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1. Geographic coordinate system – A geographic coordinate system is a coordinate system used in geography that enables every location on Earth to be specified by a set of numbers, letters or symbols. The coordinates are chosen such that one of the numbers represents a vertical position. A common choice of coordinates is latitude, longitude and elevation, to specify a location on a two-dimensional map requires a map projection. The invention of a coordinate system is generally credited to Eratosthenes of Cyrene. Ptolemy credited him with the adoption of longitude and latitude. Ptolemys 2nd-century Geography used the prime meridian but measured latitude from the equator instead. Mathematical cartography resumed in Europe following Maximus Planudes recovery of Ptolemys text a little before 1300, in 1884, the United States hosted the International Meridian Conference, attended by representatives from twenty-five nations. Twenty-two of them agreed to adopt the longitude of the Royal Observatory in Greenwich, the Dominican Republic voted against the motion, while France and Brazil abstained. France adopted Greenwich Mean Time in place of local determinations by the Paris Observatory in 1911, the latitude of a point on Earths surface is the angle between the equatorial plane and the straight line that passes through that point and through the center of the Earth. Lines joining points of the same latitude trace circles on the surface of Earth called parallels, as they are parallel to the equator, the north pole is 90° N, the south pole is 90° S. The 0° parallel of latitude is designated the equator, the plane of all geographic coordinate systems. The equator divides the globe into Northern and Southern Hemispheres, the longitude of a point on Earths surface is the angle east or west of a reference meridian to another meridian that passes through that point. All meridians are halves of great ellipses, which converge at the north and south poles, the prime meridian determines the proper Eastern and Western Hemispheres, although maps often divide these hemispheres further west in order to keep the Old World on a single side. The antipodal meridian of Greenwich is both 180°W and 180°E, the combination of these two components specifies the position of any location on the surface of Earth, without consideration of altitude or depth. The grid formed by lines of latitude and longitude is known as a graticule, the origin/zero point of this system is located in the Gulf of Guinea about 625 km south of Tema, Ghana. To completely specify a location of a feature on, in, or above Earth. Earth is not a sphere, but a shape approximating a biaxial ellipsoid. It is nearly spherical, but has an equatorial bulge making the radius at the equator about 0. 3% larger than the radius measured through the poles, the shorter axis approximately coincides with the axis of rotation

2. United States – Forty-eight of the fifty states and the federal district are contiguous and located in North America between Canada and Mexico. The state of Alaska is in the northwest corner of North America, bordered by Canada to the east, the state of Hawaii is an archipelago in the mid-Pacific Ocean. The U. S. territories are scattered about the Pacific Ocean, the geography, climate and wildlife of the country are extremely diverse. At 3.8 million square miles and with over 324 million people, the United States is the worlds third- or fourth-largest country by area, third-largest by land area. It is one of the worlds most ethnically diverse and multicultural nations, paleo-Indians migrated from Asia to the North American mainland at least 15,000 years ago. European colonization began in the 16th century, the United States emerged from 13 British colonies along the East Coast. Numerous disputes between Great Britain and the following the Seven Years War led to the American Revolution. On July 4,1776, during the course of the American Revolutionary War, the war ended in 1783 with recognition of the independence of the United States by Great Britain, representing the first successful war of independence against a European power. The current constitution was adopted in 1788, after the Articles of Confederation, the first ten amendments, collectively named the Bill of Rights, were ratified in 1791 and designed to guarantee many fundamental civil liberties. During the second half of the 19th century, the American Civil War led to the end of slavery in the country. By the end of century, the United States extended into the Pacific Ocean. The Spanish–American War and World War I confirmed the status as a global military power. The end of the Cold War and the dissolution of the Soviet Union in 1991 left the United States as the sole superpower. The U. S. is a member of the United Nations, World Bank, International Monetary Fund, Organization of American States. The United States is a developed country, with the worlds largest economy by nominal GDP. It ranks highly in several measures of performance, including average wage, human development, per capita GDP. While the U. S. economy is considered post-industrial, characterized by the dominance of services and knowledge economy, the United States is a prominent political and cultural force internationally, and a leader in scientific research and technological innovations. In 1507, the German cartographer Martin Waldseemüller produced a map on which he named the lands of the Western Hemisphere America after the Italian explorer and cartographer Amerigo Vespucci

3. Pittsburgh – Pittsburgh is a city in the Commonwealth of Pennsylvania in the United States, and is the county seat of Allegheny County. The city proper has a population of 304,391. The metropolitan population of 2,353,045 is the largest in both the Ohio Valley and Appalachia, the second-largest in Pennsylvania, and the 26th-largest in the U. S. The city features 30 skyscrapers, two inclines, a fortification and the Point State Park at the confluence of the rivers. Aside from steel, Pittsburgh has led in manufacturing of aluminum, glass, shipbuilding, petroleum, foods, sports, transportation, computing, autos, and electronics. For part of the 20th century, Pittsburgh was behind only New York and Chicago in corporate headquarters employment, Americas 1980s deindustrialization laid off area blue-collar workers and thousands of downtown white-collar workers when the longtime Pittsburgh-based world headquarters moved out. The area has served also as the federal agency headquarters for cyber defense, software engineering, robotics, energy research. The area is home to 68 colleges and universities, including research and development leaders Carnegie Mellon University, the region is a hub for Leadership in Energy and Environmental Design, sustainable energy, and energy extraction. Pittsburgh was named in 1758 by General John Forbes, in honor of British statesman William Pitt, 1st Earl of Chatham. The current pronunciation, which is unusual in English speaking countries, is almost certainly a result of a printing error in some copies of the City Charter of March 18,1816. The error was repeated commonly enough throughout the rest of the 19th century that the pronunciation was lost. After a public campaign the original spelling was restored by the United States Board on Geographic Names in 1911. The area of the Ohio headwaters was long inhabited by the Shawnee, the first known European to enter the region was the French explorer/trader Robert de La Salle from Quebec during his 1669 expedition down the Ohio River. European pioneers, primarily Dutch, followed in the early 18th century, Michael Bezallion was the first to describe the forks of the Ohio in a 1717 manuscript, and later that year European fur traders established area posts and settlements. In 1749, French soldiers from Quebec launched an expedition to the forks to unite Canada with French Louisiana via the rivers, during 1753–54, the British hastily built Fort Prince George before a larger French force drove them off. The French built Fort Duquesne based on LaSalles 1669 claims, the French and Indian War, the North American front of the Seven Years War, began with the future Pittsburgh as its center. British General Edward Braddock was dispatched with Major George Washington as his aide to take Fort Duquesne, the British and colonial force were defeated at Braddocks Field. General John Forbes finally took the forks in 1758, Forbes began construction on Fort Pitt, named after William Pitt the Elder while the settlement was named Pittsborough

4. Pennsylvania – Pennsylvania /ˌpɛnsᵻlˈveɪnjə/, officially the Commonwealth of Pennsylvania, is a state located in the northeastern and Mid-Atlantic regions of the United States. The Appalachian Mountains run through its middle, Pennsylvania is the 33rd largest, the 5th most populous, and the 9th most densely populated of the 50 United States. The states five most populous cities are Philadelphia, Pittsburgh, Allentown, Erie, the state capital, and its ninth-largest city, is Harrisburg. Pennsylvania has 140 miles of shoreline along Lake Erie and the Delaware Estuary. The state is one of the 13 original founding states of the United States, it came into being in 1681 as a result of a land grant to William Penn. Part of Pennsylvania, together with the present State of Delaware, had earlier been organized as the Colony of New Sweden and it was the second state to ratify the United States Constitution, on December 12,1787. Independence Hall, where the United States Declaration of Independence and United States Constitution were drafted, is located in the states largest city of Philadelphia, during the American Civil War, the Battle of Gettysburg, was fought in the south central region of the state. Valley Forge near Philadelphia was General Washingtons headquarters during the winter of 1777–78. Pennsylvania is 170 miles north to south and 283 miles east to west, of a total 46,055 square miles,44,817 square miles are land,490 square miles are inland waters, and 749 square miles are waters in Lake Erie. It is the 33rd largest state in the United States, Pennsylvania has 51 miles of coastline along Lake Erie and 57 miles of shoreline along the Delaware Estuary. Cities include Philadelphia, Reading, Lebanon and Lancaster in the southeast, Pittsburgh in the southwest, the tri-cities of Allentown, Bethlehem, the northeast includes the former anthracite coal mining communities of Scranton, Wilkes-Barre, Pittston City, and Hazleton. Erie is located in the northwest, the state has 5 regions, namely the Allegheny Plateau, Ridge and Valley, Atlantic Coastal Plain, Piedmont, and the Erie Plain. Straddling two major zones, the majority of the state, with the exception of the corner, has a humid continental climate. The largest city, Philadelphia, has characteristics of the humid subtropical climate that covers much of Delaware. Moving toward the interior of the state, the winter climate becomes colder, the number of cloudy days increase. Western areas of the state, particularly locations near Lake Erie, can receive over 100 inches of snowfall annually, the state may be subject to severe weather from spring through summer into fall. Tornadoes occur annually in the state, sometimes in large numbers, the Tuscarora Nation took up temporary residence in the central portion of Pennsylvania ca. Both the Dutch and the English claimed both sides of the Delaware River as part of their lands in America

5. Eastern Time Zone – Places that use Eastern Standard Time when observing standard time are 5 hours behind Coordinated Universal Time. Eastern Daylight Time, when observing daylight saving time DST is 4 hours behind Coordinated Universal Time, in the northern parts of the time zone, on the second Sunday in March, at 2,00 a. m. EST, clocks are advanced to 3,00 a. m. EDT leaving a one-hour gap, on the first Sunday in November, at 2,00 a. m. EDT, clocks are moved back to 1,00 a. m, southern parts of the zone do not observe daylight saving time. The Uniform Time Act of 1966 ruled that daylight saving time would run from the last Sunday of April until the last Sunday in October in the United States, the act was amended to make the first Sunday in April the beginning of daylight saving time as of 1987. The Energy Policy Act of 2005 extended daylight saving time in the United States beginning in 2007. So local times change at 2,00 a. m. EST to 3,00 a. m. EDT on the second Sunday in March, in Canada, the time changes as it does in the United States. However, a handful of communities unofficially observe Eastern Time because they are part of the Columbus, Georgia metropolitan area – Phenix City, Smiths Station, Lanett, and Valley. Florida, All of Florida is in the Eastern Time zone except for the portion of the Florida Panhandle west of the Apalachicola River, as the Eastern–Central zone boundary approaches the Gulf of Mexico, it follows the Bay/Gulf county line. Indiana, All of Indiana observes Eastern Time except for six counties in the Chicago metropolitan area. Kentucky, Roughly, the half of the state, including all of metropolitan Louisville, is in the Eastern Time Zone. Historically the entire state observed Central Time, when daylight saving time was first introduced, the Lower Peninsula remained on DST after it formally ended, effectively re-aligning itself into the Eastern Time Zone. The Upper Peninsula continued to observe Central Time until 1972, when all, Tennessee, Most of the eastern third of Tennessee is legally on Eastern Time. Eastern Time is also used somewhat as a de facto official time for all of the United States, since it includes the capital and the largest city. Major professional sports leagues also post all game times in Eastern time, for example, a game time between two teams from Pacific Time Zone will still be posted in Eastern time. Most cable television and national broadcast networks advertise airing times in Eastern time, national broadcast networks generally have two primary feeds, an eastern feed for Eastern and Central time zones, and a tape-delayed western feed for the Pacific Time Zone. The prime time is set on Eastern and Pacific at 8,00 p. m. with the Central time zone stations receiving the eastern feed at 7,00 p. m. local time. Mountain Time Zone stations receive a separate feed at 7,00 p. m. local time, as Arizona does not observe daylight saving time, during the summer months, it has its own feed at 7,00 p. m. local time

