Kajaani is a town and municipality in Finland. It is the center and capital of the Kainuu region and it is located southeast of Oulujärvi, which drains to the Gulf of Bothnia along the Oulujoki. As of 31 March 2016, it had a population of 37,646, the town began in the 17th century, fuelled by the growth of the tar industry. It succumbed to Russian forces during the Greater Wrath of the 18th century, the local economy is driven by mainly the sawmill and paper industries, although UPM Kymmenes Kajaani paper mill, the main employer from 1907 until 2008, has now closed. Kajaani Church was built in 1896 in the Neo-Gothic style by architect Jac Ahrenberg, Kajaani Town Theatre was established in 1969. Kajaani is home to two clubs, AC Kajaani and Kajaanin Haka, and ice hockey team Hokki. Kajaani University of Applied Sciences was established in 1992, Kajaani was one of the cities founded in 1651 by the Swedish Governor General of Finland, Per Brahe. At that time, the Kainuu region—as wood country—was an important producer of tar derived from pine, in 1653-4 the district court sessions of Kajaani and Sotkamo were responsible for authorizing a road to be built between Säräisniemi and Raahe, improving communications in the region.
During the Greater Wrath in the 18th century, Kajaani Castle was forced to surrender to Russian forces, the Russians blew the castle up in March 1716, and it has been in ruins ever since. There is a monument on the east side of the river marking where the spot where Lieutenant Jakob Henrik Zidén, disease was difficult to treat and he soon fell ill himself with typhus at the end of February 1833 but recovered. Kajaani was severely affected by famine in 1867-1868 which devastated much of Finland, Kajaani Town Hall was built in 1831, the former City Library in 1852, Kainuus first elementary school in 1883, and Kajaani Church in 1896 as it grew into a notable settlement. The paper industry took off in Kajaani in the early 20th century in particular, Kajaani Paper Mill was built in 1907 and was run by the firm Kajaani Oy, which had a capital of FMK5,000,000 in 1948. Kajaani Oy was eventually acquired by Valmet in 1983, and the subsidiary Kajaani Electronics was formed, Ämmäkoski power plant was built on the river in 1917 by the Kajaani Lumber Company, and underwent alterations under architect Eino Pitkänen in the 1940s.
The citys grew in the 1960s to 14,600 inhabitants, industrial development in the 1970s, and the merger of the separate rural municipality of Kajaani, Kajaanin maalaiskunta, and the city in 1977 saw the population jump to 34,574 by 1980. Vuolijoki was consolidated with Kajaani at the beginning of 2007, in 2012, an oil spill occurred in Kajaani. 110,000 liters of water leaked into a river that eventually flowed into the Oulujärvi lake. Kajaani is situated in the heart of central Finland, by road is it 558 kilometres north-northwest of Helsinki,170 kilometres north of Kuopio, and 182 kilometres southeast of Oulu. Villages in the vicinity include Jormua, Kuluntalahti, Lahnasjärvi, Linnantaus, Murtomäki, Kajaani lies on the Kajaani River, between the lakes of Oulujärvi, which drains to the Gulf of Bothnia along the Oulu River, and Nuasjärvi
Kuopio is a city and a municipality located in the region of Northern Savonia, Finland. A population of 112,158 makes it the ninth biggest city in the country, the city has a total area of 2,775.73 square kilometres, of which 719.85 km2 is water and half forest. The population density is only 70/km2, but the urban areas are populated very densely, nationally second only to capital Helsinki. Since 1969 Kuopio has grown extensively through municipality mergers, kuopio’s population surpassed the 100,000 mark when the town of Nilsiä joined Kuopio at the beginning of 2013. There are several explanations behind the name Kuopio, the first is that in the 16th century, a certain influential person named Kauhanen in Tavinsalmi changed his name to Skopa and the peoples pronunciation was Coopia and finally Cuopio. The second explanation is that it comes from the verb kuopia, meaning paw, a third hypothesis is that it came from a certain Karelian mans name Prokopij, from Ruokolahti in the Middle Ages. This is the most probable explanation, supported by the Research Institute for the Languages of Finland.
