Verona is a city on the Adige river in Veneto, with 258,108 inhabitants. It is one of the seven provincial capitals of the region, it is the third largest in northeast Italy. The metropolitan area of Verona covers an area of 1,426 km2 and has a population of 714,274 inhabitants, it is one of the main tourist destinations in northern Italy, because of its artistic heritage and several annual fairs and operas, such as the lyrical season in the Arena, the ancient amphitheater built by the Romans. Two of William Shakespeare's plays are set in Verona: Romeo and Juliet and The Two Gentlemen of Verona, it is unknown if Shakespeare visited Verona or Italy, but his plays have lured many visitors to Verona and surrounding cities. The city has been declared a World Heritage Site by UNESCO because of its urban structure and architecture; the precise details of Verona's early history remain a mystery. One theory is. With the conquest of the Valley of the Po, the Veronese territory became Roman. Verona became a Roman colonia in 89 BC.
It was classified as a municipium in 49 BC, when its citizens were ascribed to the Roman tribe Poblilia or Publicia. The city became important. Stilicho defeated Alaric and his Visigoths here in 403. But, after Verona was conquered by the Ostrogoths in 489, the Gothic domination of Italy began. Theoderic the Great was said to have built a palace there, it remained under the power of the Goths throughout the Gothic War, except for a single day in 541, when the Byzantine officer Artabazes made an entrance. The defections that took place among the Byzantine generals with regard to the booty made it possible for the Goths to regain possession of the city. In 552 Valerian vainly endeavored to enter the city, but it was only when the Goths were overthrown that they surrendered it. In 569, it was taken by Alboin, King of the Lombards, in whose kingdom it was, in a sense, the second most important city. There, Alboin was killed by his wife in 572; the dukes of Treviso resided there. Adalgisus, son of Desiderius, in 774 made his last desperate resistance in Verona to Charlemagne, who had destroyed the Lombard kingdom.
Verona became the ordinary residence of the kings of Italy, the government of the city becoming hereditary in the family of Count Milo, progenitor of the counts of San Bonifacio. From 880 to 951 the two Berengarii resided there. Otto I ceded to Verona the marquisate dependent on the Duchy of Bavaria; when Ezzelino III da Romano was elected podestà in 1226, he converted the office into a permanent lordship. In 1257 he caused the slaughter of 11,000 Paduans on the plain of Verona. Upon his death, the Great Council elected Mastino I della Scala as podestà, he converted the "signoria" into a family possession, though leaving the burghers a share in the government. Failing to be re-elected podestà in 1262, he effected a coup d'état, was acclaimed capitano del popolo, with the command of the communal troops. Long internal discord took place before he succeeded in establishing this new office, to, attached the function of confirming the podestà. In 1277, Mastino della Scala was killed by the faction of the nobles.
The reign of his son Alberto as capitano was a time of incessant war against the counts of San Bonifacio, who were aided by the House of Este. Of his sons, Bartolomeo and Cangrande I, only the last shared the government. By war or treaty, he brought under his control the cities of Padua and Vicenza. At this time before the Black death the city was home to more than 40,000 people. Cangrande was succeeded by sons of Alboino. Mastino continued his uncle's policy, conquering Brescia in 1332 and carrying his power beyond the Po, he purchased Lucca. After the King of France, he was the richest prince of his time, but a powerful league was formed against him in 1337 – Florence, the Visconti, the Este, the Gonzaga. After a three years war, the Scaliger dominions were reduced to Vicenza. Mastino's son Cangrande II was a cruel and suspicious tyrant, he was killed by his brother Cansignorio, who beautified the city with palaces, provided it with aqueducts and bridges, founded the state treasury. He killed his other brother, Paolo Alboino.