6. UTC-5 – UTC−05,00 is a time offset that subtracts five hours from Coordinated Universal Time. In North America, it is observed in the Eastern Time Zone during standard time, the western Caribbean uses it year round. The southwestern and northwestern portions of Indiana Mexico – Central Zone Central, in most of Mexico, daylight time starts a few weeks after the United States. Communities on the U. S. border that observe Central Time follow the U. S. daylight time schedule

7. Dirt track racing – Dirt track racing is a type of auto racing performed on clay or dirt surfaced oval tracks. It began in the United States before World War I and became widespread during the 1920s and 1930s, two different types of race cars dominated—open wheel racers in the Northeast and West and stock cars in the South. While open wheel cars are purpose-built racing vehicles, stock cars can be either purpose-built race cars or street vehicles that have been modified to varying degrees. Dirt track racing is the single most common form of racing in the United States. There are hundreds of local and regional racetracks throughout the nation, the sport is also popular in Australia, New Zealand, Canada, and the United Kingdom. The track surface may be composed of any soil, but most racers prefer a track with a clay base, the curation of a racetrack is a long and complex job and require hours of work. Typically the machines for track curation include a grader, cultivator, typically the track is graded and dug up after the racing is finished and then it is watered with a water truck. It may be broken down with a cultivator or rolled. These steps are repeated many times necessary and do vary according to climate, location. Nearly all tracks are oval and less than 1-mile in length with most being ½ mile or less, the most common increments in the U. S. are ½ mile, ⅜ mile, ⅓ mile, ¼ mile, and ⅛ mile. With the longer tracks, the cars achieve higher speeds up to 160mph. This decreases the chance of crashes but increases the damage and chance of injury when cars do crash, the track surface may be composed of any soil, but most racers prefer a track with a clay base. In Great Britain the oval tracks are normally on grass with lengths of 400 meters to 800 meters, the race consists of several four lap qualifying heats that eliminate slower drivers. Then there is a race featuring the fastest competitors. Grass track racing is much a family sport, suitable for all ages and abilities. Boys and girls as young as six can compete on automatic machines, in mainland Europe, long tracks can be grass, sand or cinder, and can be up to 1-kilometer long. Dirt track racing in Australia has a history dating back to the 1920s and 1930s, most oval track speedways are similar to those in the USA for cars racing such as Sprintcars, Speedcars and sedans, with most tracks generally around ¼ mile to ⅓ mile in length. Most tracks have a surface, though some use dolomite, dolomite and clay mix or even sand

8. Brunot Island – Brunot Island is a 129-acre island in the Ohio River at the west end of Pittsburgh in Allegheny County, Pennsylvania in the United States. It was named for Dr. Felix Brunot who settled the island with his family in the late 1700s. The family entertained the Lewis and Clark expedition on the island in August 1803, the island is home to the Brunot Island Generating Station, a 315 MW fossil fuel power plant. The Ohio Connecting Railroad Bridge crosses the Ohio River at the island, the island does not otherwise connect to the land, and all vehicular traffic must use a ferry to access the island. The employees of the plant use a pedestrian walkway on the railroad bridge to go to work. The walkway is not accessible to the public, from 1903 to 1914, the island was the home of Brunots Island Race Track

9. Louis Chevrolet – In 1886, Chevrolets family left Switzerland to live in Beaune, in the Côte-dOr département of France. There, as a man, Louis developed his mechanical skills. Chevrolet worked for the Roblin mechanics shop from 1895 to 1899 and he then went to Paris, where he worked for a short time before emigrating to Montreal, Quebec, Canada in 1900 to work as a mechanic. In 1905 he married Suzanne Treyvoux, the couple had two sons, in the same year, he was hired by FIAT as a racing car driver. In 1907, Chevrolet was hired by The Autocar Company in Philadelphia and his racing career continued as he drove for Buick, becoming a friend and associate of Buick owner William C. He raced at the Giants Despair Hillclimb in 1909, with little in the way of formal education, Chevrolet learned car design while working for Buick and started designing his own engine for a new car in 1909. He built an overhead valve engine in his own machine shop on Grand River Boulevard in Detroit. The company was established in Detroit, one story tells the choosing of the companys logo as a modified Swiss cross, to honor Chevrolets homeland. Another story tells of the Chevrolet logo as a design taken from the wallpaper of a Paris hotel room where Louis once stayed. Chevrolet had differences with Durant over the design, and in 1915 sold Durant his share in the company. In 1916, Louis Chevrolet and his brothers founded the Frontenac Motor Corporation to make racing parts for Ford Model Ts, also in 1916, an American Motors Corporation was formed in Newark, New Jersey, with Louis Chevrolet as vice president and chief engineer. By 1918 it was producing cars in a plant at Plainfield, the latter company apparently ceased soon after. By the mid-1910s, Louis Chevrolet had shifted into the car industry. Blood of Allegan, Michigan, to create the Cornelian racing car, in 1916, he and younger brothers Gaston and Arthur Chevrolet started Frontenac Motor Corporation, designing and producing a line of racing cars. They became well known for, among other things, their Fronty-Ford racers, Louis drove in the Indianapolis 500 four times, with a best finish of 7th in 1919. Both Louis and Gaston competed successfully with racing Sunbeams achieving a number of places in 1916. Arthur competed twice, and Gaston won the race in 1920 in one of their Frontenacs and he also raced for the Buick racing team. Chevrolet died on June 6,1941, in Detroit as a result of complications from a leg operation which led to its amputation and he is buried in the Holy Cross and Saint Joseph Cemetery in Indianapolis, Indiana

10. Fossil fuel power station – A fossil fuel power station is a power station which burns fossil fuel such as coal, natural gas, or petroleum to produce electricity. Central station fossil fuel power plants are designed on a scale for continuous operation. In many countries, such plants provide most of the energy used. Fossil fuel power stations have machinery to convert the energy of combustion into mechanical energy. The prime mover may be a steam turbine, a gas turbine or, in small plants, all plants use the energy extracted from expanding gas, either steam or combustion gases. Very few MHD generators have been built which directly convert the energy of moving hot gas into electricity, by products of thermal power plant operation must be considered in their design and operation. The flue gas from combustion of the fuels is discharged to the air. This gas contains carbon dioxide and water vapor, as well as other such as nitrogen oxides, sulfur oxides, mercury, traces of other metals. Solid waste ash from coal-fired boilers must also be removed, some coal ash can be recycled for building materials. Fossil fueled power stations are major emitters of carbon dioxide, a gas which according to a consensus opinion of scientific organisations is a contributor to global warming. S. From a single coal-fired power plant, however, as of 2015, no such cases have awarded damages in the U. S. Per unit of energy, brown coal emits nearly two times as much CO2 as natural gas, and black coal emits somewhat less than brown. Carbon capture and storage of emissions is not currently available, each fossil fuel power plant is a complex, custom-designed system. Construction costs, as of 2004, run to US\$1,300 per kilowatt, multiple generating units may be built at a single site for more efficient use of land, natural resources and labor. Most thermal power stations in the world use fossil fuel, outnumbering nuclear, geothermal, biomass, the second law of thermodynamics states that any closed-loop cycle can only convert a fraction of the heat produced during combustion into mechanical work. The rest of the heat, called heat, must be released into a cooler environment during the return portion of the cycle. The fraction of heat released into a cooler medium must be equal or larger than the ratio of temperatures of the cooling system. Raising the furnace temperature improves the efficiency but complicates the design, primarily by the selection of used for construction

11. History of Pittsburgh – The history of Pittsburgh began with centuries of Native American civilization in the modern Pittsburgh region, known as Dionde, gâ in the Seneca language. Eventually French and British explorers encountered the strategic confluence where the Allegheny and Monongahela Rivers meet to form the Ohio, the area became a battleground when France and Britain fought for control in the 1750s. When the British were victorious, the French ceded control of territories east of the Mississippi, following American independence in 1783, the village around Fort Pitt continued to grow. The region saw the short-lived Whiskey Rebellion, when farmers rebelled against federal taxes on whiskey, the War of 1812 cut off the supply of British goods, stimulating American manufacture. By 1815, Pittsburgh was producing large quantities of iron, brass, tin, by the 1840s, Pittsburgh had grown to one of the largest cities west of the Allegheny Mountains. Production of steel began in 1875, during the 1877 railway riots it was the site of the most violence and damage in any city affected by the nationwide strikes of that summer. Workers protested against cuts in wages, burning buildings at the railyards, including 100 train engines. Forty men were killed, most of them strikers, by 1911, Pittsburgh was producing half the nations steel. Pittsburgh was a Republican party stronghold until 1932, in World War II, it was the center of the Arsenal of Democracy, producing munitions for the Allied war effort as prosperity returned. Following World War II, Pittsburgh launched an air and civic revitalization project known as the Renaissance. The industrial base continued to expand through the 1960s, but after 1970 foreign competition led to the collapse of the industry, with massive layoffs. Top corporate headquarters moved out in the 1980s, in 2007 the city lost its status as a major transportation hub. The population of the Pittsburgh metropolitan area is holding steady at 2.4 million, 65% of its residents are of European descent, for thousands of years, Native Americans inhabited the region where the Allegheny and the Monongahela join to form the Ohio. Paleo-Indians conducted a hunter-gatherer lifestyle in the region perhaps as early as 19,000 years ago, meadowcroft Rockshelter, an archaeological site west of Pittsburgh, provides evidence that these first Americans lived in the region from that date. During the Adena culture that followed, Mound Builders erected a large Indian Mound at the site of McKees Rocks. The Indian Mound, a site, was augmented in later years by members of the Hopewell culture. By 1700 the Iroquois Confederacy, the Five Nations-based south of the Great Lakes in present-day New York, held dominion over the upper Ohio valley, reserving it for hunting grounds. Other tribes included the Lenape, who had displaced from eastern Pennsylvania by European settlement, and the Shawnee

