolific painter and regular collaborator with Rubens. Abraham showed great promise as an artist from an early age, started to make a name for himself in his teenage years, his father sold. In 1649, at the age of 18, Abraham went to Italy to complete a commission for Prince Antonio Ruffo in Sicily, it was the first of many commissions in which Abraham demonstrated his artistic abilities in drawing floral still lifes. In 1649 an inventory of his patron Prince Antonio Ruffo records nine flower paintings by the 18-year-old artist. Ten years in 1659, Brueghel moved to Rome, Italy where he married an Italian woman less than a year later.
In 1670 he was invited into the Accademia di San Luca, a Roman academy, which had as its objective the elevation of the work of artists. Abraham joined the Bentvueghels, an association of Dutch and Flemish artists working in Rome, it was customary for the Bentvueghels to adopt an appealing nickname, the so-called'bent name'. He was given the bent name Rijngraaf, meaning'duke of the Rhine', an old aristocratic title in Germany; when Abraham Genoels joined the Bentvueghels in 1670, Abraham Brueghel signed the bentbrief as "Abraham Breugel". Some time between 1672 and 1675, Abraham moved to Naples, Italy, he played an important role in the development of still life painting in Naples, which had before his arrival in the city resisted the Flemish-Roman style of decorative still lifes. Breughel remained in Naples until his death, he is believed to have died c. 1690 in Naples and in any event no than 1697. Abraham Brueghel established a reputation in particular, floral still lives. One hunting still life dated by him is known.
Due to lack of evolution during the artist’s mature period and the scarcity of dated works, it is difficult to establish a chronology of Abraham’s artistic development. His brushstrokes were slightly more painterly during his Roman period, while his colouring became brighter and stronger during his years; the lush still lifes of the Flemish painters Frans Snyders, Jan Fyt and Pieter Boel who had worked in Italy were the principal influences on Abraham Brueghel. Joannes Hermans, another Flemish painter in Rome painted grandiose still lifes combining human figures and fruit, which anticipated the arrival in Rome in 1653 of Abraham Brueghel. Brueghel combined the Flemish preference for decorative profusion and anecdote with the sweeping movement of the Italian High Baroque of his Italian contemporaries, such as Michele Pace del Campidoglio and Michelangelo Cerquozzi; the result of the complementary influences were compositions that appear casual, while maintaining strong composition and clarity of detail.
Abraham Brueghel is known for his still life paintings of southern fruits and flowers, which were assembled in front of a landscape. They are enhanced by a precious vase, an antique monument or fragments of Roman sculpture, his cartouches are more decorative. He painted his own landscapes but the staffage in his paintings was painted by well-known Italian painters, such as Carlo Maratta, Giovanni Battista Gaulli and Giacinto Brandi. A few collaborations between Abraham Brueghel and Guillaume Courtois, a French painter active in Rome, are recorded. An example is the Still life of flowers with a figure; the still life was painted by Brueghel. The painting is a variant of the Grapes and pomegranate with a vase of flowers and a female figure, dated to the end of the 1660s. Media related to Abraham Brueghel at Wikimedia Commons
Son en Breugel
Son en Breugel is a municipality in the southern Netherlands just outside Eindhoven. The municipality covers an area of 26.51 km2. It had a population of 16,763 in 2017. Son en Breugel used to be two different villages:'Son' and'Breugel', with the stream the Dommel separating the two villages. Son en Breugel borders the following larger municipalities: Eindhoven, Nuenen, Gerwen en Nederwetten, Best; the spoken language is North Meierijs. Breugel Son Dutch topographic map of the municipality of Son en Breugel, June 2015 The villages of Son and Breugel were founded between the 12th and 14th centuries; the villages developed quickly. According to Karel van Mander's 1604 Schilder-boeck, the painter Pieter Bruegel the Elder was born in the village of Breugel. Both Son as well as Breugel were hit badly during the Eighty Years' War, the number of households in the two villages shrank down to 140. However, both villages managed to recover from this setback. During the reign of Napoleon, both villages were combined into one municipality.
