Louis XVI of France
Louis XVI, born Louis-Auguste, was the last King of France before the fall of the monarchy during the French Revolution. He was referred to as Citizen Louis Capet during the four months. In 1765, at the death of his father, Louis and heir apparent of Louis XV, Louis-Auguste became the new Dauphin of France. Upon his grandfather's death on 10 May 1774, he assumed the title "King of France and Navarre", which he used until 4 September 1791, when he received the title of "King of the French" until the monarchy was abolished on 21 September 1792; the first part of his reign was marked by attempts to reform the French government in accordance with Enlightenment ideas. These included efforts to abolish serfdom, remove the taille, increase tolerance toward non-Catholics; the French nobility reacted to the proposed reforms with hostility, opposed their implementation. Louis implemented deregulation of the grain market, advocated by his economic liberal minister Turgot, but it resulted in an increase in bread prices.
In periods of bad harvests, it would lead to food scarcity. From 1776, Louis XVI supported the North American colonists, who were seeking their independence from Great Britain, realised in the 1783 Treaty of Paris; the ensuing debt and financial crisis contributed to the unpopularity of the Ancien Régime. This led to the convening of the Estates-General of 1789. Discontent among the members of France's middle and lower classes resulted in strengthened opposition to the French aristocracy and to the absolute monarchy, of which Louis and his wife, Queen Marie Antoinette, were viewed as representatives. Increasing tensions and violence were marked by events such as the storming of the Bastille, during which riots in Paris forced Louis to definitively recognize the legislative authority of the National Assembly. Louis XVI was initiated into masonic lodge Trois-Frères à l'Orient de la Cour. Louis's indecisiveness and conservatism led some elements of the people of France to view him as a symbol of the perceived tyranny of the Ancien Régime, his popularity deteriorated progressively.
His disastrous flight to Varennes in June 1791, four months before the constitutional monarchy was declared, seemed to justify the rumors that the king tied his hopes of political salvation to the prospects of foreign intervention. The credibility of the king was undermined, the abolition of the monarchy and the establishment of a republic became an ever-increasing possibility. Despite his lack of popular approbation, Louis XVI did abolish the death penalty for deserters, as well as the labor tax, which had compelled the French lower classes to spend two weeks out of the year working on buildings and roads. In a context of civil and international war, Louis XVI was suspended and arrested at the time of the Insurrection of 10 August 1792, he was tried by the National Convention, found guilty of high treason, executed by guillotine on 21 January 1793, as a desacralized French citizen under the name of "Citizen Louis Capet," in reference to Hugh Capet, the founder of the Capetian dynasty – which the revolutionaries interpreted as Louis's family name.
Louis XVI was the only King of France to be executed, his death brought an end to more than a thousand years of continuous French monarchy. Both of his sons died before the Bourbon Restoration. Louis-Auguste de France, given the title Duc de Berry at birth, was born in the Palace of Versailles. One of seven children, he was the second surviving son of Louis, the Dauphin of France, thus the grandson of Louis XV of France and of his consort, Maria Leszczyńska, his mother was Marie-Josèphe of Saxony, the daughter of Frederick Augustus II of Saxony, Prince-Elector of Saxony and King of Poland. Louis-Auguste was overlooked by his parents who favored his older brother, duc de Bourgogne, regarded as bright and handsome but who died at the age of nine in 1761. Louis-Auguste, a strong and healthy boy but shy, excelled in his studies and had a strong taste for Latin, history and astronomy and became fluent in Italian and English, he enjoyed physical activities such as hunting with his grandfather and rough play with his younger brothers, Louis-Stanislas, comte de Provence, Charles-Philippe, comte d'Artois.