12. Timeline of Pittsburgh – The following is a timeline of the history of the city of Pittsburgh, Pennsylvania, US. 1742 John Fraser is given what will become Braddocks Field,1754 January, Construction on Fort Prince George is started April, Fort Duquesne established by French. April 18, Fort Prince George is surrendered,1755 July 9, French and Indian forces defeat the British Army. 1758 September 14, The Battle of Fort Duquesne takes place November 25, British take Fort Duquesne,1763 June 22, Siege of Fort Pitt begins August 20, Siege of Fort Pitt ends 1764 The Fort Pitt Blockhouse is completed. Allegheny County Sheriffs Office is established September 17, Treaty of Fort Pitt is signed,1792 Fort Pitt is abandoned by the U. S. Army. 1793 September 12, The Pittsburgh Bureau of Fire is established,1794 The Pittsburgh Night Watchmen, the predecessor to the Pittsburgh Police Department is established. August 1, Rebellious militiamen and farmers march on the city during the Whiskey Rebellion 1797 August 3,1798 Gilkison Bookstore and Circulating Library in business. 1803 Fort Lafayette serves as a base for the Lewis. 1811 Pittsburgh Engine Company in business,1812 Fort Lafayette serves as a supply base for Commodore Oliver Hazard Perry. 1813 Pittsburgh Humane Society and Chemical and Physiological Society established,1828 City water pumping system put into effect for the Allegheny River. 1829 City wards created, East, North, South, West,1838 Pittsburg Institute of Arts and Sciences incorporated. 1840 Pittsburgh and Beaver Canal opens,1841 Courthouse built on Grant Street. State Convention of Colored Freemen held in city,1842 Sitdown strike by iron workers. 1843 Roman Catholic Diocese of Pittsburgh established, delanys The Mystery newspaper begins publication. 1846 Uptown becomes part of city,1847 Young Mens Mercantile Library & Mechanics Institute established. The Catholic Sisters of Mercy establish Mercy Hospital, the first hospital in Pittsburgh 1849 St. Mary Cemetery established, manufacture of Kiers Rock Oil begins. 1851 Duffs Mercantile College and German Library Association established,1852 Pennsylvania Central Railroad begins operating. 1856 February, An informal National Republican convention is held in the city,1857 The Pittsburgh Police Department is established

13. Culture of Pittsburgh – The Culture of Pittsburgh stems from the citys long history as a center for cultural philanthropy, as well as its rich ethnic traditions. The Frank Lloyd Wright masterpiece Fallingwater is about an hours drive from Downtown Pittsburgh, the North Shore has an 1895 neogothic church, Calvary Methodist, with an interior designed by Louis Comfort Tiffany. The churchs stained glass windows are some of the largest and most elaborate work Tiffany ever created, the Allegheny County Courthouse, designed by H. H. Richardson, is a unique and influential building. At 42 stories, the University of Pittsburghs Cathedral of Learning is the second tallest collegiate building in the world, the tallest skyscraper in Pittsburgh is the triangular U. S. Steel Tower. Both Heinz Field and PNC Park are designed to give fans a view of the city skyline, the region has hosted over 1,000 film and television works since the first production filmed in the city in 1898. Since 1990 the Pittsburgh Film Office has marketed the greater southwestern Pennsylvania region as a location for movie, television. The PFO has assisted more than 102 feature films and television productions to southwestern Pennsylvania to generate an impact of more than \$575 million for the region. Pittsburgh Filmmakers teaches media arts and runs three arthouse movie theaters and since 1981 the Three Rivers Film Festival has brought attention to local talent. The Pittsburgh Playhouse at Point Park University has four resident theatre companies, the Pittsburgh New Works Festival utilizes local theatre companies to stage productions of original one-act plays by playwrights from all parts of the country. Similarly, Future Ten showcases new ten-minute plays, saint Vincent Summer Theatre, Off the Wall Productions, Mountain Playhouse, and Stage Right. In nearby Latrobe, Carnegie, Jennerstown, and Greensburg, respectively, employ Pittsburgh actors, August Wilson, one of the best known playwrights of his generation, was a Pittsburgh native. The majority of his plays are set in the city as well including the two that he won the Pulitzer Prize for Drama for, friday Nite Improvs, an improv show at the University of Pittsburghs Cathedral of Learning, is Pittsburghs longest-running theatre show. It has produced a number of writers and actors. Since 1991 the Gene Kelly Awards have honored students in drama in the region, traditional Pittsburgh foods reflect the citys multicultural heritage, especially that of the European immigrants of the early 20th century. While these immigrant populations introduced dishes such as pierogis to the city, other Pittsburgh food specialties were developed in the city. In general, these dishes are popular because for many years, they satisfied the hearty appetite of the archetypal Pittsburgher. Essies Original Hot Dog shop - an Oakland staple since 1960, halušky – noodles with fried cabbage, or cottage cheese. Iron City Beer – native brew, with a shot of whiskey, a boilermaker, with a shot of Imperial, italian sausage – with grilled peppers and onions

14. Western Pennsylvania English – Speakers with the strongest accent of this dialect, associated with the white working class of Pittsburgh, have been historically called Yinzers. Scots-Irish, Pennsylvania German, and Slavic-speaking immigrants to the area all provided certain loanwords to the dialect, since the time of Kuraths study, one of western Pennsylvanias defining features, the cot–caught merger, has expanded into central Pennsylvania, moving eastward until being blocked at Harrisburg. Speakers of Pittsburgh English are sometimes called Yinzers, in reference to their use of the 2nd-person plural pronoun yinz, the word yinzer is sometimes heard as pejorative, indicating a lack of sophistication, although the term is now used in a variety of ways. Older men are likely to use the accent than women. possibly because of a stronger interest in displaying local identity. A defining feature of Western Pennsylvania English is the cot–caught merger, therefore, cot and caught are both pronounced, Don and dawn are both. The /oʊ/ sound as in oh begins more fronted in the mouth, similarly, /uː/ as in food and rude is fronted, and often diphthongized, as in much of the American South, Midland, and West. The diphthong /aʊ/, as in ow, is monophthongized to in environments, including before nasal consonants. This monophthongization does not occur, however, in word-final positions and this sound may be the result of contact from Slavic languages during the early twentieth century. Monopthongization also occurs for the sound /aɪ/, as in eye, before consonants, so that tile is pronounced, pile is pronounced. Due to this phenomenon, tire may merge with the sound of tar, an epenthetic /r/ sound may occur after vowels in a small number of words, such as in water pronounced like warter, and wash like warsh. A number of vowel mergers occur uniquely in Western Pennsylvania English before the consonant /l/, the pair of vowels /iː/ and /ɪ/ may each merge before the /l/ consonant, cause both steel and still to be pronounced as something like. Similarly, /u/, /oʊ/, and /ʊ/ may merge before /l/, so that pool, pull, the /iː/~/ɪ/ merger is found in western Pennsylvania, as well as parts of the southern United States, including Alabama, Texas and the west. On the other hand, the merger is consistently found only in western Pennsylvania. The /iː/~/ɪ/ merger towards may also appear before /ɡ/, the vowel /ʌ/ before /l/, may lower into the vowel of the cot–caught merger mentioned above, so that mull can sound identical to mall/maul. L-vocalization is also common in the Western Pennsylvania dialect, in which an /l/ sounds like a /w/, an example is that well is pronounced as, milk as or, role as, and cold as. This phenomenon is common in African American Vernacular English. All adj. all gone Further explanation, When referring to consumable products, for example, the phrase the butters all would be understood as the butter is all gone. Babushka n. headscarf Further explanation, In Russian, Slovak, and many other Slavic languages, in Pittsburgh English, the word also denotes a type of headscarf that might be worn by an old woman

15. Media in Pittsburgh – The Pitt News, a financially independent student-written and -managed newspaper of the University of Pittsburgh, is closing in on its 100th year of publication. The University of Pittsburgh School of Law also hosts JURIST, the worlds only university-based legal news service, Outdoor advertising in the area is handled by Lamar Outdoor, who controls a majority of large posters and billboards and bus shelters and shopping centers in the area. It has recently gained distinction as one of the most competitive, the market is served by, Pittsburgh radio has long been dominated by KDKA1020 AM. However, as of early 2006 the station is no longer No.1 in the ratings, KQV1410 AM, now an all-news outlet, was Pittsburghs dominant Top 40 station throughout the 1960s. On the FM dial, album-rock WDVE, modern rock WXDX, adult contemporary WBZZ, pop and hip-hop WKST-FM, the Radio Information Service, broadcasting on a subcarrier of WESA provides special programming for the blind and print impaired. Additionally, Pittsburgh hosts the radio stations WRCT and WPTS. In 2010, Nielsen will continue to rank Pittsburgh as the 23rd largest television Designated Market Area in the country and that is a drop from Nielsens 2009 estimate of 1,156,460. Despite the decline in households, Pittsburgh still has 22,090 more households than the next closest television DMA which is Charlotte, NC. In 2004 Pittsburgh was the 24th largest DMA in the U. S. as ranked by population, Pittsburghs DMA covers a land area of 10,083 square miles in three states. The Pittsburgh DMA includes the counties, Pennsylvania counties, West Virginia counties, Monongalia Preston Maryland counties, Garrett Pittsburgh

16. Government of Pittsburgh – The Government of Pittsburgh is composed of the Mayor, the City Council, and various boards and commissions. Most of these offices are housed within the Pittsburgh City-County Building, the Mayor of Pittsburgh is elected every 4 years. The current mayor is Bill Peduto, since the 1950s the Mayors Chief of Staff has assumed a large role in advising, long term planning and as a gatekeeper to the mayor. The Pittsburgh City Council is a city council. City council members are chosen by plurality elections in each of nine districts, the mayor appoints the position of Pittsburgh Police Chief. The city and its residents are served by the elected four-year term Allegheny County Sheriff. Pittsburgh finances are subject to the Pittsburgh Intergovernmental Cooperation Authority, the citys state-appointed financial oversight body, many governmental functions are carried out by boards, authorities and commissions

17. Allegheny County Airport Authority – Allegheny County Airport Authority is a Municipal Authority in Allegheny County, Pennsylvania that oversees and maintains the Allegheny County airport system. These include management of Pittsburgh International Airport as well as Allegheny County Airport, the Authority is also a key lobbying and public interest agency often representing the local aviation industry and related industry interests in Harrisburg and on the federal level. The authority holds over \$500 million in debt from construction of the Pittsburgh International Airport, christina Cassotis January 15,2015 – present James R. Gill March 14,2014 – January 14,2015 Bradley Penrod Oct. 2007-February 5,2013 Kent George Dec.14 1998-Oct. 2007 (also served as President of American Association of Airport Executives Gary Bishop Jan,311997 Peter Florian Jan.20 1996- Herbert Higginbotham Dec.1993 - Jan.191996 Guy Tumolo June 1993-Nov