Fratricide seems to have become a family custom, for Antonio, Cansignorio's natural brother, slew his brother Bartolomeo, thereby arousing the indignation of the people, who deserted him when Gian Galeazzo Visconti of Milan made war on him. Having exhausted all his resources, he fled from Verona at midnight, thus putting an end to the Scaliger domination, however, survived in its monuments; the year 1387 is the year of the famous Battle of Castagnaro, between Giovanni Ordelaffi, for Verona, John Hawkwood, for Padua, the winner. Antonio's son Canfrancesco attempted in vain to recover Verona. Guglielmo, natural son of Cangrande II, was more fortunate; the last representatives of the Scaligeri live
Moto Guzzi is an Italian motorcycle manufacturer and the oldest European manufacturer in continuous motorcycle production. Established in 1921 in Mandello del Lario, the company is noted for its historic role in Italy's motorcycling manufacture, its prominence worldwide in motorcycle racing, industry innovations—including the first motorcycle centre stand, wind tunnel and eight-cylinder engine. Since 2004, Moto Guzzi has been an unico azionista, a wholly owned subsidiary, one of seven brands owned by Piaggio & C. SpA, Europe's largest motorcycle manufacturer and the world's fourth largest motorcycle manufacturer by unit sales; the company's motorcycles are noted for their air-cooled 90° V-twin engines with a longitudinal crankshaft orientation where the engines' transverse cylinder heads project prominently on either side of the motorcycle. Similar to other storied motorcycle manufacturers that have survived for decades, Moto Guzzi has experienced a series of business cycles and a series of ownership arrangements—some complex, some brief, some that have endured.
Moto Guzzi was conceived by two aircraft pilots and their mechanic serving in the Corpo Aeronautico Militare during World War I: Carlo Guzzi, Giovanni Ravelli and Giorgio Parodi. Assigned to the same Miraglia Squadron based outside Venice, the three became close, despite coming from different socio-economic backgrounds; the trio envisioned creating a motorcycle company after the war. Guzzi would engineer the motor bikes, Parodi would finance the venture, Ravelli would promote the bikes with his racing prowess. Guzzi and Parodi formed Moto Guzzi in 1921. Ravelli had died just days after the war's end in an aircraft crash and is commemorated by the eagle's wings that form the Moto Guzzi logo. Carlo Guzzi and Giorgio Parodi, along with Giorgio's brother Angelo, created a held silent partnership "Società Anonima Moto Guzzi" on 15 March 1921, for the purpose of "the manufacture and the sale of motor cycles and any other activity in relation to or connected to metallurgical and mechanical industry".
The company was based in Genoa, with its headquarters in Mandello. The earliest motorcycles bore the name G. P. though the marque changed to Moto Guzzi. As the only actual shareholders, the Parodi's wanted to shield their shipping fortunes by avoiding confusion of name G. P. with Giorgio Parodi's initials. Carlo Guzzi received royalties for each motorcycle produced, holding no ownership in the company that bore his name. In 1946 Moto Guzzi formally incorporated as Moto Guzzi S.p. A. with Giorgio Parodi as chairman. Carlo Guzzi's first engine design was a horizontal single-cylinder engine that dominated the first 45 years of the company's history in various configurations. Through 1934, each engine bore the signature of the mechanic; as envisioned, the company used racing to promote the brand. In the 1935 Isle of Man TT, Moto Guzzi factory rider Stanley Woods performed an impressive double victory with wins in the Lightweight TT as well as the Senior TT; until the mid-1940s, the traditional horizontal four-stroke single-cylinder 500 cc engines were fitted with one overhead and one side valve but contrary to the usual practice of having inlet over exhaust, this employed the side valve for induction and the overhead valve for exhaust.