From an early age, Louis-Auguste was encouraged in another of his interests, seen as a useful pursuit for a child. Upon the death of his father, who died of tuberculosis on 20 December 1765, the eleven-year-old Louis-Auguste became the new Dauphin, his mother never recovered from the loss of her husband and died on 13 March 1767 from tuberculosis. The strict and conservative education he received from the Duc de La Vauguyon, "gouverneur des Enfants de France", from 1760 until his marriage in 1770, did not prepare him for the throne that he was to inherit in 1774 after the death of his grandfather, Louis XV. Throughout his education, Louis-Auguste received a mixture of studies particular to religion and humanities, his instructors may have had a good hand in shaping Louis-Auguste into the indecisive king that he became. Abbé Berthier, his instructor, taught him that timidity was a value in strong monarchs, Abbé Soldini, his confessor, instructed him not to let people read his mind. On 16 May 1770, at the ag
The United States of America known as the United States or America, is a country composed of 50 states, a federal district, five major self-governing territories, various possessions. At 3.8 million square miles, the United States is the world's third or fourth largest country by total area and is smaller than the entire continent of Europe's 3.9 million square miles. With a population of over 327 million people, the U. S. is the third most populous country. The capital is Washington, D. C. and the largest city by population is New York City. Forty-eight states and the capital's federal district are contiguous in North America between Canada and Mexico; the State of Alaska is in the northwest corner of North America, bordered by Canada to the east and across the Bering Strait from Russia to the west. The State of Hawaii is an archipelago in the mid-Pacific Ocean; the U. S. territories are scattered about the Pacific Ocean and the Caribbean Sea, stretching across nine official time zones. The diverse geography and wildlife of the United States make it one of the world's 17 megadiverse countries.
Paleo-Indians migrated from Siberia to the North American mainland at least 12,000 years ago. European colonization began in the 16th century; the United States emerged from the thirteen British colonies established along the East Coast. Numerous disputes between Great Britain and the colonies following the French and Indian War led to the American Revolution, which began in 1775, the subsequent Declaration of Independence in 1776; the war ended in 1783 with the United States becoming the first country to gain independence from a European power. The current constitution was adopted in 1788, with the first ten amendments, collectively named the Bill of Rights, being ratified in 1791 to guarantee many fundamental civil liberties; the United States embarked on a vigorous expansion across North America throughout the 19th century, acquiring new territories, displacing Native American tribes, admitting new states until it spanned the continent by 1848. During the second half of the 19th century, the Civil War led to the abolition of slavery.
By the end of the century, the United States had extended into the Pacific Ocean, its economy, driven in large part by the Industrial Revolution, began to soar. The Spanish–American War and World War I confirmed the country's status as a global military power; the United States emerged from World War II as a global superpower, the first country to develop nuclear weapons, the only country to use them in warfare, a permanent member of the United Nations Security Council. Sweeping civil rights legislation, notably the Civil Rights Act of 1964, the Voting Rights Act of 1965 and the Fair Housing Act of 1968, outlawed discrimination based on race or color. During the Cold War, the United States and the Soviet Union competed in the Space Race, culminating with the 1969 U. S. Moon landing; the end of the Cold War and the collapse of the Soviet Union in 1991 left the United States as the world's sole superpower. The United States is the world's oldest surviving federation, it is a representative democracy.
The United States is a founding member of the United Nations, World Bank, International Monetary Fund, Organization of American States, other international organizations. The United States is a developed country, with the world's largest economy by nominal GDP and second-largest economy by PPP, accounting for a quarter of global GDP; the U. S. economy is post-industrial, characterized by the dominance of services and knowledge-based activities, although the manufacturing sector remains the second-largest in the world. The United States is the world's largest importer and the second largest exporter of goods, by value. Although its population is only 4.3% of the world total, the U. S. holds 31% of the total wealth in the world, the largest share of global wealth concentrated in a single country. Despite wide income and wealth disparities, the United States continues to rank high in measures of socioeconomic performance, including average wage, human development, per capita GDP, worker productivity.