18. David L. Lawrence Convention Center – The David L. Lawrence Convention Center is a 1,500, 000-square-foot convention, conference and exhibition building in downtown Pittsburgh in the U. S. commonwealth of Pennsylvania. It is served by two exits on Interstate 579 and it sits on the southern shoreline of the Allegheny River. It is the first LEED-certified convention center in North America and one of the first in the world and it is owned by the Sports & Exhibition Authority of Pittsburgh and Allegheny County. In the early 1970s a site on the side of Downtown Pittsburgh was considered for a modern convention center. There was a proposal in mid-1974 to locate the center at the then transitioning Penn Station, the center had its ceremonial groundbreaking on June 8,1977. On February 7,1981 the original \$35 million structure opened with a ribbon cutting ceremony by Mayor Richard Caliguiri, County Commissioner Tom Foerster and Governor Dick Thornburgh. After the Commonwealth approved funding for the center on February 3,1999 Rafael Viñoly Architects. Viñoly along with Dewhurst MacFarlane & Partners and Goldreich Engineering P. C, the architect, Viñoly, began the design with a goal in mind of achieving the status of a green building. The current building replaced the former center of the same name that was constructed in 1981. The old convention center was 131,000 sq ft and lacked a ballroom, all of the old building was demolished to make way for the current structure which was built on the same site. The building won the 2004 Supreme Award for structural engineering excellence from the Institution of Structural Engineers, the center—though completely a structure of 2003 construction—chose to retain the name of the earlier convention center on the site completed in 1981 in honor of David Leo Lawrence. Lawrence was an American politician who served as the Democratic Governor of Pennsylvania from 1959 to 1963 and he is to date the only mayor of Pittsburgh to be elected Governor of Pennsylvania. He was Pennsylvanias first Catholic Governor, and a force in the national Democratic Party from the 1930s to the 1960s. Historians credit him with among other behind-the-scenes labors, leading a compromise at the 1944 National Democratic Convention that eventually made Harry Truman president, the boy survived after being treated at Allegheny General Hospital for several days. On February 12,2002, less than two weeks before the opening of the new center, a 165-ton truss that was under construction collapsed, killing one. The truss was part of the phase of construction, scheduled for opening in 2003. On February 5,2007, a section of concrete floor from the second floor loading dock collapsed under the weight of a tractor-trailer, the building remained closed until investigations by the contractors were completed on March 9, the fault was repaired, and the convention center reopened. June 8,1977, Groundbreaking at 10th Street and Ft. Duquesne Way, HJ Heinz and Westinghouse bringing two interactive talking robots to their displays and US Steel and Alcoa hosting large exhibits

19. Pittsburgh City-County Building – The Pittsburgh City-County Building is the seat of government for the City of Pittsburgh and houses both Pittsburgh and Allegheny County offices. It is located in Downtown Pittsburgh at 414 Grant Street, Pittsburgh, built from 1915-17 it is the third seat of government of Pittsburgh. Today the building is occupied mostly by Pittsburgh offices with Allegheny County located in adjacent county facilities, in 1914, a competition was held for a new Pittsburgh City Hall. The 16-entry competition led to the commissioning of Edward B, lee, a respected Pittsburgh architect, with Palmer, Hornbostel, & Jones as associated architects. The completed design was done by Hornbostel, the building was commissioned by former Pittsburgh Mayor Joseph G. Armstrong to celebrate the 100th anniversary of Pittsburghs 1816 incorporation as a city. On the seventh floor of the building is a mural completed in 1940 entitled Justice by award winning artist Harry Scheuch. Mayor Magee and the City Hall were featured in 1924s Fording the Lincoln Highway, 1992s Lorenzos Oil used the building to shoot scenes depicting Johns Hopkins Hospital. Many scenes of the Bruce Willis and Sarah Jessica Parker 1993 police drama Striking Distance were filmed both inside and on the Grant Street entrance to the building, most notable is the nighttime scene of Dennis Farinas supervisor character arguing with Willis Tom Hardy over the Polish Hill documents. The downtown branch of the Carnegie Library of Pittsburgh occupied space in the structure until November,1930, media related to Pittsburgh City-County Building at Wikimedia Commons

20. Allegheny County Courthouse – The Allegheny County Courthouse in downtown Pittsburgh, Pennsylvania, is part of a complex designed by H. H. Richardson. The buildings are considered among the finest examples of the Romanesque Revival style for which Richardson is well known, the complex is bordered by wide thoroughfares named for city founders James Ross, John Forbes and James Grant. The current building, completed in 1888, was designated a National Historic Landmark in 1976, Richardson later referred to it as his great achievement. Pittsburghs original courthouse, first occupied in 1794, was a structure located on one side of Market Square. The Pennsylvania Supreme Court and from December 7,1818, until 1841 the Western District of Pennsylvania also held sessions at Market Square. Land for a new courthouse was purchased in April 1834 and this was a tract of land on the corner of Forbes Avenue and Grant Street, on Grants Hill. Construction took place between 1836 and 1840 and this court house was built with polished gray sandstone, quarried at Coal Hill, opposite Water Street along the Monongahela River. The building was designed by John Chislett, the Greek Revival design included a domed cupola housing a rotunda 60 feet in diameter and 80 feet high. The building was completed in 1841, even in its deteriorated state, it was a handsome structure. On May 7,1882, a fire out and ruined the building. The third, and present, courthouse was erected on the same spot, following the destruction of the second courthouse, Allegheny County Commissioners decided to hold a competition to design a replacement. The winner of the competition was Boston architect Henry Hobson Richardson and construction of the buildings was begun by the Norcross Brothers, Richardson’s construction firm of choice, the courtyard is surrounded by four stories in three sides. A tower rises five stories from the open side. As was usually the case with Richardson’s buildings, the roof is steep with dormers placed at all the corners, a prison is connected to the courthouse via the Bridge of Sighs. The design was based on the Bridge of Sighs in Venice, the entire complex was built of large rusticated blocks of granite, with the entrance ways and windows topped with wide arches. This gives the building a heavy, stable and dignified appearance, in the 1900s the street level in front of the building was lowered as part of a general re-grading of Pittsburgh. Richardson had anticipated this and courses of finished masonry had been buried underground, unfortunately this left the ceremonial entrance a full story above the street. Muralist Vincent Nesbert completed five murals for the building on its first floor in 1937, Industry, Justice, Peace, Fort Duquesne, in 1973, the building was placed on the National Register of Historic Places

21. Pittsburgh Intergovernmental Cooperation Authority – The Pittsburgh Intergovernmental Cooperation Authority is a special administrative body created by the Commonwealth of Pennsylvania to oversee the finances of the City of Pittsburgh. The Pittsburgh ICA was created by the Pennsylvania General Assembly though the Intergovernmental Cooperation Authority Act for Cities of the Second Class or Act 11 of 2004 on February 12,2004, the Pittsburgh ICA is charged with providing for financing in Pittsburgh. It may only consider whether city budgets are balanced, based upon prudent, reasonable and appropriate assumptions, policy questions are outside its legal jurisdiction when approving or disapproving budgets. The Pittsburgh ICA operates within the context of an Intergovernmental Cooperation Agreement between it and the City of Pittsburgh, special-purpose district Municipal authority Pennsylvania Intergovernmental Cooperation Authority Pittsburgh Intergovernmental Cooperation Authority

22. Pittsburgh Police – The Pittsburgh Police, officially the Pittsburgh Bureau of Police, is the largest law enforcement agency in Western Pennsylvania and the third largest in Pennsylvania. By 1952 the Bureau had a strength of 1,400 sworn officers in July 1985,1,200 and by November 1989,1,040. The Pittsburgh Bureau of Police is part of the Pittsburgh Department of Public Safety and is headed by Chief Cameron McLay appointed by Mayor Bill Peduto, the Chief of Police is the top law enforcement agent of the city of Pittsburgh. Each one is headed by an Assistant Chief, the original headquarters were at Sixth Avenue and William Penn Way in downtown. In 1918 it moved into the Pittsburgh City-County Building,1925 to Water Street, 1960s Grant Street Public Safety Building, headed by the Assistant Chief of Operations, this unit is the most visible arm of the Pittsburgh Police Bureau. It consists six zones with each zone being supervised by the commander, as well as all zone patrol and response operations, SWAT team, Traffic patrol. This is also the unit that does community policing, City wide for any 8 hour 2010 shift this translates to 76.8 officers,16.8 detectives,7.2 sergeants and 3 lieutenants. In 1918 the city debuted a mounted squad, having had some mounted officers as early as 1906, Police motorcycles were first used by the bureau starting in 1910. Headed by the Assistant Chief of Investigations Maurita Bryant, this unit overlays the operations staff with the detective, headed by the Assistant Chief of Administration, this is the least visible unit of the bureau but one that is possibly the most essential. It consists of eight major divisions, vinansky, Commander From 1901 to the early 1990s Pittsburgh Police were unique in having a trial board system of discipline. After a brief court challenge, the City entered into a consent decree with the government in April 1997 that outlined the steps that it would take to improve its conduct. The decree was lifted from the Police Bureau in 2001, community activists in Pittsburgh successfully used a referendum to create an independent review board in 1997. A study commissioned by the U. S, allegations have been made against former Chief Nate Harper, who was forced to resign on February 20,2013 due to the FBI and IRS investigations. On March 22, a Federal Grand Jury indicted Harper for stealing over \$31,000 in taxpayer money as well as not filing income tax returns for years 2008-2011. The full indictment was published by local media, officers generally wear a very dark navy blue almost appearing to be black uniform. SWAT and Tactical units wear olive drab green uniforms, name tags are either embroidered or the traditional nameplate. Some officers will wear a dark navy blue/black tie. They will also wear a traditional service cap, with a unique Sillitoe Tartan

23. Allegheny County Sheriff – The Allegheny County Sheriffs Office is a local county law enforcement agency that serves both Pittsburgh and Allegheny County, Pennsylvania. It primarily provides court, warrant, bailiff, and jail/prisoner transport services for the county, in some jurisdictions it also supplements local law enforcement by providing reserve forces for backup. The Sheriff is an elected office, the ACSO has some oversight of Pittsburgh International Airport, which is located in the county. The first sheriff to be elected in Allegheny County was James Morrison, fleming - 1870-1873 John H. Hare - 1873-1875 Richard H. Fife - 1876-1878 T. H. Gollmar - 1932-1938 H. J. Heinz II - 1938-1942 Robert J. Corbett - 1942-1944 John Montgomery - 1944-1945 Walter C

24. Pittsburgh Bureau of Fire – The Pittsburgh Bureau of Fire provides fire protection, emergency medical services and hazardous material mitigation to the city of the City of Pittsburgh, Pennsylvania. In all the department is responsible for 55.5 square miles with a population of 305,841 as of the 2013 Census estimation. The Bureau holds the distinction of being the first fire department in the United States to unionize, the department started out as a volunteer fire department and officially transitioned to a fully paid department on May 23,1870. Over 30 years later in 1903 a group of Pittsburgh firefighters sought to improve working and living conditions of serving in the department. They formed an association known as the City Fireman’s Protective Association, by September 1903, the very first International Association of Fire Fighters union was organized, IAFF Local No.1. Below is a listing of all fire station and apparatus locations in the city of Pittsburgh according to Battalion. Sudden Death - A Pittsburgh firefighter is portrayed by Jean-Claude Van Damme