Unusual was the adoption of only one hairspring to close the exhaust valve. These were the highest performance engines. By contrast, the company supplied the official racing team and private racers with higher performance racing machines with varying overhead cam, multi-valve configurations and cylinder designs. In the 1950s, Moto Guzzi, along with the Italian factories of Gilera and Mondial, led the world of Grand Prix motorcycle racing. With durable and lightweight 250 cc and 350 cc bikes designed by Giulio Carcano, the firm dominated the middleweight classes; the factory won five consecutive 350 cc world championships between 1953 and 1957. In realizing that low weight alone might not continue to win races for the company, Carcano designed the V8 500 cc GP race bike—whose engine was to become one of the most complex engines of its time. Despite the bike's having led many races and posted the fastest lap time, it failed to complete races because of mechanical problems; the V8 was not developed further as Moto Guzzi withdrew from racing after the 1957 season citing escalating costs and diminishing motorcycle sales.
By the time of its pull out from Grand Prix racing, Moto Guzzi had won 3,329 official races, 8 World Championships, 6 Constructor's Championships and 11 Isle of Man TT victories. The period after World War II was as difficult in Mandello del Lario as it was elsewhere in post-war Europe; the solution was production of inexpensive, lighter cycles. The 1946 "Motoleggera", a 65 cc lightweight motorcycle became popular in post-war Italy. A four-stroke 175 cc scooter known as the "Galletto" sold well. Though modest cycles for the company, the lighter cycles continue to feature Guzzi's innovation and commitment to quality; the step-through Galletto featured a manual, foot-shifted three-speed configuration later a four-speed set-up by the end of 1952. The displacement was increased to 192 cc in 1954 and electric start was added in 1961. Moto Guzzi was limited in its endeavors to penetrate the important scooter market as motorcycle popularity waned after WWII. Italian scooter competitors would not tolerate
Ulster Grand Prix
The Ulster Grand Prix is a motorcycle race that takes place on the 7.3-mile Dundrod Circuit made up of closed-off public roads near Belfast, Northern Ireland. The first races took place in 1922 and in 1935 and 1948 the Fédération Internationale de Motocyclisme gave it the title Grand Prix d'Europe; the Ulster Grand Prix was included as one of the races in the inaugural 1949 Grand Prix motorcycle racing season, a place it held until 1971. It counted for the Formula TT Championship between 1979 and 1990. According to the race organisers, it is the fastest road race in the world. Thomas Moles, motorcycle enthusiast and Member of Parliament, helped to push through parliament the first Road Races Act, which made it legal for the Clady Course to be closed for the first Ulster Grand Prix on 14 October 1922; that first race had 75 entries in four classes. The race has been held on three different circuits; the 20.5-mile Old Clady circuit was used from 1922 until 1939 and included a notoriously bumpy 7-mile straight.
It ran across part of the grass runway at RAF Aldergrove and for the first two years of its existence the pits were on the Seven Mile Straight, by Loanends Primary School. In 1926 the 500cc race was won by Graham Walker on a Sunbeam, he won the 1928 Senior race on a Rudge. In the 1936 Lightweight event, Ginger Wood and Bob Foster, both on New Imperials, crossed the line so close, that after over 200 miles of racing, it took the judges an hour to decide that Wood was the winner by one-fifth of a second. Foster was, adjudged to have achieved the fastest lap; the 1939 Grand Prix was called off, but went ahead in spite of an entry of only 60 riders. After World War II the new Clady circuit was used that, due to road improvements, was now 16.5 miles in length and in use between 1947 and 1952. In 1953 the race was moved to the 7.401-mile Dundrod Circuit. The 1971 event was won by Australian Jack Findlay in what was the Ulster Grand Prix's last year as part of the FIM Grand Prix international motorcycle racing calendar.