Kuopio was founded in 1653 by Governor Peter Brahe, but the date is recognized as November 17,1775. The period of Russian rule brought notable traffic connection development within Eastern Finland, the Saimaa Canal opened up a summer route towards the Baltic Sea, and the Savo railroad improved transport in winter. The municipality of Maaninka joined the city of Kuopio in 2015, town of Nilsiä in 2013 and Karttula in 2011, like did Vehmersalmi in 2005, Riistavesi in 1973, the city is surrounded by Lake Kallavesi, and several parts of it are built on islands. Kuopios ample waterfronts and islands are utilized in the Saaristokaupunki -project, Saaristokaupunki will accommodate a total of 14,000 inhabitants in 2015. All houses will be situated no more than 500 metres from the nearest lakeshore, Kuopio falls in the subarctic climate zone, closely bordering on continental due to its warm summers. Winters are long and cold, with average highs staying below freezing from November until March, most precipitation occurs in the late summer and early fall.
The city has a unique feature in its street network. These streets provide pedestrians a calm environment aside from the street traffic. This setup dates back all the way to 1776 and the first town plan by Pehr Kjellman, originally rännikatu, gränd were created as a fire barrier to prevent a possible fire escalating in a city mostly built with wood. Kuopio is located along the Blue Highway, which is an international tourist route from Mo i Rana, Norway to Pudozh, transport connections to Kuopio include Pendolino trains and air service from Kuopio Airport with Finnair, Blue1 and Finncomm Kuopio has always been a city of education. Some of the first schools offering education in Finnish were established in Kuopio, there are about 4,200 enterprises in Kuopio, of which approximately 180 are export companies
Finns or Finnish people are a Finnic ethnic group native to Finland. Finns are traditionally divided into regional groups that span several countries adjacent to Finland. Also, some of these may be classified as ethnic groups. These include the Kvens and Forest Finns in Norway, the Tornedalians in Sweden, the most notable autochthonous group is the Finnish-speaking population of Sweden, who trace their origin to Second Swedish Crusade after which Finland came under Swedish rule. Finnish, the language spoken by most Finnic people, is related to other Finnic languages. The Finnic languages are a subgroup to the Uralic family of languages and these languages are markedly different from most other languages spoken in Europe, which belong to the Indo-European family of languages. Native Finns can be divided according to dialect into subgroups sometimes called heimo, the Population Register Centre maintains information on the birthplace and mother tongue of the people living in Finland, but does not specifically categorize any as Finns by ethnicity.
The majority of living in the Republic of Finland consider Finnish to be their first language. According to Statistics Finland, of the total population of 5,300,484 at the end of 2007,91. 2% considered Finnish to be their native language. It is not known how many of the ethnic Finns living outside Finland speak Finnish as their first language, Finns have been traditionally divided into sub-groups along regional, dialectical or ethnographical lines. These subgroups include the people of Finland Proper, Tavastia and these sub-groups express regional self-identity with varying frequency and significance. Historically, there were three dialects, the South-Western and Karelian, the Sweden Finns are either native to Sweden or have emigrated from Finland to Sweden. An estimated 450,000 first- or second-generation immigrants from Finland live in Sweden, the majority moved from Finland to Sweden following the Second World War, taking advantage of the rapidly expanding Swedish economy. This emigration peaked in 1970 and has been declining since, there are native Finnish-speaking minorities in Sweden, e. g.