25. Carnegie Library of Pittsburgh – The Carnegie Library of Pittsburgh is the public library system in Pittsburgh, Pennsylvania. Its main branch is located in the Oakland neighborhood of Pittsburgh, like hundreds of other Carnegie libraries, the construction of the main library, which opened in 1895, and several neighborhood branches, was funded by industrialist Andrew Carnegie. The Pittsburgh Photographic Library is a photography repository held by the Carnegie Library of Pittsburgh of over 50,000 prints, the City of Pittsburgh was originally home to eight Carnegie libraries constructed at the turn of the 20th century. The city declined Carnegie’s initial offer out of concern that a publicly funded library was not a use of public tax funds. With the passing of years and the state legislature’s endorsement of the project, however. While the initial plan called for those five branches, the Pittsburgh would go on to receive another three Carnegie libraries in the East Liberty, South Side, and Homewood neighborhoods. Construction on the library was finished in 1895 while the branch libraries were constructed over the following fifteen years. The East Liberty branch was demolished in the 1960s as part of a redevelopment plan, allegheny Beechview Brookline Carrick Downtown and Business East Liberty Hazelwood Hill District Homewood Knoxville Lawrenceville Library for the Blind and Physically Handicapped Main Mt. The Our Library, Our Future voter initiative was a campaign spearheaded by the library & community supporters to increase funding for the library by raising property taxes. The voter initiative would raise the rate in the city of Pittsburgh by a quarter of a mill. On November 4,2011, city voters voted in favor of the referendum by a 72% majority, the increase in taxes gives the Carnegie Library of Pittsburgh approximately an additional three million dollars a year. Allegheny Regional Asset District Pennsylvania Library Association Toker, Franklin, Carnegie Library of Pittsburgh Works by Carnegie Library of Pittsburgh at Project Gutenberg Works by or about Carnegie Library of Pittsburgh at Internet Archive

26. Port Authority of Allegheny County – Port Authority of Allegheny County is the second-largest public transit agency in Pennsylvania and the 26th-largest in the United States. The Port Authoritys bus, light rail and funicular system covers Allegheny County, on a few of its longer-distance routes, service extends into neighboring counties such as Beaver, Washington, and Westmoreland. These counties have their own systems, including several routes that run into downtown Pittsburgh. The Port Authority was created by the Pennsylvania General Assembly in 1956 to allow for creation of port facilities in the Pittsburgh area, Three years later, the legislation was amended to allow the Port Authority to acquire privately owned transit companies that served the area. This included the Pittsburgh Railways Company and 32 independent bus and incline operations, on March 1,1964 Port Authority Transit began service. Due to urban sprawl, the agency introduced new routes that served new communities, in the following years, additional buses were ordered and several new transit garages opened. Many of the lines acquired from Pittsburgh Railways were abandoned. In the late 1960s and early 1970s, the Port Authority hoped to introduce a rapid transit system known as Skybus with rubber-tired vehicles running on rails. In the early 1970s, the Port Authority entered what was dubbed by its fans the Mod era, several new flyer routes and routes to Oaklands university core were introduced as part of a new general marketing strategy. In 1975 the Port Authority took over the Baltimore and Ohio Railroad commuter rail line to Versailles and these new routes, coupled with the 1973 oil crisis, generated a major increase in ridership. Due to the state of the economy at the time, fares increased. In spite of setbacks, the South Busway opened in 1977. Many new buses were ordered, and the Martin Luther King Jr, construction of a light rail line that started in downtown south to traverse Beechview, with lines to South Hills Village and Library progressed during the decade. Part of the line was a version of the old trolley system. In July 1985, the subway opened, the Beechview line followed in 1987. In 1989, the agency celebrated its twenty-fifth year of existence, the agency was rocked by a four-week strike due to a labor dispute in 1992. The strike, coupled with changing patterns, caused a decrease in ridership. New buses that were compliant with the Americans with Disabilities Act of 1990 were introduced early in the decade, in 1993, the badly deteriorated Overbrook light rail line was shut down, requiring trains to use the Beechview line

27. Pittsburgh Public Schools – Pittsburgh Public Schools is the public school district in Pittsburgh, Pennsylvania, United States and adjacent Mount Oliver. The combined land area of municipalities is 55.3 square miles with a population of 342,503 according to the 2000 census. In March 2012, the superintendent became Linda Lane and she has a performance-based contract until Jan 2014. Lane served as Deputy Superintendent from 2006 until her promotion, in June 2016, Anthony Hamlet was confirmed as the new Superintendent after a month-long controversy over his credentials. The school district operates 65 schools with 5,180 full-time employees and serves 29,445 students with an budget of \$533.6 million, or \$18. This act provided government aid for the establishment of a city school system included the creation of four wards that were self-governed. Twenty years later, the wards were disbanded, and the Central Board of Education was founded and this board would govern the entire school district which would consist of nine wards or sub- districts. The first city superintendent of schools was elected in 1868, in 1911, the School Code of the Commonwealth of Pennsylvania modified the existing system to include a Board of Public education that would oversee sixty-one sub-districts and two central boards. The Public School Code of 1949 further regulated the provisions and establishment of Pennsylvania state schools, the following 2012-2013 rankings are based solely on mandatory Pennsylvania System of School Assessment testing of 11th grade students in reading and math. Only public high schools participate in PSSA testing, 2) Carrick High School- Allentown, Arlington, Beltzhoover, Bon Air, Carrick, Overbrook, Mt. Oliver, Southside Slopes and St. Clair. 6) Westinghouse High School- East Hills, East Liberty, Highland Park, Homewood North, Homewood South, Homewood West, Larimer, Lincoln-Lemington-Belmar and Point Breeze North. As part of the final right-sizing plan approved by the Board in February 2006, J. Rooney Accelerated Learning Academy, Weil Technology Accelerated Learning Academy. These schools were put on a school year calendar with 10 extra days. The ALAs use the Americas Choice Design Model, developed by the National Center on Education, in early 2006 the district contracted with Kaplan K12 Learning Services to develop a core curriculum for grades 6 through 12. Lesson plans and curriculum coaching will be provided to teachers, each school will have curriculum coaches on-site to aid teachers and provide them with professional development. The Key Concepts presented in the curriculum will be aligned with the state standards tested for in the Pennsylvania System of School Assessment annual tests, in July,2010, Bill Gates noted that the school system is a model due to its teacher performance initiatives. The district trademark was created with the Design Department of Carnegie Mellon University, the colorful central building blocks and the Pittsburgh Public Schools logotype together form the PPS signature. The multi-colored building blocks are associated with children and child development

28. Port of Pittsburgh – It includes the three major rivers in southwestern PA, the Allegheny, the Monongahela, and the Ohio. This waterway is navigable by a system of seventeen locks. The Port of Pittsburgh supports over 200 river terminals and barge industry service suppliers, the Port complex is served by the CSX and Norfolk Southern railroads and by four interstate highways. The Port of Pittsburgh Commission acts as a service for shippers. The Port of Pittsburgh Commission is a government agency of the Commonwealth of Pennsylvania that manages the port of Pittsburgh, the Commission has responsibility for Ohio River shipping within Pennsylvania, and the navigable portions of the Allegheny River and the Monongahela River. The federal Maritime Administration designated the Ohio River as part of a new federal marine highway, called M-70, with the name taken from I-70, a major highway used by trucks in the region. Port of Philadelphia Relevant, Port of Pittsburgh Commission Port of Pittsburgh Commission official website Post-Gazette stats on port traffic Post-Gazette series on port infrastructure

29. Allegheny Conference – It grew from efforts in the 1940s to coordinate improvements to regional transportation and the local environment. Pittsburgh Mayor David L. Lawrence and Allegheny County Commissioner John Kane were early recruits, the Allegheny Conference was officially established in 1944. The citys most visible problem in the first half of the 20th century was air pollution, the Conference brokered an agreement for phased-in implementation of smoke control that became city policy. After the Conference voiced its concern for legal loopholes to the legislature in Harrisburg, Pennsylvania. The clearer skies over the city attracted new business and encouraged local corporations to retain and expand their Pittsburgh headquarters. This also led to the development of Point State Park, the Conference also played a role in the appropriation of funds for the construction of flood control dams on the Allegheny and Monongahela rivers. In the 1940s and 1950s, mass transit in Allegheny County was in jeopardy because of 40 private transit companies, the Conference released a report in 1951 calling for all local transit lines to be under one authority. Public suspicions and private interests delayed the measure until service cutbacks, the Conference was instrumental in building public and private support. In 1959, legislation was passed to create the Port Authority of Allegheny County, Allegheny Conference is a longtime partner with the RIDC. In 1981 it formed the Regional Economic Development Committee with the RIDC that included 18 of the top corporate executives. The Conference also led the transformation of the 14-block Penn-Liberty Corridor into the Pittsburgh Cultural District, a related effort was Strategy 21 that enabled public and private agencies in Allegheny County to speak with one voice when requesting state funds. Strategy 21 not only resulted in projects that ranged from the new Pittsburgh International Airport to The Andy Warhol Museum, hiram Milton 1981- Dennis Yablonsky - current President Allegheny Conference website News feature on the Allegheny Conference Toker, Franklin

30. Economy of Pittsburgh – The economy of Pittsburgh, Pennsylvania, is diversified, focused on services, medicine, higher education, tourism, banking, corporate headquarters and high technology. Pittsburgh was chosen for the 2009 G-20 summit as its transformation is an example of a 21st-century economy, on September 8,2009, President Barack Obama stated, Pittsburgh stands as a bold example of how to create new jobs and industries while transitioning to a 21st century economy. The most recent list of all cities places Pittsburgh as the 169th-best city for job growth, Pittsburgh has also ranked in the top five most livable cities in four of the seven multi-year rankings of Places Rated Almanac. During the mid-18th century, the economy of the Pittsburgh region was focused on agriculture, after the American Revolutionary War, the government placed a tax on whiskey in order to pay off national debt. Washington had to send troops to squelch the protest and enforce the tax laws. ”During the 18th century, large coal deposits were discovered throughout Pittsburgh. Mount Washington, originally called Coal Hill, the “most valuable deposit of coal in the entire United States, was discovered there in 1760”. ”The second biggest industry in the region was glass production. The first glass factory was built in 1795 by James OHara, Pittsburgh’s wealthiest industrialists during the 19th century all lived in a single neighborhood known as East Liberty. The major list of industrialists includes H. J. Heinz, George Westinghouse, Andrew Carnegie, Thomas Mellon, Andrew Mellon, Henry Clay Frick and Philander Knox. All of these men shared similar ideas in the system of capitalism, Andrew Carnegie was also known as a philanthropist to the region. Subsequently, the Carnegie Library, which is free to the public, overall, Carnegie donated over \$350 million for the establishment of organizations that benefit the public. Wealthy industrialists founded the Duquesne Club in 1873 and the Greater Pittsburgh Chamber of Commerce in 1874, Railroad networks reached the Pittsburgh area in the mid-19th century. A year later, in 1852, the Pennsylvania Railroad was completed to Downtown Pittsburgh, in 1856, the Allegheny Valley Railroad was built. Andrew Carnegie was one of the first to capitalize on the railways, in 1865 he founded the Pittsburgh Locomotive, in 1892, the economy of Pittsburgh faced the Homestead Strike between the Amalgamated Association of Iron and Steel Workers and the Carnegie Steel Company. After the workers previous wage contract expired in 1892, and a new negotiation was not reached, ultimately, The Carnegie Steel company won and had avoided union formation in Pittsburgh. After Carnegie Steel was reorganized as U. S. Steel in 1901, it, bethlehem Steel, Republic Steel and LTV Steel also had large local operations. Homestead Steel Works 1881-May 24,1986 Carrie Furnace 1884–1982 Saxonburg Mill -1987 Verona Mill April 4,15,1982 McKees Rocks, Pennsylvania Wheel and Axel plant Pressed Steel had as many as 12,000 employees. Donora US Steel Wire mill -19664,500 employees Monessen American Chain & Cable -19721,000 employees, East Monongahela Liggett Spring & Axle -1978350 employees. McKeesport Ft. Pitt Steel Casting -1978325 employees, hazelwood J&L Steel -19811,000 employees