Findlay's victory on a Suzuki was notable for marking the first 500cc class win for a motorcycle powered by a two stroke engine. The event was cancelled in 1972 because of the political situation in Northern Ireland, but it was held in 2001 during the Foot-and-mouth crisis though the North West 200 and Isle of Man TT were cancelled that year; the 2007 Grand Prix attracted an entry of 162 riders, including 38 new riders, took place on 18 August 2007, sponsored by The Belfast Telegraph. Bruce Anstey won the Superbike race at the Ulster Grand Prix in 2010, setting a new lap record of 133.977 mph, making him the fastest rider on the fastest motorcycle racing circuit in the world. Joey Dunlop won 24 Ulster Grand Prix races during his career, with Phillip McCallen winning 14 races, Bruce Anstey 12 and Brian Reid 9 wins; some of the famous riders include: Guy Martin Stanley Woods, Jimmie Guthrie, Jimmie Simpson, Artie Bell, Les Graham, Freddie Frith, Geoff Duke, John Surtees, Ray Amm, Carlo Ubbiali, Bill Lomas, Mike Hailwood, Giacomo Agostini, Phil Read, Bill Ivy, Bob McIntyre, Gary Hocking, Tom Herron, Ron Haslam, Jon Ekerold, more Mick Grant, Wayne Gardner, Steve Hislop, Robert Dunlop.
A pink background indicates a round, not part of the Grand Prix motorcycle racing championship. Footnotes Clady Circuit Dundrod Circuit North West 200 Grand Prix motorcycle racing List of Grand Prix motorcycle racing seasons List of Grand Prix motorcycle racing World Champions Ulster Grand Prix official website Ulster Grand Prix race history Ulster Grand Prix Supporters Club
Mondial (motorcycle manufacturer)
FB Mondial is a motorcycle manufacturer, founded in 1929, in Milan, Italy. They are best known for their domination of Motorcycle World Championships between 1949 and 1957; the firm produced some of the most advanced and successful Grand Prix road racers of the time, winning five rider and five manufacturer World Championships in that short period. FB Mondial was born under the impulse of the Boselli brothers Luigi, Carlo and Ada. FB stands for "Fratelli Boselli". Father of the entrepreneurial brothers was Giuseppe Boselli, a well-respected pilot and co-owner of GD, a legendary motorcycle company from Bologna. A workshop was opened for sales and service of G. D models, but within a few months, it soon became clear that there was a market demand for a cheap and robust motorbike. During his years as a competitive motorcyclist, Count Giuseppe Boselli had met Oreste Drusiani, a well-known engine builder and the pair struck a deal, it was in Oreste's farm in Bologna that FB established its first production site, dedicating itself to the construction of motorbikes.
After steady success in their early years, in 1943 FB decided to expand their production capability and buy modern machinery to increase production. They could not put their plan into practice, as on 24 July 1943, a heavy allied bombing struck the Bologna railway station and its surroundings, shaking the farm; the machinery survived, but was commandeered by the military to aid in the war effort, putting production on hold for the duration of the war. The collaboration between the Drusiani family and the Boselli family continued at the end of the war period, with the reconstruction of the building, thanks to the enormous economic resources of Boselli, who took over full control of the company. FB relaunched in 1948 as FB Mondial. Mondial found early racing success, winning their first of what would become five World Championships in only their second year of production. During a time when MV Agusta and Ducati produced economy lightweight two-stroke motorcycles and scooters, Mondial was more of a "boutique" manufacturer, specializing in high-performance, small-displacement motorcycles.
Much of the production of each motorcycle was done by hand, which kept output low, with production numbers ranging between 1,000 and 2,000 units per year. Mondial were able to continue this success for a number of years. In 1957, Soichiro Honda approached Mondial owner Count Boselli for purchase of a Mondial racebike, with which the firm had just won the 125 cc and 250 cc world titles. Count Boselli gave Mr. Honda a racing Mondial. An original Mondial 125 cc racebike is, still now, the first bike on display when entering Honda's Motegi Collection Hall. After the 1957 Grand Prix season, many major Italian motorcycle manufacturers including Gilera, Moto Guzzi, MV Agusta announced that they would pull out of Grand Prix competition citing increasing costs and diminishing sales. Mondial, despite their continued success, decide to join them; this marked the beginning of a decline in popularity and sales for the Italian company, in 1960, the last all-Mondial motorcycle left the factory. After this, Mondial continued for purchasing engines from proprietary makers.