the Tornedalingar and the Finns of Dalecarlia. The Finnish language has official status as one of five minority languages in Sweden, the term Finns is used for other Finnic peoples, including Izhorians in Ingria, Karelians in Karelia and Veps in the former Veps National Volost, all in Russia. Among these groups, the Karelians is the most populous one, according to a 2002 census, it was found that Ingrians indetify with Finnish ethnic identity, referring to themselves as Ingrian Finns. The Finnish term for Finns is suomalaiset and it is a matter of debate how best to designate the Finnish-speakers of Sweden, all of whom have migrated to Sweden from Finland. Historical references to Northern Europe are scarce, and the given to its peoples and geographic regions are obscure, therefore
Elisenvaara is a settlement in Lakhdenpokhsky District of the Republic of Karelia, and an important station of the Vyborg-Joensuu railroad. The station is linked by railway to Savonlinna, Finland. The settlement has an population of 686 people. The settlement grew around the junction, with railroad connections to Vyborg, Lappeenranta. In 1940, in the Moscow Armistice, Finnish Karelia, along with the Saint Petersburg-Sortavala railroad, was ceded to the Soviet Union, connections to Lappeenranta and Savonlinna were cut
Tornio is a city and municipality in Lapland, Finland. The city forms a twin city together with Haparanda on the Swedish side. The municipality covers an area of 1,188.00 square kilometres, the population density is 18.69 inhabitants per square kilometre, with a total population of 22,187. It borders the Swedish municipality of Haparanda, in spite of being a border city Tornio is unilingually Finnish with a negligible number of Swedish speakers. The delta of the Torne river has been inhabited since the end of the last ice age, the Swedish part of the region is not far from the oldest permanent settlement site found in Scandinavia. A former hypothesis that this region was uninhabited and colonised from the Viking Age onward has now been abandoned, the church spire at Tornio was one of the landmarks used by de Maupertuis in his measurements. The church was constructed in 1686 by Matti Joosepinpoika Härmä, the name Tornio is an old Finnish word meaning war spear, the city is named after the river.
To Swedish it was borrowed as Torneå after Torne å, an name of the river. The town received its charter from the King of Sweden in 1621 and was founded on the island of Suensaari. The charter was granted in recognition of Tornio being the hub of all trade in Lapland throughout the 16th century and it was the largest merchant town in the North at the time and for some years ranked as the richest town in the Swedish realm. Despite the lively trade with Lapland and overseas, the population of the town remained stable for hundreds of years at little over 500, during the 18th century Tornio was visited by several expeditions from Central Europe which came to explore the Arctic. However, the greatest blow to the wealth of the came in the last war between Sweden and Russia in 1808, which saw the Russians capture and annexe Finland. The border was drawn through the deepest channel of the Muonio and Tornio rivers, Tornio ended up on the Russian side of the border by special request of the Russian czar.
The Swedes developed the village of Haaparanta on their side of the border, to balance the loss of Tornio, during the Russian period Tornio was a sleepy garrison town. Trade only livened up during the Crimean War and the First World War, during the First World War Tornio and Haparanda had the only rail link connecting the Russians to their Western allies. After the independence of Finland in 1917 Tornio lost its garrison, the town played no role of importance in the Finnish Civil War, but was the scene of some fierce street fighting at the onset of the Lapland War between Finland and Nazi Germany. The rapid liberation of the town by Finnish forces probably saved it from being burned down like so many towns in Lapland. As a result, the wooden church from 1686 can still be admired today
Savonlinna is a town and a municipality of 35,504 inhabitants in the southeast of Finland, in the heart of the Saimaa lake region. The Finnish name of the town means Castle of Savonia and the Swedish name means New Castle, the city was founded in 1639, based on Olavinlinna castle. The castle was founded by Erik Axelsson Tott in 1475 in an effort to protect Savonia, during the Russo-Swedish War, the castle was captured by Field-Marshal Peter Lacy. It was held by Russia between 1743 and 1812, when it was granted back to Finland as a part of the Old Finland, in 1973 the municipality of Sääminki was consolidated with Savonlinna. In the beginning of year 2009 the municipality of Savonranta and a 31.24 km2 land strip from Enonkoski between Savonlinna and Savonranta were consolidated with Savonlinna and this town is 335 kilometres away from the capital of Helsinki by road, some four hours away by train. There is an airport in the town, and the journey to Helsinki takes 40–60 minutes by plane and it is built on a chain of islands located throughout a number of large lakes.