31. Duquesne Club – The Duquesne Club is a private social club in Pittsburgh, Pennsylvania, founded in 1873. The Duquesne Club was founded in 1873 and its first president was John H. Ricketson. The building achieved landmark status from the Pittsburgh History and Landmarks Foundation in 1976, the Club voted to admit women for the first time in its history in 1980. A health-and-fitness center was added in 1994, and the Club was ranked as #1 City Club in America in 1997, an honor that would be repeated in 2001,2003, and 2006. In 2009, the Duquesne Club was ranked as the second best city club in the nation, as of 2007, membership at the Duquesne Club consisted of about 2,700 men and women. Though the Club does not discriminate in its selection of members, membership is by invitation from an existing member only

32. Greater Pittsburgh Chamber of Commerce – The Greater Pittsburgh Chamber of Commerce is a Pittsburgh area non-profit that promotes business and community development throughout Southwestern Pennsylvania. Founded on December 5,1874 the chamber received its charter on July 8,1876 due to the passage of a new constitution during 1874-75. From 1874 until 1904 the chamber had offices at the Germania Bank Building in Downtown Pittsburgh, on June 20,1904 it relocated to the Oliver Building. March 14,1906 offices moved to the Keenan Building at Liberty Avenue, on July 8,1916 construction started on the Chamber of Commerce Building and opened May 1,1917 with a membership of 3,000. By 1918 membership had exceeded 5,000, the chamber hosted President Grant on December 13,1879, President Howard Taft on October 31,1911 and Treasury Secretary John Connally on January 31,1972. English 1906-1908 Lee S. Smith 1908-1910 F. R. Babcock 1910-1912 W. H. Stevenson 1912-1914 D. P

33. Economic Club of Pittsburgh – The Economic Club of Pittsburgh is a non-profit, non-partisan educational organization based in Pittsburgh, Pennsylvania, United States since 1910. It is among the oldest and largest organizations of its type in the U. S, the club has attracted nationally and internationally known speakers for the regular meetings for open discussions between speakers and members. The club hosts monthly networking luncheons from September to June with speakers from the worlds of business, finance, government, the forecast luncheon hosts a panel of respected economists in national, regional and financial marketplaces. On October 26,1976 President Ford addressed the Club at the Pittsburgh Hilton, duquesne Club Greater Pittsburgh Chamber of Commerce Allegheny HYP Club Official website

34. Allegheny HYP Club – The Allegheny HYP Club is a private social club in downtown Pittsburgh, Pennsylvania. Located at 617-619 William Penn Place, it was built in 1894 and was added to the List of Pittsburgh History, on July 1,1997 the club absorbed the Pittsburgh Club membership and assets. The Pittsburgh Harvard-Yale-Princeton Club was formally founded on November 7,1930, the club merged with the Three Rivers Stadium based Allegheny Club in 2002 after Allegheny had filed for bankruptcy protection. List of American gentlemens clubs Duquesne Club Economic Club of Pittsburgh Greater Pittsburgh Chamber of Commerce Official Site

35. Pittsburgh Stock Exchange – The Pittsburgh Stock Exchange was a large regional stock market located in Pittsburgh, Pennsylvania from November 11,1864 until being closed on August 23,1974. It was alternatively named the Pittsburgh Coal Exchange starting on May 27,1870, on July 25,1896 the Exchange formally took the name Pittsburgh Stock Exchange though it had been referred to by that name since the spring of 1894. The Exchange, like modern day exchanges, was forced to close during sharp economic crashes or crises. On December 24,1969 The Philadelphia-Baltimore-Washington Stock Exchange bought the Pittsburgh Stock Exchange, at its height the exchange traded over 1,200 companies, but by the last trading day in 1974 only Pittsburgh Brewing Company, Williams & Company and Westinghouse remained listed. The Pittsburgh Stock Exchange was formed in 1864 as the Oil Exchange, the Pittsburgh Stock Exchange was originally Thurstons Oil Exchange, a large regional stock market located in Pittsburgh, Pennsylvania starting on November 11,1864 on Fourth Street, downtown. The exchange was built on the oil traded at Pittsburgh during the Civil War with the creation of Thurstons Oil Exchange. It was alternatively named the Pittsburgh Coal Exchange starting on May 27,1870, the Coal Exchange changed its name to the Pittsburgh Oil Exchange in 1878. After many oil exchanges were being consolidated by Standard Oil, the became known as the Pittsburgh Oil Exchange on July 21,1878 with 180 members. The new official spelling was resisted by many people in the city, the Pittsburgh Gazette refused to adopt the Boards decision, as did the Pittsburgh Stock Exchange, the University of Pittsburgh, and many city official. Responding to mounting pressure, the change was reversed in 1911. The Pittsburgh Coal Exchange opened for all general stocks by 1894, the exchange began officially operating under that name on July 25,1896. The building of the Pittsburgh Stock Exchange was destroyed in a fire on October 29,1896, the exchange was forced to close several times during sharp economic crashes or crises. October 23,1907 it closed for three months due to the 1907 recession, during World War I the market closed for four months starting on July 31,1914, due to economic effects of the war. At its height the exchange traded over 1,200 companies but by the last trading day in 1974 only Pittsburgh Brewing Company, Williams & Company, a total of 11 companies traded the last day with 3,100 shares. The stock exchange closed its Fourth Avenue financial district doors in August 1974 after computerization had consolidated trades in New York, Chicago and other global centers. Some academics posit the exchange closed due to an extended bear market. From April 1,1903 until October 1962 the stock exchange was located at 229 Fourth Avenue, from October 1962 until it closed in August 1974 it was located at the 2 story 8,500 square foot structure 333 Fourth Avenue. Prior to 1903 it was located in rented quarters of the Pittsburgh Bank for Savings on the corner of Fourth Avenue, after the exchange closed, the 1962-1974 structure was purchased by Point Park University on November 1,2006 for \$645,000

36. Fortune 500 – The Fortune 500 is an annual list compiled and published by Fortune magazine that ranks 500 of the largest U. S. corporations by total revenue for their respective fiscal years. The list includes public companies, along with privately held companies for which revenues are publicly available, the concept of the Fortune 500 was created by Edgar P. Smith, a Fortune editor, and the first list was published in 1955. The Fortune 500 is more used than its subset Fortune 100 or wider list Fortune 1000. The original Fortune 500 was limited to companies whose revenues were derived from manufacturing, mining, at the same time, Fortune published companion Fortune 50 lists of the 50 largest commercial banks, utilities, life insurance companies, retailers and transportation companies. Fortune magazine changed its methodology in 1994 to include service companies, with the change came 291 new entrants to the famous list including three in the Top 10. The Fortune 500 was first published in 1955, created by Edgar P. Smith, the original top ten companies were General Motors, Exxon Mobil, U. S. Steel, General Electric, Esmark, Chrysler, Armour, Gulf Oil, Mobil and DuPont

37. U.S. Steel – The United States Steel Corporation, more commonly known as U. S. Steel, is an American integrated steel producer with major production operations in the United States, Canada, and Central Europe. The company was the worlds 15th largest steel producer in 2014, at one time, U. S. Steel was the largest steel producer and largest corporation in the world. It was capitalized at \$1.4 billion, making it the worlds first billion-dollar corporation, the company headquarters was established in 1901 in the Empire Building, purchased from the estate of Orlando B. Potter for \$5 million. In 1907 it bought its largest competitor, the Tennessee Coal, Iron and Railroad Company and this led to Tennessee Coals being replaced in the Dow Jones Industrial Average by the General Electric Company. The federal government attempted to use federal antitrust laws to break up U. S. Steel in 1911, in its first full year of operation, U. S. Steel made 67 percent of all the steel produced in the United States. One hundred years later, its shipments accounted for only about 8 percent of domestic consumption, the Corporation, as it was known on Wall Street, always distinguished itself to investors by virtue of its size, rather than for its efficiency or creativeness during its heyday. In 1901, it controlled two-thirds of steel production, because of heavy debts taken on at the companys formation — Carnegie insisted on being paid in gold bonds for his stake — and fears of antitrust litigation, U. S. Steel moved cautiously. Competitors often innovated faster, especially Bethlehem Steel, run by U. S, Steels former first president, Charles M. Schwab. Steels share of the expanding market slipped to 50 percent by 1911, james A. Farrell was named president in 1911 and served until 1932. U. S. Steel ranked 16th among United States corporations in the value of World War II production contracts, production peaked at more than 35 million tons in 1953. Its employment was greatest in 1943 when it had more than 340,000 employees, by 2000, however, the federal government has also intervened on other occasions to try to control U. S. Steel. President Harry S. Truman attempted to take over its steel mills in 1952 to resolve a crisis with its union, the United Steelworkers of America. The Supreme Court blocked the takeover by ruling that the president did not have the authority to seize the mills (see Youngstown Sheet & Tube Co. v. Sawyer. President John F. Kennedy was more successful in 1962 when he pressured the industry into reversing price increases that Kennedy considered dangerously inflationary. In the early days of the Reagan Administration, steel firms won substantial tax breaks in order to deal with imported goods, instead of modernizing their mills, steel companies shifted capital out of steel and into more profitable areas. In March 1982, U. S. Steel took its concessions and paid \$1.4 billion in cash and \$4.7 billion in loans for Marathon Oil, saving approximately \$500 million in taxes through the merger. The architect of tax concessions to steel firms, Senator Arlen Specter, complained that we go out on a limb in Congress, the incident is the subject of a song by folk singer Anne Feeney. U. S. Steel finally acquired National Steels assets in 2003 after National Steel went bankrupt, as part of its diversification plan U. S. Steel acquired Marathon Oil on January 7,1982, as well as Texas Oil and Gas several years later