In this hybrid form, motorcycles with Mondial frames and ancillary parts, but non-Mondial engines, were produced by the factory for the next 19 years. However, Mondial stopped production in their entirety in 1979, until their rebirth nearly twenty years later. In 1999, the rights to Mondial were purchased by newspaper tycoon Roberto Ziletti. Ziletti was an avid motorcyclist in his youth, his dream was to own a prestigious motorcycle company. Soon after purchasing the rights, Ziletti's father died. Mondial started producing superbikes again soon after. In 2000 Ziletti asked Honda to supply engines for the new Mondial from their race-winning RC51 superbikes. A deal was made because Mondial had supplied Soichiro Honda with that 1957 racebike; this was the first time Honda has allowed a firm to use its engines for their production vehicles. Mondial's difficulties occurred when Lastra acquired Mitsubishi Corp.'s worldwide graphic arts division, leaving Roberto Ziletti insufficient time to focus on Mondial.
He had spent more than 11 million Euros on the company, after failing to farm Mondial out to a Swiss company, the Arcore factory was placed in the hands of the Monza bankruptcy court in July 2004, with around 35 Mondial Piega 1000s in various states of completion. To place this in perspective, Lastra Group had a turnover exceeding 500 million Euros in 2004. In interviews in March 2005 a south Georgia motorcycle dealership, stated that the courts had arranged to sell Mondial to their American firm, Superbike Racing, on 28 February 2005, that they would continue the marque. However, the Monza courts sold Mondial Moto SPA to another buyer on 27 July 2005: Biemme, another motorcycle firm located in Meda and owned by Piero Caronni, renamed itself as GRUPPO MONDIAL S. R. L. and continues offering the Piega 1000s to the market. In 2014, friends Count Pierluigi Boselli, owner of the Mondial brand and descendant of the original founders, Cesare Galli, holder of Pelpi international Italy, started to lay the foundation of a project to revive the company, sketching out the first designs that would in time become the first motorcycle.
Cesare Galli was the Technical Director at Fantic Motor, t
In motorsport the pole position is the position at the inside of the front row at the start of a racing event. This position is given to the vehicle and driver with the best qualifying time in the trials before the race; this number-one qualifying driver is referred to as the pole sitter. Grid position is determined by a qualifying session prior to the race, where race participants compete to ascend to the number 1 grid slot, the driver, pilot, or rider having recorded fastest qualification time awarded the advantage of the number 1 grid slot ahead of all other vehicles for the start of the race; the fastest qualifier was not the designated pole-sitter. Different sanctioning bodies in motor sport employ different qualifying formats in designating who starts from pole position. A starting grid is derived either by current rank in the championship, or based on finishing position of a previous race. In important events where multiple qualification attempts spanned several days, the qualification result was segmented or staggered, by which session a driver qualified, or by which particular day a driver set his qualification time, only drivers having qualified on the initial day eligible for pole position.
In a phenomenon known as race rigging, where race promoters or sanctioning bodies invert their starting grid for the purpose of entertainment value, the slowest qualifier would be designated as pole-sitter. In contrast to contemporary motorsport, where only a race participant is designated pole-sitter, prior to World War II, the pace car was designated as official pole-sitter for the Indianapolis 500; the term has its origins in horse racing, in which the fastest qualifying horse would be placed on the inside part of the course, next to the pole. In Grand Prix racing, grid positions, including pole, were determined by lottery among the drivers. Prior to the inception of the Formula One World Championship, the first instance of grid positions being determined by qualifying times was at the 1933 Monaco Grand Prix. Since the FIA have introduced many different qualifying systems to Formula One. From the long-standing system of one session on each of Friday and Saturday, to the current knockout-style qualifying leaving 10 out of 20 drivers to battle for pole, there have been many changes to qualifying systems.