The University of Eastern Finland has a campus in Savonlinna, primarily for teacher education, the city hosts the famous annual Savonlinna Opera Festival. The operas are performed on a stage built inside the castle and it has hosted the Mobile Phone Throwing World Championships annually since 2000. The ice hockey team of Savonlinna, SaPKo or Savonlinnan Pallokerho, is playing in the second tier Mestis, notable SaPKo alumni include Jarmo Myllys, Ville Leino, Tuukka Rask and Hannu Aravirta. One notable hockey player from the city who did not play for SaPKo is Joonas Rask of HIFK and formerly the Nashville Predators, the top-tier volleyball team Saimaa Volley plays some of its home matches in Savonlinna. The football team Savonlinnan Työväen Palloseura, is playing in Kolmonen, the fourth tier
Romantic nationalism is the form of nationalism in which the state derives its political legitimacy as an organic consequence of the unity of those it governs. This includes, depending on the manner of practice, the language, culture, religion. Such downward-radiating power might ultimately derive from a god or gods, among the key themes of Romanticism, and its most enduring legacy, the cultural assertions of romantic nationalism have been central in post-Enlightenment art and political philosophy. The ideas of Rousseau and of Johann Gottfried von Herder inspired much early Romantic nationalism in Europe, in 1784 Herder argued that geography formed the natural economy of a people, and that their customs and society would develop along the lines that their basic environment favored. The Brothers Grimm, inspired by Herders writings, put together a collection of tales. Because of the Germans role in the Protestant Reformation, Hegel argued that his historical moment had seen the Zeitgeist settle on the German-speaking peoples.
In continental Europe, Romantics had embraced the French Revolution in its beginnings, in Prussia, the development of spiritual renewal as a means to engage in the struggle against Napoleon was argued by, among others, Johann Gottlieb Fichte, a disciple of Kant. The word Volkstum, or folkhood, was coined in Germany as part of resistance to French hegemony. In the Balkans, Romantic views of a connection with classical Greece, verdis opera choruses of an oppressed people inspired two generations of patriots in Italy, especially with Va pensiero. In Norway, romanticism was embodied, not in literature, but in the movement toward a national style, following the Congress of Vienna, and subsequent Concert of Europe system, several major empires took control of European politics. Among these were the Russian Empire, the restored French monarchy, the German Confederation, under the dominance of Prussia, the Austrian Empire, the conservative forces held sway until the Revolutions of 1848 swept across Europe and threatened the old order.
Numerous movements developed around various cultural groups, who began to develop a sense of national identity, Romantic nationalists expected patriots to learn that language and raise their children speaking that language – as part of a general program to establish a unique identity. Katharevousa Greek was constructed as a form of Modern Greek drawing on classical Greek morphology, the linguistic processes of romantic nationalism demanded linguistic culture models. Romantic historiography was centered on biographies and produced culture heroes, the modern Italian of Risorgimento patriots like Alessandro Manzoni was based on the Tuscan dialects sanctified by Dante and Petrarch. In English, Shakespeare became an iconic figure, Romantic nationalism inspired the collection of folklore by such people as the Brothers Grimm. The Brothers Grimm were criticized because their first edition was insufficiently German and they altered the language used, changing each Fee to an enchantress or wise woman, every prince to a kings son, every princess to a kings daughter.
Discussing these views in their editions, they particularly singled out Giambattista Basiles Pentamerone as the first national collection of fairy tales. Among those influenced were the Russian Alexander Afanasyev, the Norwegians Peter Christen Asbjørnsen and Jørgen Moe, many artists and writers drew on their native countries folklore and folktunes for their own work to express their nationalism
Oulu is a city and municipality of 198,804 inhabitants in the region of Northern Ostrobothnia, Finland. It is the most populous city in Northern Finland and the fifth most populous city in the country, there are no larger cities that are more northerly than Oulu. It is considered one of Europes living labs, where residents experiment with new technology at a community-wide scale, the city is named after the river Oulujoki, which originates in the lake Oulujärvi. There have been a number of theories for the origin of the name Oulu. One possible source for the name Oulu is a word in the Sami language meaning flood water, at minimum, the structure of the word requires that, if originally given by speakers of a Uralic language, the name must be a derivative. In all likelihood, it predates Finnish settlement and is thus a loanword from one of the now-extinct Saami languages once spoken in the area. The most probable theory is that the name derives from the Finnish dialectal word oulu, meaning floodwater, two other word families have been speculated to be related.