The United States is the foremost military power in the world, making up a third of global military spending, is a leading political and scientific force internationally. In 1507, the German cartographer Martin Waldseemüller produced a world map on which he named the lands of the Western Hemisphere America in honor of the Italian explorer and cartographer Amerigo Vespucci; the first documentary evidence of the phrase "United States of America" is from a letter dated January 2, 1776, written by Stephen Moylan, Esq. to George Washington's aide-de-camp and Muster-Master General of the Continental Army, Lt. Col. Joseph Reed. Moylan expressed his wish to go "with full and ample powers from the United States of America to Spain" to seek assistance in the revolutionary war effort; the first known publication of the phrase "United States of America" was in an anonymous essay in The Virginia Gazette newspaper in Williamsburg, Virginia, on April 6, 1776. The second draft of the Articles of Confederation, prepared by John Dickinson and completed by June 17, 1776, at the latest, declared "The name of this Confederation shall be the'United States of America'".
The final version of the Articles sent to the states for ratification in late 1777 contains the sentence "The Stile of this Confederacy shall be'The United States of America'". In June 1776, Thomas Jefferson wrote the phrase "UNITED STATES OF AMERICA" in all capitalized letters in the headline of his "original Rough draught" of the Declaration of Independence; this draft of the document did not surface unti
Chelles is a commune in the eastern suburbs of Paris, France. It is located in the Seine-et-Marne department in the Île-de-France region 18 km from the center of Paris. Paleolithic artifacts were discovered by chance at Chelles by the pioneering nineteenth-century anthropologist Louis Laurent Gabriel de Mortillet. At the Merovingian villa of Calae the abbey of Notre-Dame-des-Chelles was founded by Balthild, a seventh-century queen of the Franks, it was demolished at the time of the French Revolution. There are two main streets in Avenue Foch and Avenue de la Résistance; the inhabitants are called Chellois. Chelles is served by Chelles – Gournay station on Paris RER line and on the Transilien Paris – Est suburban rail line; as of 2016 the commune has 13,000 students in 46 private schools. The commune includes 16 public elementary schools. There are also: Four public junior high schools: Collège Beau soleil, Collège Corot, Collège de l’Europe, Collège Weczerka - Beau Soleil and de l'Europe have Enseignement Général Professionnel Adapté programmes Three public senior high schools/sixth-form colleges, Lycée Gaston Bachelard, Lycée Professionnel Louis Lumière, Lycée Jehan de Chelles One private school - Institution Gasnier Guy, with private preschool and elementary school, junior high school, senior high school divisionsChelles includes a library, Bibliothèque Olympe de Gouges, a media centre, Médiathèque Jean-Pierre Vernant.
The commune includes the Musée Alfred-Bonno. There is a public swimming pool, a public skate park which opened in 1999. Chelles is town twinned with the city of Lindau Communes of the Seine-et-Marne department INSEE Official website 1999 Land Use, from IAURIF French Ministry of Culture list for Chelles Map of Chelles on Michelin
The RER D is one of five RER lines serving Paris, France. It connects Orry-la-Ville and Creil in the north to Melun, Corbeil-Essonnes and Malesherbes in the south, passing through the heart of Paris. Opened in stages from 1987 to 1996, it is the longest RER line by distance, the busiest SNCF line in France, carrying up to 615,000 passengers and operating 466 trains each working day. All of the line is located in the Île-de-France region, that is, within the jurisdiction of the Île-de-France mobilités, but the some of the branch line ends at the north and south are outside this region. Due to a high rate of incidents, social issues and poor on time performance, the line is sometimes colloquially known as the "RER poubelle". Line D links Gare du Nord with Gare de Lyon via Châtelet – Les-Halles; the northern section of Gare du Nord opened in the late 1980s. Operated Villiers-le-Bel – Gare du Nord – Châtelet-Les Halles, 19 km, using the Line B Tunnel to Châtelet – Les Halles 1988: Extension north towards Goussainville.