Between 1996 and 2006, the FIA made 6 significant changes to the qualifying procedure, each with the intention of making the battle for pole more interesting to viewers at home. Traditionally, pole was always occupied by the fastest driver due to low-fuel qualifying; the race-fuel qualifying era between 2003 and 2009 changed this. Despite the changing formats, drivers attempting pole were required between 2003 and 2009 to do qualifying laps with the fuel they would use to start the race the next day. An underfuelled slower car and driver would therefore be able to take pole ahead of a better but heavier-fueled car. In this situation, pole was not always advantageous to have in the race as the under-fueled driver would have to pit for more fuel before their rivals. With the race refueling ban introduced, low-fuel qualifying returned and these strategy decisions are no longer in play; when Formula One enforced the 107% rule between 1996 and 2002, a driver's pole time might affect slower cars posting times for qualifying, as cars that could not get within 107% of the pole time were not allowed start the race unless the stewards decided otherwise.
Since the reintroduction of the rule in 2011, this only applies to the quickest first session time, not the pole time. From 2014 to 2017, the FIA awarded a trophy to the driver who won the most pole positions in a season without sponsorship. From 2018, the FIA Pole Trophy has been renamed the Pirelli Pole Position Award, with the polesitter at each race winning a Pirelli wind tunnel tyre with the name of the polesitter and their time; the driver with the most pole positions at the end of the season wins a full-size engraved Formula 1 tyre. indicates that the driver won the World Championship in the same season. IndyCar uses four formats for qualifying: one for most oval tracks, one for Iowa Speedway, one for the Indianapolis 500, another for road and street circuits. Oval qualifying is like the Indianapolis 500, with two laps, instead of four, averaged together with one attempt, although with just one session. At Iowa, each car takes one qualifying lap, the top six cars advance to the feature race for the pole position.
Positions from 7th onward are assigned to their races, based on time, with cars in the odd-numbered finishing order starting in one race, cars in the even-numbered finishing order starting in the second race. The finishing order for the odd-numbered race starts on the inside, starting in Row 6, even-numbered race on the outside based on finishing position, again from Row 6, except for the top two in each race, which start in the inside and outside of the race for the pole position; the result of the feature race determines positions 1–10. All three races are 50 laps. On road and street courses, cars are drawn randomly into two qualifying groups. After each group has one twenty-minute session, the top six cars from each group qualify for a second session; the cars that finished seventh or worse are lined up by their times, with the best of these times starting 13th. The twelve remaining cars run a 15-minute session, after which the top six cars move on to a final 10-minute session to determine positions one through six on the grid.
The Iowa format was instituted in 2012 with major modifications (times set based on open qualifying session in second pract
Road racing is a form of motorsport racing held on a paved road surfaces. The races can be held either on a closed circuit or on a street circuit utilizing temporarily closed public roads. Road races were held entirely on public roads however, public safety concerns led to most races being held on purpose built racing circuits. Road racing's origins were centered in Western Europe and Great Britain as motor vehicles became more common in the early 20th century. After the Second World War, automobile road races were organized into a series called the Formula One world championship sanctioned by the Fédération Internationale de l'Automobile while, motorcycle road races were organized into the Grand Prix motorcycle racing series now called MotoGP and sanctioned by the Fédération Internationale de Motocyclisme; the success and popularity of road racing has seen the sport spread across the globe with Grand Prix road races having been held on six continents. Other variations of road racing include.
The first organized automobile race was held on July 1894 from Paris to Rouen, France. The first held in the United States was a 54-mile competition from Chicago to Evanston and return, held on November 27, 1895. By 1905, the Gordon Bennett Cup, organized by the Automobile Club de France, was considered the most important race in the world. In 1904, the Association Internationale des Automobiles Clubs Reconnus was formed by several European automobile clubs. In 1904 the FIM created the international cup for motorcycles; the first international motorcycle road race took place in 1905 at France. After disagreeing with Bennett Cup organizers over regulations limiting the number of entrants, the French automobile manufacturers responded in 1906 by organizing the first French Grand Prix race held at Le Mans; the first 24 Hours of Le Mans endurance race was held in 1923. The great majority of road races were run over a lengthy circuit of closed public roads, not purpose-built racing circuits; this was true of the Le Mans circuit of the 1906 French Grand Prix, as well as the Targa Florio, the 75 miles German Kaiserpreis circuit in the Taunus mountains, the 48 miles French circuit at Dieppe, used for the 1907 Grand Prix and, the Isle of Man TT motorcycle road circuit first used in 1907.