38. PNC Financial Services – PNC Financial Services Group, Inc. is an American financial services corporation, with assets of approximately \$366 billion, as well as deposits of approximately \$249 billion. PNC is the fifth largest bank by number of offices, sixth largest by deposits, ninth largest by total assets. PNC Financial Services traces its history to the Pittsburgh Trust and Savings Company which was founded in Pittsburgh, Pennsylvania on April 10,1845. Due to the recovery from the Great Fire of Pittsburgh, PNC was not fully operational until January 28,1852. The bank was renamed The Pittsburgh Trust Company in 1853, in 1858, the company located its corporate offices at the corner of Fifth Avenue and Wood Street in Pittsburgh where they remain to this day. The bank changed its name to First National Bank of Pittsburgh in 1863 and it received charter number forty-eight on August 5,1863, with other later banks receiving charters sooner due to paperwork problems and the fact that the bank was already in business. By 1959, after a series of mergers, the bank had evolved into the Pittsburgh National Bank, another branch of the current bank, the Philadelphia based Provident National Corporation, dates back to the mid-19th century. In 1982, Pittsburgh National Corporation and Provident National Corporation merged into a new entity named PNC Financial Corporation and it was the largest bank merger in American history at the time. Between 1991 and 1996, PNC purchased more than ten smaller banks, in 2005, PNC acquired Washington, D. C. based Riggs Bank. PNC completed the acquisition of Maryland-based Mercantile Bankshares on March 2,2007, on June 7,2007, PNC announced the acquisition of Yardville National Bancorp, a small commercial bank centered in central New Jersey and eastern Pennsylvania. The transaction was completed in March 2008, the transaction was also completed in 2008. On October 24,2008, during the crisis of 2007-2008. The announcement came hours after PNC sold preferred stock to the United States Treasury as part of the \$700 billion bailout plan and it also greatly expanded PNCs presence in the Midwest as well as entering the Florida market. PNC then had its footprint stretch from New York City to St. Louis, with branches as far south as Miami, marie, Michigan on the Upper Peninsula of Michigan. PNC completed the conversion of the National City branches on June 14,2010, National City’s lack of pricing guidelines resulted in black borrowers being charged an average of \$159 more in extra upfront fees or higher interest than white borrowers. Black borrowers also paid an average of \$228 more annually over the life of the loan than white borrowers, hispanics paid \$125 more upfront and \$154 more annually than white borrowers. Under the terms of the settlement, PNC was required to pay victims \$35 million, in 2011, PNC bought BankAtlantics Tampa Bay Area branches. Also in 2011, PNC acquired 27 branches in the northern Atlanta suburbs with \$240 million in deposits, in 2012, PNC acquired RBC Bank from Royal Bank of Canada for \$3.45 billion

39. PPG Industries – PPG Industries, Inc. is an American Fortune 500 company and global supplier of paints, coatings, specialty materials, and fiberglass. With headquarters in Pittsburgh, Pennsylvania, PPG operates in more than 70 countries around the globe, by revenue it is the largest coatings company in the world. It is headquartered in PPG Place, an office and retail complex in downtown Pittsburgh, Pittsburgh Plate Glass Company was founded in 1883 by Captain John Baptiste Ford and John Pitcairn, Jr. at Creighton, Pennsylvania. Based in Creighton, Pennsylvania, PPG soon became the United States first commercially successful producer of high-quality, PPG was also the worlds first plate glass plant to power its furnaces with locally produced natural gas, an innovation which rapidly stimulated widespread industrial use of the cleaner-burning fuel. By 1900, known as the Glass Trust, it included 10 plants, had a 65 percent share of the U. S. plate glass market, and had become the nations second largest producer of paint. Today, known as PPG Industries, the company is a multibillion-dollar and it now produces coatings, glass, fiberglass, and chemicals. Pitcairn served as a director of PPG from its start, its president from 1897 to 1905, on 19 December 1968 the company changed its name to PPG Industries, Inc. to show its diverse offerings. Ditzler Color Company, established in 1902 in Detroit as an automotive color concern, was purchased by Pittsburgh Plate Glass Company in 1928, in the mid-1980s, Cipisa, a Spanish paint company was acquired and renamed PPG Ibérica. The CEO of Cipisa, Pere Nadal Carres became CEO of PPG Ibérica, in 1990 PPG founded Transitions Optical as a joint venture with Essilor. In October 2000, PPG Industries announced it had agreed to buy Courtaulds Aerospace for \$512.5 million, based in Glendale, California, the aerospace business has annual sales of approximately \$US240 million, employs 1,200 people. The business also operates 14 application-support centres in North America, Europe, Africa, in 2007, the company was involved in a lawsuit on failing to disclose a purchase reduction of its two major auto glass customers. On 2 January 2008, PPG acquired the SigmaKalon Group of companies for \$3.2 billion from private investment firm Bain Capital, strongly increasing its paint, in 2008, PPG renamed their automotive glass division PGW and sold a majority of it to Kohlberg & Company. 2013 revenue was US\$15.1 billion, while assets were US\$15.9 billion, chuck Bunch remains Executive Chairman, while Michael McGarry serves as President & CEO. In July 2016, PPG announced its sale of the glass business to Vitro. In October 2016, Pittsburgh Post-Gazette announced the acquisition of the rights to Consol Energy Center by PPG. Stringent standards were agreed to in a court settlement. PPG has been involved in sports for years, including being the primary. On October 4th,2016, it was announced that The Consol Energy Center would be giving up its naming rights, columbia-Southern Chemical Corporation Dimetcote Self-cleaning glass Transitions Lenses, a joint venture since 1990

40. Kraft Heinz – The Kraft Heinz Company is an American worldwide food company formed by the merger of Kraft Foods Group and Heinz in 2015. The merger was backed by 3G Capital and Berkshire Hathaway, which invested US\$10 billion in the deal, in 2015 the Kraft Heinz Company had 13 different brands with \$500 million or more each in annual sales. The merger was agreed by the boards of companies, with approval by shareholders and regulatory authorities. The new company became the worlds fifth-largest food and beverage company, the company is headquartered in both Pittsburgh and Chicago. The companies completed the merger on July 2,2015, under the merger, Krafts shareholders received 49% of shares in the combined company, plus a one-time dividend of US\$16.50 per share. Fortune reports that growth for Kraft in the US market is due to consumers turning to natural. The merger did not affect the rights to Heinz Field. The take over was subsequently abandoned on 19 February soon after UK Prime Minister Theresa May had ordered a scrutiny of the deal, List of food companies List of brand name food products List of dairy product companies in the United States Kim, Susanna. How the New Kraft Heinz Co, is About to Take Over Your Kitchen

41. WESCO International – WESCO International, Inc. is a holding company for WESCO Distribution, a multinational electronics distribution and services company based in Pittsburgh, Pennsylvania. Despite the international moniker, the company makes nearly all of its sales in the United States, WESCO International, Inc.2012 annual sales were approximately \$6.6 billion. The Company employs approximately 9,000 people, maintains relationships with over 18,000 suppliers, customers include commercial and industrial businesses, contractors, government agencies, institutions, telecommunications providers and utilities. WESCO operates seven distribution centers and approximately 400 full-service branches in North America, in 1922, WESCO Distribution was formed as a subsidiary of the Westinghouse Electric Corporation also based in Pittsburgh. It had existed for decades within Westinghouse as the charged with selling and distributing company components in the electrical and industrial fields. WESCO maintained close ties to its parent, in 1994, the private equity firm Clayton, Dubilier & Rice arranged for the purchase of WESCO from Westinghouse. CD & R sold WESCO to The Cypress Group for \$1.1 billion in June 1998 and this group formed WESCO International, Inc. which is the current owner of WESCO Distribution. On May 12,1999, WESCO held its public offering on the New York Stock Exchange, selling 9.72 million shares for \$18 per share. In 2008, the company was recognized for environmentally sustainable business practices through an Environmental Stewardship Award from Veolia ES Technical Solutions, in November 2010 the company acquired TVC Communications, a distributor of broadband communications network infrastructure for about US\$250,000,000. In June,2012 the company acquired Conney Safety for an undisclosed sum, bobby J. Griffin - Fromer President, International Operations of Ryder System, Inc. Founded by George Gardner in 1952, in Lewistown, Pennsylvania, TVC is the oldest distributor of construction materials and supplies for the cable television, telecommunication and data communication industries. The company expanded in the decades and by 2010 had three divisions, White Sands Engineering, MaxCell, and Marathon. Marathon provides products for communications networks, wesco purchased TVC Communications and its divisions for a purchase price of \$246.5 million, in December 2010

42. Consol Energy – Consol Energy is the leading producer of high-BTU bituminous coal in the United States and the U. S. s largest underground coal mining company. As of 2011, Consol had 4.4 billion tons of reserves, mainly in northern and central Appalachia. The company has natural gas reserves totaling 3.7 trillion cu. ft. as of 2011, Consol Energy was originally created in 1860 as the Consolidation Coal Company after several small mining companies in Western Maryland decided to combine their operations. A small amount of the production in the early 1900s was premium smithing coal that was specially processed and delivered in boxcars to customers throughout the United States. In 1945, Consolidation Coal Company was merged with Pittsburgh Coal Company, with growing demand for natural gas in the U. S. following World War II, Consolidation Coal Company was acquired by the Continental Oil Company, or Conoco, in 1966. By the mid-1970s, Consolidation Coal Company operated 56 mines and employed nearly 20,000 miners. In 1981, Conoco along with Consolidation Coal Company was acquired by DuPont, looking to invest in coal reserves in North America, Rheinbraun A. G offered Dupont stakes in coal mines and \$890 million in 1991 to join in an equal part joint venture creating Consol Energy. Despite the cost of coal dropping in the 1990s, Consols long-term contracts and investments in mining techniques allowed the company to remain competitive. In 1998, Dupont sold the majority of its stake in Consol, leaving it with only a 6 percent share. Consol also acquired Rochester & Pittsburgh Coal Company in 1998, due to uncertainty surrounding demand for coal in the early 2000s, Consol began to place a greater emphasis on diversification, primarily into natural gas. Consols first major natural gas investment was through the acquisition of MCN Energy Group Inc. s methane reserves in southwestern Virginia for \$160 million, in 2001, Consol acquired Conoco Inc. s coalbed methane gas production assets in southwestern Virginia. Consol subsidiaries CNX Ventures and CNX Land Resources also began diversification efforts during this time into methane gas and timber, in 2006, Consol spun off its subsidiary CNX Gas as a standalone company, but retained 83 percent of the new companys shares. On June 28,2006, Consol Energy entered the S&P500 replacing Knight-Ridder, in 2007, CNX Gas also began investing heavily in natural gas exploration in the Marcellus Shale in Pennsylvania. Consol also acquired all of the publicly owned shares of CNX Gas for a cash payment of \$991 million. In 2010 Consol was also named by Forbes magazine as one of the 100 Most Trustworthy Companies, in 2011, Consol entered into two separate joint venture agreements to expedite its natural gas production. The first, an agreement with Noble Energy, Inc. will jointly develop the companys 663,350 Marcellus Shale acres in Pennsylvania, the second joint agreement, with Hess Corporation, will jointly explore and develop Consols nearly 200,000 Utica Shale acres in Ohio. Consol also began an expansion of its Baltimore Terminal in 2011 to increase capacity from 14 million to 16 million tons to increase its revenue from sales of its metallurgical coal, Consol Energy operates as a producer of multiple energy sources, primarily for electric power generation. Consols Coal Division operates 12 coal mining complexes in four states in the United States, including Pennsylvania, West Virginia, Virginia and Utah