September 1990: Extension north towards Orry-la-Ville. September 1995: Inauguration of "Interconnexion Sud-Est"; the line is extended from Châtelet to Melun and La Ferté-Alais Malesherbes in the south of Paris. 25 January 1998: New station, Stade de France – Saint-Denis, opened. Located between Gare du Nord and St-Denis. 29 January 2007: First renovated Z 20500 stock in service. 19 March 2008: Start of the "D Maintenant" programme by Guillaume Pepy, the president of SNCF. 14 December 2008: Reduced "Interconnexion Nord-Sud" service, with 8 interconnected trains per hour. Late 2009: End of the "D Maintenant" programme. 7 December 2011: Start of studies for the doubling of the Châtelet-Gare du Nord tunnel. 15 December 2013: New station, Créteil-Pompadour, opened. The "métro régional", the ancestor to the RER, was conceived of three lines, one going from east to west, a new line built from existing lines, the extension of the Ligne de Sceaux and with its interconnection with an SNCF line, along with a supplementary interconnected north-south.
The operation of renovating "les Halles" gave the occasion to build Châtelet-Les Halles with a cut-and-cover method, in order to reduce costs. The new RER D was meant to share with the RER A between Paris-Gare de Lyon and Châtelet-Les Halles. But, RATP, the company who runs the RER A, objected to such an operation as the number of passengers using the RER A was growing and required running extra trains on the RER A, it was decided that instead, each lines must have its own platforms, in which the RER A at the Gare de Lyon has its tracks at lower level of the underground station, with the future RER D on the upper level. The RER D tracks at Paris-Gare de Lyon have four tracks and being above the RER A tracks, allowed "platform to platform" transfers vertically, a Japanese invention. On 27 September 1987, the RER D was created, by extending existing suburban trains from Villiers-le-Bel to Gare du Nord, towards Châtelet-Les Halles. 19 km long, it was equipped with bi-current Z 8800 stock trains, while newer Z 20500 stock trains were still being built.
At Châtelet-Les Halles station, the RER D terminated on the three central tracks built from the conception of Châtelet-Les Halles station. In 1988, existing suburban trains terminating at Goussainville now integrate with the RER D. On the same year, the first bi-mode Z 20500 trains are in service, they were composed of 4 cars until the north-south interconnection was inaugurated in 1995, when they became 5-car trains. In September 1990, the RER D again extended north to Orry-la-Ville. At the same time, one-man operation started on the RER D. On 11 September 1995, the north-south interconnection of the RER D was put into service by building a dedicated 2.5 km long tunnel between Châtelet-Les Halles and Paris-Gare de Lyon. In 1996, the RER D was extended south from La Ferté-Alais to Malesherbes. On 15 January 1998 for the 1998 FIFA World Cup, Stade de France - Saint-Denis station opened, in order to serve the Stade de France. A high number of incidents, from a social and service point of view, have brought the term "RER poubelle" used by its users, its staff.
Assaults are frequent and unpunctuality is the highest in the Transilien network, with the number of late trains going from 9.9% to 14.1% between 1994 and 1995. On 22 November 2006, the STIF has approved a master plan for the RER D, in order to establish short and long term goals for the reliability of the RER D. On 29 January 2007, the first renovated Z 20500 train was presented, the first out of 137 trains. Renovated trains feature uniform 2 +3 seats, new lighting and new floor covering; the renovation programme costs over €100,000,000. The RER D is seen in Paris as the most unpunctual railway line in the RER network; this unpunctuality is due to the tunnel the RER B and RER D lines share between Châtelet - Les Halles station and Gare du Nord station, where a small delay of a few seconds on either lines can cause catastrophic delays and trains to be cancelled. The effects of this mean regular commuters of the RER D are used to trains being cancelled or late daily. On 20 September 2003, an unusual incident occurred near Villeneuve-Triage station.
A southbound train stopped at 18:50 on the central track near the station due to an incident. Passengers aboard were invited to step off the train by the left, as track 2M has been neutralised by
Rueil-Malmaison is a commune in the western suburbs of Paris, in the Hauts-de-Seine department of France. It is located 12.6 kilometres from the centre of Paris. It is one of the wealthiest suburbs of Paris. Rueil-Malmaison was called Rueil. In medieval times the name Rueil was spelled either Roialum, Rotoialum, Ruolium, or Ruellium; this name is made of the Celtic word ialo suffixed to a radical meaning "brook, stream", or maybe to a radical meaning "ford". In 1928, the name of the commune became Rueil-Malmaison in reference to its most famous tourist attraction, the Château de Malmaison, home of Napoléon's first wife Joséphine de Beauharnais; the name Malmaison comes from Medieval Latin mala mansio, meaning "ill-fated domain", "estate of ill luck". In the Early Middle Ages Malmaison was the site of a royal residence, destroyed by the Vikings in 846. Rueil is famous for the Château de Malmaison where Napoleon and his first wife Joséphine de Beauharnais lived. Upon her death in 1814, she was buried at the nearby Saint-Pierre-Saint-Paul church, which stands at the centre of the city.