The exceptions were the steeply banked egg-shaped near oval circuit of Brooklands in England, completed in 1906, the Indianapolis Motor Speedway, the oval, banked speedways constructed in Europe at Monza in 1922 and at Montlhéray in 1924. Road racing on public roads was banned in Great Britain in 1925 when a spectator was injured at the Kop Hill Climb event; the Royal Automobile Club and the Auto-Cycle Union stopped issuing permits for races on public roads, a policy that has not changed to this day. Donington Park was the first permanent park circuit in the United Kingdom and held its first motorcycle race in 1931; as automobile and motorcycle technology improved, racers began to achieve higher speeds that caused an increasing number of accidents on roads not designed for motorized vehicles. Public safety concerns caused the number of road racing events on public roads in Europe to decrease over the years; the Mille Miglia was a notable exception, allowed to continue until 1957. After the First World War and motorcycle road racing competitions in Europe and in North America went in different directions.
Automobile racing in the United States was oval track racing on tracks such as the Indianapolis Motor Speedway and the Milwaukee Mile track while, pre-war American motorcycle racers raced on dirt tracks using available horse racing circuits. American racing branched out into stock car racing and drag racing. Road racing traditions in Europe, South America, Great Britain and the British Commonwealth nations grew around races held on paved, public roads such as the Circuit de la Sarthe circuit near the town of Le Mans, the Spa-Francorchamps Circuit in Belgium and the Mount Panorama Circuit in Australia. Certain European race circuits were situated in mountainous regions where the topography meant that the roads featured numerous curves and elevation changes, allowing the creation of sinuous and undulating race courses such as the Nurburgring in the Eifel mountains of Germany and the Circuit de Charade in the Chaîne des Puys in the Massif Central of France; these circuits presented such a challenge that they were both respected by racers.
The 20.8 km long Nurburgring with more than 300 metres of elevation change from its lowest to highest points, was nicknamed "The Green Hell" by Jackie Stewart, due to its challenging nature. The sinuous track layout of the Charade circuit caused some drivers like Jochen Rindt in the 1969 French Grand Prix to complain of motion sickness, wore open face helmets just in case. In 1949 the FIM introduced the Grand Prix motorcycle racing world championship with the 1949 Isle of Man TT being the inaugural event. With the exception of the Monza circuit, all the Grand Prix races were held on street circuits; the Association Internationale des Automobiles Clubs Reconnus was renamed the Fédération Internationale de l’Automobile in 1946 and, plans were developed for a road racing world championship. In 1950, the FIA created the Formula One world championship, a competition of seven rounds that included the Indianapolis 500. A Formula I manufacturers' championship was begun in 1955. Auto racing was temporarily banned in several countries after the 1955 Le Mans disaster.
The tragedy highlighted the need for improved safety standards for both drivers and
A motorcycle called a bike, motorbike, or cycle, is a two- or three-wheeled motor vehicle. Motorcycle design varies to suit a range of different purposes: long distance travel, cruising, sport including racing, off-road riding. Motorcycling is riding a motorcycle and related social activity such as joining a motorcycle club and attending motorcycle rallies. In 1894, Hildebrand & Wolfmüller became the first series production motorcycle, the first to be called a motorcycle. In 2014, the three top motorcycle producers globally by volume were Honda and Hero MotoCorp. In developing countries, motorcycles are considered utilitarian due to lower prices and greater fuel economy. Of all the motorcycles in the world, 58% are in the Asia-Pacific and Southern and Eastern Asia regions, excluding car-centric Japan. According to the US Department of Transportation the number of fatalities per vehicle mile traveled was 37 times higher for motorcycles than for cars; the term motorcycle has different legal definitions depending on jurisdiction.