Until the beginning of the 20th century, the population stayed stable at about 1,500 inhabitants. However, between 1910 and 1940 the population increased from 1,600 to 3,500 inhabitants when people started moving to the village for economic reasons, it was the scene of heavy fighting at the end of the Second World War during Operation Market Garden. From 1960 onwards, Son en Breugel continued to grow; as of August 2002, the number of inhabitants was estimated at 15,000. The number of households in Son en Breugel has reached 6,000; the combined village is expected to grow by about 3,000 households in the coming years, a growth of 50%, the result of which would prevent the municipality from being absorbed within the larger neighbouring municipality of Eindhoven. Starting early 2009, a new neighbourhood will be developed within the combined village; this neighbourhood, called'Sonniuspark', will contain 600 households and will be finished in 2013. Coalition 2006-2010: VVD, CDA and GreenLeft-PvdA. Media related to Son en Breugel at Wikimedia Commons Official website
Jan Brueghel the Elder
Jan Brueghel the Elder was a Flemish painter and draughtsman. He was the son of the eminent Flemish Renaissance painter Pieter Brueghel the Elder. A close friend and frequent collaborator with Peter Paul Rubens, the two artists were the leading Flemish painters in the first three decades of the 17th century. Brueghel worked in many genres including history paintings, flower still lifes and mythological scenes and seascapes, hunting pieces, village scenes, battle scenes and scenes of hellfire and the underworld, he was an important innovator who invented new types of paintings such as flower garland paintings, paradise landscapes, gallery paintings in the first quarter of the 17th century. He further created genre paintings that were imitations and reworkings of his father's works, in particular his father's genre scenes and landscapes with peasants. Brueghel represented the type of the pictor doctus, the erudite painter whose works are informed by the religious motifs and aspirations of the Catholic Counter-Reformation as well as the scientific revolution with its interest in accurate description and classification.
He was court painter of the Archduke and Duchess Albrecht and Isabella, the governors of the Southern Netherlands. The artist was nicknamed "Velvet" Brueghel, "Flower" Brueghel, "Paradise" Brueghel; the first is believed to have been given him because of his mastery in the rendering of fabrics. The second nickname is a reference to his specialization in flower still lifes and the last one to his invention of the genre of the paradise landscape, his brother Pieter Brueghel the Younger was traditionally nicknamed "de helse Brueghel" or "Hell Brueghel" because it was believed he was the author of a number of paintings with fantastic depictions of fire and grotesque imagery. These paintings have now been reattributed to Jan Brueghel the Elder. Jan Brueghel the Elder was born in Brussels as the son of Pieter Brueghel the Elder and Maria Coecke van Aelst, his mother was the daughter of the prominent Flemish Renaissance artists Pieter Coecke van Aelst and Mayken Verhulst. His father died about a year after Jan's birth in 1569.
It is believed that after the death of his mother in 1578, together with his brother Pieter Brueghel the Younger and sister Marie, went to live with their grandmother Mayken Verhulst, by widowed. Mayken Verhulst was an artist in her own right; the early Flemish biographer Karel van Mander wrote in his Schilder-boeck published in 1604 that Mayken was the first art teacher of her two grandsons. She taught them watercolor painting of miniatures. Jan and his brother may have trained with local artists in Brussels who were active as tapestry designers. Jan and his brother Pieter were sent to Antwerp to study oil painting. According to Karel van Mander he studied under Peter Goetkint, an important dealer with a large collection of paintings in his shop. Goetkint died on 15 July 1583 not long after Jan had started his training, it is possible that Jan continued his studies in this shop, taken over by Goetkint's widow, as no other master is recorded. It was common for Flemish painters of that time to travel to Italy to complete their studies.
Jan Brueghel left for Italy, first traveling to Cologne where her family lived. He visited Frankenthal, an important cultural centre where a number of Flemish landscape artists were active, he went to Naples after spending time in Venice. In Naples he produced after June 1590 a number of drawings, which show his interest in landscapes and monumental architecture, he worked for Don Francesco Caracciolo, a prominent nobleman and priest and founder of the Clerics Regular Minor. Jan produced small-scale decorative works for Don Francesco. Brueghel left Naples for Rome where he resided from 1592 to 1594, he befriended Paul Bril. Paul Bril was a landscape specialist from Antwerp who had moved to Rome at the end of the 16th century. Together with his brother Mathijs Bril, he created atmospheric landscapes for many Roman residences. Brueghel took inspiration from small-scale landscapes of the mid-1590s. During his time in Rome Jan Brueghel became acquainted with Hans Rottenhammer, a German painter of small finished cabinet paintings on copper.
Rottenhammer painted religious and mythological compositions, combining German and Italian elements of style, which were esteemed. Brueghel collaborated with Rottenhammer. Brueghel spent time making watercolors of Rome's antique monuments and seemed fascinated by the vaulted interiors of the Colosseum, he enjoyed the protection of Cardinal Ascanio Colonna. In Rome he met Cardinal Federico Borromeo, who played an important role in the Counter-Reformation and was an avid art collector; the Cardinal became patron. Brueghel took up residence in Borromeo's Palazzo Vercelli; when Borromeo became archbishop of Milan in June 1595, Brueghel followed him and became part of the Cardinal's household. He produced many flower paintings for the Cardinal. Brueghel stayed about a year in Milan and in 1596 he had returned to Antwerp where he remained active, save for a few interruptions, for the rest of his life. A year after his return Jan Brueghel was admitted as a Free Master in Antwerp's Guild of Saint Luke as the son of a master.
The artist married on 23 January 1599 in the Cathedral of Our Lady in Antwerp. The bride was the daughter of the engraver Gerard de Jode, their son Jan was born on 13 September 1601. This first-born had Rubens as his godfather and took over his father's workshop and was known as Jan Brueghel