The Rueil barracks of the Swiss Guard were constructed in 1756 under Louis XV by the architect Axel Guillaumot, have been classified Monument historique since 1973. The Guard was formed by Louis XIII in 1616 and massacred at the Tuileries on 10 August 1792 during the French Revolution. During the Franco-Prussian War of 1870, Rueil was located on the front line. At the end of the 19th century, Impressionist painters like Pierre-Auguste Renoir, Édouard Manet and Claude Monet came to paint the Seine River which crosses the town. Rueil is the principal location of the novel Loin de Rueil by the French novelist Raymond Queneau; the town is twinned with Surrey, in the United Kingdom. The Château de Malmaison, the residence of Napoléon's first wife Joséphine de Beauharnais, is located in Rueil-Malmaison, it is home to a Napoleonic museum. The main campus of the French Institute of Petroleum research organisation is in Rueil; the city has become home to many large companies moving out of La Défense business district, located only 5 km from Rueil, a trend first established by the move of Esso headquarters to Rueil.
There are about 850 service sector companies located in Rueil, 70 of which employ more than 100 people. A business district called Rueil-sur-Seine was created near the RER A Rueil-Malmaison station to accommodate these companies; the business district is equipped with a fiber-optic network. Several major French companies have their world headquarters in Rueil-Malmaison, such as Schneider Electric and VINCI. Schneider had its head office in Rueil-Malmaison since 2000. Several large international companies have located their French headquarters in Rueil-Malmaison, such as ExxonMobil, AstraZeneca, American Express and Unilever. Rueil-Malmaison is served by Rueil-Malmaison station on Paris RER line A. Public schools: 15 preschools 15 elementary schools Six junior high schools: Les Bons-Raisins, Henri-Dunant, La Malmaison, Les Martinets, Marcel-Pagnol, Jules-Verne Two senior high schools: Lycée Richelieu, Lycée polyvalent Gustave-EiffelPrivate schools: Collège et lycée Passy-Buzenval Collège et lycée Madeleine-Daniélou Collège Notre-Dame École maternelle et élémentaire Saint-Charles-Notre Dame Ecole maternelle élémentaire Charles-Peguy Ecole Montessori Bilingue de Rueil-MalmaisonThere are tertiary educational institutions in the area.
Jean-Marie Le Pen and his wife, Jany Le Pen, live in a two-story house on the rue Hortense. Rueil-Malmaison is twinned with: ^1 Sister City Communes of the Hauts-de-Seine department List of works by Eugène Guillaume INSEE Rueil-Malmaison Official website official Tourist Board of Rueil Malmaison
Bondy is a commune in the northeastern suburbs of Paris, France. It is located 10.9 km from the centre of Paris. The name Bondy was recorded for the first time around AD 600 as Bonitiacum, meaning "estate of Bonitius", a Gallo-Roman landowner. During the Middle Ages Bondy was forest; the forest of Bondy was a well-known haunt of bandits and robbers and was dangerous. On 3 January 1905, a third of the territory of Bondy was detached and became the commune of Les Pavillons-sous-Bois. On 30 October 2007, a gas explosion injured 47 people. Bondy and its integration into Paris is the subject of part of the second-last chapter of Graham Robb's book Parisians. Frédéric Bakekolo, handball player Élodie Fontan, actress Serge Gakpe, footballer Mohamed Hamidi Max Hilaire, footballer Muriel Hurtis and field, athlete Steeven Joseph-Monrose, footballer Kevin Lafrance, footballer David Larose, judoka André Malraux, spent much of his childhood in Bondy Kylian Mbappé, footballer Sylvain Meslien, footballer Guy Moussi, footballer Michael Nicoise, footballer Maureen Nisima, fencer Birthplace of Claude-Carloman de Rulhière, poet and historian.