There are three major types of motorcycle: street, off-road, dual purpose. Within these types, there are many sub-types of motorcycles for different purposes. There is a racing counterpart to each type, such as road racing and street bikes, or motocross and dirt bikes. Street bikes include cruisers, sportbikes and mopeds, many other types. Off-road motorcycles include many types designed for dirt-oriented racing classes such as motocross and are not street legal in most areas. Dual purpose machines like the dual-sport style are made to go off-road but include features to make them legal and comfortable on the street as well; each configuration offers either specialised advantage or broad capability, each design creates a different riding posture. In some countries the use of pillions is restricted; the first internal combustion, petroleum fueled. It was designed and built by the German inventors Gottlieb Daimler and Wilhelm Maybach in Bad Cannstatt, Germany in 1885; this vehicle was unlike either the safety bicycles or the boneshaker bicycles of the era in that it had zero degrees of steering axis angle and no fork offset, thus did not use the principles of bicycle and motorcycle dynamics developed nearly 70 years earlier.
Instead, it relied on two outrigger wheels to remain upright while turning. The inventors called their invention the Reitwagen, it was designed as an expedient testbed for their new engine, rather than a true prototype vehicle. The first commercial design for a self-propelled cycle was a three-wheel design called the Butler Petrol Cycle, conceived of Edward Butler in England in 1884, he exhibited his plans for the vehicle at the Stanley Cycle Show in London in 1884. The vehicle was built by the Merryweather Fire Engine company in Greenwich, in 1888; the Butler Petrol Cycle was a three-wheeled vehicle, with the rear wheel directly driven by a 5⁄8 hp, 40 cc displacement, 2 1⁄4 in × 5 in bore × stroke, flat twin four-stroke engine equipped with rotary valves and a float-fed carburettor and Ackermann steering, all of which were state of the art at the time. Starting was by compressed air; the engine was liquid-cooled, with a radiator over the rear driving wheel. Speed was controlled by means of a throttle valve lever.
No braking system was fitted. The driver was seated between the front wheels, it wasn't, however, a success, as Butler failed to find sufficient financial backing. Many authorities have excluded steam powered, electric motorcycles or diesel-powered two-wheelers from the definition of a'motorcycle', credit the Daimler Reitwagen as the world's first motorcycle. Given the rapid rise in use of electric motorcycles worldwide, defining only internal-combustion powered two-wheelers as'motorcycles' is problematic. If a two-wheeled vehicle with steam propulsion is considered a motorcycle the first motorcycles built seem to be the French Michaux-Perreaux steam velocipede which patent application was filled in December 1868, constructed around the same time as the American Roper steam velocipede, built by Sylvester H. Roper Roxbury, Massachusetts. Who demonstrated his machine at fairs and circuses in the eastern U. S. in 1867, Roper built about 10 steam cars and cycles from the 1860s until his death in 1896.
In 1894, Hildebrand & Wolfmüller became the first series production motorcycle, the first to be called a motorcycle. Excelsior Motor Company a bicycle manufacturing company based in Coventry, began production of their first motorcycle model in 1896; the first production motorcycle in the US was the Orient-Aster, built by Charles Metz in 1898 at his factory in Waltham, Massachusetts. In the early period of motorcycle history, many producers of bicycles adapted their designs to accommodate the new internal combustion engine; as the engines became more powerful and designs outgrew the bicycle origins, the number of motorcycle producers increased. Many of the nineteenth century inventors who worked on early motorcycles moved on to other inventions. Daimler and Roper, for example, both went on to develop automobiles. At the turn of the 19th century the first major mass-production firms were set up. In 1898, Triumph Motorcycles in England began producing motorbikes, by 1903 it was producing over 500 bikes.
Other British firms were Royal Enfield and Birmingham Small Arms Company who