The first is seen in the Northern Savo dialectal word uula and its Sami counterpart oalli, the second is the Uralic root reconstructed as *uwa, meaning river bed. To either of these roots, some Sami variety would have to be assumed having added further derivational suffixes, Oulu was founded on April 8,1605, by King Charles IX of Sweden, opposite the fort built on the island of Linnansaari. This took place after favourable peace settlements with Russia, which removed the threat of attack via the main east-west waterway, the surrounding areas were populated much earlier. Oulu is situated by the Gulf of Bothnia, at the mouth of river Oulujoki, Oulu was the capital of the Province of Oulu from 1776 to 2009. In 1822, a fire destroyed much of the city. The architect Carl Ludvig Engel, chiefly known for the buildings around Helsinki Senate Square, was enlisted to provide the plan for the rebuilding of the city. With minor changes, this remains the basis for the layout of Oulus town center. The Oulu Cathedral was built in 1832 to his designs, with the spire being finished in 1844, during the Crimean War, Oulus harbour was raided by the British fleet, destroying ships and burning tar houses, leading to international criticism.
Once known for wood tar and salmon, Oulu has evolved into a major centre, particularly in IT. Other prominent industries include wood refining, pharmaceuticals, the municipality of Ylikiiminki was merged with the city of Oulu on January 1,2009. Oulu and the municipalities of Haukipudas, Oulunsalo, Oulu is divided into 106 city districts
Saint Petersburg is Russias second-largest city after Moscow, with five million inhabitants in 2012, and an important Russian port on the Baltic Sea. It is politically incorporated as a federal subject, situated on the Neva River, at the head of the Gulf of Finland on the Baltic Sea, it was founded by Tsar Peter the Great on May 271703. In 1914, the name was changed from Saint Petersburg to Petrograd, in 1924 to Leningrad, between 1713 and 1728 and 1732–1918, Saint Petersburg was the capital of imperial Russia. In 1918, the government bodies moved to Moscow. Saint Petersburg is one of the cities of Russia, as well as its cultural capital. The Historic Centre of Saint Petersburg and Related Groups of Monuments constitute a UNESCO World Heritage Site, Saint Petersburg is home to The Hermitage, one of the largest art museums in the world. A large number of consulates, international corporations, banks. Swedish colonists built Nyenskans, a fortress, at the mouth of the Neva River in 1611, in a called Ingermanland.
A small town called Nyen grew up around it, Peter the Great was interested in seafaring and maritime affairs, and he intended to have Russia gain a seaport in order to be able to trade with other maritime nations. He needed a better seaport than Arkhangelsk, which was on the White Sea to the north, on May 1703121703, during the Great Northern War, Peter the Great captured Nyenskans, and soon replaced the fortress. On May 271703, closer to the estuary 5 km inland from the gulf), on Zayachy Island, he laid down the Peter and Paul Fortress, which became the first brick and stone building of the new city. The city was built by conscripted peasants from all over Russia, tens of thousands of serfs died building the city. Later, the city became the centre of the Saint Petersburg Governorate, Peter moved the capital from Moscow to Saint Petersburg in 1712,9 years before the Treaty of Nystad of 1721 ended the war, he referred to Saint Petersburg as the capital as early as 1704. During its first few years, the city developed around Trinity Square on the bank of the Neva, near the Peter.
However, Saint Petersburg soon started to be built out according to a plan, by 1716 the Swiss Italian Domenico Trezzini had elaborated a project whereby the city centre would be located on Vasilyevsky Island and shaped by a rectangular grid of canals. The project was not completed, but is evident in the layout of the streets, in 1716, Peter the Great appointed French Jean-Baptiste Alexandre Le Blond as the chief architect of Saint Petersburg. In 1724 the Academy of Sciences and Academic Gymnasium were established in Saint Petersburg by Peter the Great, in 1725, Peter died at the age of fifty-two. His endeavours to modernize Russia had met opposition from the Russian nobility—resulting in several attempts on his life
Suolahti was a former town and municipality of Finland. It is located next to Lake Keitele in the province of Western Finland and is part of the Central Finland region, Suolahti consolidated to Äänekoski together with Sumiainen in 2007. The first mentions of Suolahti are from the 16th century but the name became stable describing a population of 100-150 village residents in the end of the 19th century, the village before that was known as Paadentaipale. The opening of the railroad in 1898 industrialized Suolahti and increased the traffic on Keitele. The same year, a steam-mill started operating which was followed by other industrial facilities. This sped up population growth and urban development, in the first three decades of the 20th century, the population increased to two thousand. It gained town status in 1977, jack Smack and backing vocalist of the Finnish rock band Private Line