43. Dick's Sporting Goods – Dicks has 610 stores in 47 states, primarily in the Eastern United States. The company also owns Golf Galaxy, Inc. a golf specialty retailer, the company also operates specialty chains True Runner and Field & Stream. Founded in 1948 by Richard Dick Stack, the chain has expanded to one of the largest sporting goods retailers in the world. In 1948, at the age of 18, Dick Stack worked at an Army/Navy store in his hometown of Binghamton, New York, after World War II. ”When Dick recounted his story later that day, his grandmother advised, “Dick, always follow your dreams, ” and gave him \$300 from her savings. He rented a storefront and opened the first Dicks as a small bait & tackle fishing supply store, the store prospered, and Dick eventually opened a second store in Vestal, New York. In the 1970s, the Binghamton store moved next door to a larger facility. Dick Stack headed the organization until his retirement in 1984, Dick Stacks son, Edward Eddie Stack, succeeded him in the leadership of the company, expanding the two-store business rapidly. In the early 1990s, Dicks began chain operations, opening additional stores across Upstate New York, in 1994, Dicks moved its headquarters from Binghamton, New York to Pittsburgh, Pennsylvania. In January 2016, Dicks launched Team Sports HQ, a platform of services for youth sport leagues, services offered include software for online registration and team/league websites, custom uniforms and FanWear, and access to donations and sponsorships. The company used the e-tailing Web site dickssportinggoods. com, operated by GSI Commerce under license, starting in 2013, the company began using a ship-from-store platform for online orders. This means that the company has an inventory for every store. As of March 2009, customers may return items purchased from the Web site, Dicks has also sponsored SportsMatter. com, a crowdfunding site to help support underfunded youth sports leagues. In July 1971, Dicks was told of infringing a patent owned by Furnace Brook, LLC, in a lawsuit filed in the Northern District of Illinois. On March 31,2005, the company restated the first three quarters of 2004 as well as full-year figures due to adjustments to its accounting for leases. In August 2006, Dicks was accused of infringing two patents owned by Cushion Technologies, LLC, in a lawsuit filed in the Eastern District of Texas, in April 2007, Dicks settled with the plaintiff and the lawsuit was dismissed. In June 2009, Dicks was accused of infringing a patent owned by The Donkey Company, in 2014, Dicks began a lawsuit against Modells Sporting Goods CEO, Mitchell Modell, for going undercover into their stores to gain access to their retail secrets. Dicks Sporting Goods opened in Florida and California in 1997, seven years later, the chain acquired the entirety of Galyans, an Indiana-based sporting chain. They also acquired Golf Galaxy and Chicks in 2007, plans were announced in 2010 to open its first store in Washington state with six more locations coming soon

44. Allegheny Technologies – Allegheny Technologies Incorporated is a specialty metals company headquartered in Pittsburgh, Pennsylvania. ATIs key markets are aerospace and defense particularly commercial jet engines, oil & gas, chemical industry, electrical energy. The company organizes its products into 2 segments, High Performance Materials & Components, flat Rolled Products, which includes titanium and titanium alloys, nickel-based alloys, specialty alloys, duplex alloys in sheet, strip, and plate form, grain-oriented electrical steel. Allegheny Technologies is headquartered in Downtown Pittsburgh at Six PPG Place, Steel mill plants throughout Western Pennsylvania include facilities in Harrison Township, Vandergrift, and Washington. Through the 1970s, Allegheny Ludlum periodically cooperated with Ford to build several one-off promotional cars with steel bodies. Three such cars are on display in the Crawford Auto-Aviation Museum, in 1987, Allegheny Ludlum became a public company via an initial public offering. In 1994, the company acquired Jessop Steel, in 1996, it merged with Teledyne to form Allegheny Technologies. In 1998, the acquired the assets of Lukens Washington Steel In 2004, the company acquired J&L Specialty Steel In 2005. In 2010, the company acquired Ladish Co, Allegheny Technologies debuted its ATI425 Titanium Alloy on June 14,2010, at the land and air-land defense and security exhibition Eurosatory in Paris, France. The ATI425 Titanium Alloy is developed and provided by ATI for markets that include aerospace, defense, industrial, medical, Allegheny Ludlums Natrona, Pennsylvania and Brackenridge, Pennsylvania plants contributed to the waste at the ALSCO Park Lindane Dump—an EPA Superfund site. These plants also released chromium into the air, which affected air quality at schools in the Highlands School District. In 2005, Allegheny Ludlum agreed to pay a \$2,375,000 penalty to settle a lawsuit brought by the U. S

45. 84 Lumber – 84 Lumber is an American building materials supply company. Founded in 1956 by Joseph Hardy, it derives its name from the town of Eighty Four, Pennsylvania,20 miles south of Pittsburgh, where its headquarters are based. 84 Lumber owns and operates over 250 stores, and the company operates components plants, door shops, installation centers, as of 2012, they reportedly employ 4,900 employees. Located 20 mi south of Pittsburgh,84 Lumber established its roots in Eighty Four, Pennsylvania,84 Lumber flourished with the funds and determination of Ed Ryan and Jack Kunkle, Joe Hardy and his two brothers Norman and Bob Hardy. Together, these men collected 84,000 dollars for land, as the business expanded, Hardy and his brothers became sole owners of the company. Throughout the 1960s,84 Lumber continued to expand locations, but during the 1970s,84 Lumber’s business grew and the company opened 229 stores. In 1984, the company undertook a plan to open at least 30 new stores. Along with grand openings, stores were remodeled and renovated from no-frills lumber yards to new, in 1987, as the improvement plan generated success the business opened their strict policy of cash-and-carry to options of using credit. In 1991,84 Lumber topped Pro Sales magazine’s “Dealer 100” list, after 34 years of running the company, Joe Hardy appointed his daughter Maggie Hardy Magerko president and owner in 1992. Joe Hardy passed 40 percent of the stock to Maggie that year as well. With a new leader,84 Lumber continued to expand, opening its 400th store in 1997 in Ephrata, in 1999,84 Lumber opened its first “84 Plus” retail store in Graysville, Tennessee. The store, designed by Maggie Hardy Magerko, carried about 12,000 products and was meant to increase the profits by selling products at a higher profit margin. Soon enough, over a hundred 84 Plus stores opened, on December 7,2002, the company exceeded \$2 billion in annual sales for the first time in history. In 2004, the company opened another 18 new stores, most of which are located in areas that had once been unprofitable. 84 Lumber suffered great losses in sales when the market crashed in 2009. Limitless spending on a resort, poor store site selection. On the brink of bankruptcy, Hardy Magerko leveraged her own finances, closed stores. With the help of the market, Magerko’s efforts ultimately proved to be successful, in 2013,84 Lumber increased sales 27 percent over the prior year, generating \$2.1 billion in revenue

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Image: The blast furnaces and rolling mills of the Homestead Steel Works, by H.C. White Co
Brunot Island [videos]
Brunot Island (also spelled Brunot's Island) is a 129-acre (52 ha) island in the Ohio River at the west end of
A view of Brunot Island from Mount Washington
A view of Brunot Island as seen from River Avenue in McKees Rocks
Consol Energy [videos]
Consol Energy Inc. is an American energy company with interests in coal and natural gas production headquartered in
Table of Cumberland Coal Trade Production 1865
Boat operated by Consol Energy passing downtown Pittsburgh, PA.
Bruster's Ice Cream [videos]
Bruster's Ice Cream is an American chain of ice cream parlors whose ice cream and frozen yogurt is made from a
Bruster's in Valdosta, Georgia
A Bruster's in Gaithersburg, Maryland.
DQE [videos]
Duquesne Light Holdings, Inc. (“DLH”) is an energy services holding company formed in 1989 to serve as the holding
Image: DU Qlight
Duquesne Light manhole cover.
Pittsburgh Public Schools [videos]
Pittsburgh Public Schools is the public school district in Pittsburgh, Pennsylvania, United States and adjacent Mount
Map of Allegheny County, Pennsylvania Public School Districts
Board of Education's Administration Building in Oakland
Duquesne Club [videos]
The Duquesne Club is a private social club in Pittsburgh, Pennsylvania, founded in 1873. — History — The Duquesne
Duquesne Club Building, built in 1887
Image: Duquesne Club logo as of 2015
84 Lumber [videos]
84 Lumber is an American building materials supply company. Founded in 1956 by Joseph Hardy, it derives its name from
Typical 84 Lumber sign
Image: 84lumber
Ansys [videos]
Ansys, Inc. is a public company based in Canonsburg, Pennsylvania. It develops and markets engineering simulation
ANSYS, Inc. headquarters building in Cecil Township, Pennsylvania.
Image: ANSYS logo
Compunetix [videos]
Compunetix, Inc. is a privately held corporation that develops multimedia multipoint telecommunications systems for
Image: Compunetix logo
Pittsburgh Bureau of Fire [videos]
The Pittsburgh Bureau of Fire (PBF) provides fire protection and hazardous material mitigation to the city of the City
The quarters of Engine 3
Image: Flag of Pittsburgh, Pennsylvania
Allegheny Technologies [videos]
This is about the specialty metals company. For the chipset developer, see ATI Technologies — Allegheny Technologies
Midland Works
Image: Allegheny Technologies Logo
Western Pennsylvania English [videos]
Western Pennsylvania English, known more narrowly as Pittsburgh English or popularly by outsiders as Pittsburghese, is
A sign using "Dahntahn" to mean "Downtown"
Government of Pittsburgh [videos]
The Government of Pittsburgh is composed of the Mayor, the City Council, and various boards and commissions. Most of
Title page of the Pittsburgh Code of Ordinances
Allegheny HYP Club [videos]
The Allegheny HYP Club (Harvard-Yale-Princeton Club) is a private social club in downtown Pittsburgh, Pennsylvania.
Image: Allegheny HYP Club
Fortune 500 [videos]
The Fortune 500 is an annual list compiled and published by Fortune magazine that ranks 500 of the largest United
The July 24, 2006 issue of Fortune, featuring its Fortune 500 list
WESCO International [videos]
WESCO International, Inc. is a holding company for WESCO Distribution, a multinational electronics distribution and
WESCO International
Ampco Pittsburgh [videos]
Ampco-Pittsburgh Corporation (American Metal Products Company) is a specialty steel manufacturer headquartered in
Image: Ampcopitt
Atlas Energy [videos]
Atlas America, Inc. is a natural gas and oil extraction company based in suburban Pittsburgh, Pennsylvania in the
Image: Atlasamerica
Black Box Corporation [videos]
Black Box Corporation, also doing business as Black Box Network Services, is headquartered in the Pittsburgh suburb of
EQT [videos]
EQT Corporation is a petroleum and natural gas exploration and pipeline company headquartered in EQT Plaza in
Image: EQT logo
Eastern Time Zone [videos]
The Eastern Time Zone (ET) is a time zone encompassing 17 U.S. states in the eastern part of the contiguous United
Image: Timezoneswest
Media in Pittsburgh [videos]
Pittsburgh is home to the first commercial radio station in the United States, KDKA 1020AM; the first
Pittsburgh 'major newspaper' consolidation timeline
Port of Pittsburgh [videos]
The Port of Pittsburgh is a vast river traffic region in southwestern Pennsylvania. It spans a twelve-county area
Map shows general area of the Pittsburgh port region.
Economic Club of Pittsburgh [videos]
The Economic Club of Pittsburgh is a non-profit, non-partisan educational organization based in Pittsburgh,
Image: Economic Club of Pittsburgh
Calgon Carbon [videos]
Not to be confused with Calgon, a soap company. — Calgon Carbon Corporation is a Pittsburgh, Pennsylvania based company
Calgon Carbon