Lalya Sidibe, basketball player Doriane Tahane, basketball player Audrey Tcheumeo, judoka Teddy Tinmar, athlete Bakaye Traoré, footballer Fodie Traore, footballer Jimmy Vicaut, athlete Thierry Zig, basketball player Elisa Doughty, actress, model Lartiste, singer Bondy is part of the canton of Bondy, created in 2015. Bondy is served by Bondy station on Paris RER line E and the Line 4 of the Tramways in Île-de-France; as of 2016 the commune had 27 public primary schools with 6,900 students. There are five public junior high schools and three public senior high schools. 13 public preschools 14 public elementary schools Junior high schools: Pierre Brossolette, Henri Sellier, Jean Zay, Jean Renoir, Pierre Curie Senior high schools: Lycée Léo-Lagrange, Lycée Marcel-Pagnol, Lycée Jean-RenoirThere is a private elementary through high school, Institut privé de l'Assomption. Communes of the Seine-Saint-Denis department INSEE Town council website
Versailles is a city in the Yvelines département in the Île-de-France region, renowned worldwide for the Château de Versailles and the gardens of Versailles, designated UNESCO World Heritage Sites. Located in the western suburbs of the French capital, 17.1 km from the centre of Paris, Versailles is in the 21st century a wealthy suburb of Paris with a service-based economy and a major tourist destination as well. According to the 2008 census, the population of the city is 88,641 inhabitants, down from a peak of 94,145 in 1975. A new town founded at the will of King Louis XIV, Versailles was the de facto capital of the Kingdom of France for over a century, from 1682 to 1789, before becoming the cradle of the French Revolution. After having lost its status of royal city, it became the préfecture of the Seine-et-Oise département in 1790 of Yvelines in 1968, it is a Roman Catholic diocese. Versailles is known for numerous treaties such as the Treaty of Paris, which ended the American Revolution, the Treaty of Versailles, after World War I.
Today, the Congress of France – the name given to the body created when both houses of the French Parliament, the National Assembly and the Senate, meet – gathers in the Château de Versailles to vote on revisions to the Constitution. The argument over the etymology of Versailles tends to privilege the Latin word versare, meaning "to keep turning, turn over and over", an expression used in medieval times for plowed lands, cleared lands; this word formation is similar to Latin seminare. During the Revolution of 1789, city officials had proposed to the Convention to rename Versailles Berceau-de-la-Liberté, but they had to retract their proposal when confronted with the objections of the majority of the population. From May 1682, when Louis XIV moved the court and government permanently to Versailles, until his death in September 1715, Versailles was the unofficial capital of the kingdom of France. For the next seven years, during the Régence of Philippe d'Orléans, the royal court of the young King Louis XV was the first in Paris, while the Regent governed from his Parisian residence, the Palais-Royal.
Versailles was again the unofficial capital of France from June 1722, when Louis XV returned to Versailles, until October 1789, when a Parisian mob forced Louis XVI and the royal family to move to Paris. Versailles again became the unofficial capital of France from March 1871, when Adolphe Thiers' government took refuge in Versailles, fleeing the insurrection of the Paris Commune, until November 1879, when the newly elected government and parliament returned to Paris. During the various periods when government affairs were conducted from Versailles, Paris remained the official capital of France. Versailles was made the préfecture of the Seine-et-Oise département at its inception in March 1790. By the 1960s, with the growth of the Paris suburbs, the Seine-et-Oise had reached more than 2 million inhabitants, was deemed too large and ungovernable, thus it was split into three départements in January 1968. Versailles was made the préfecture of the Yvelines département, the largest chunk of the former Seine-et-Oise.
At the 2006 census the Yvelines had 1,395,804 inhabitants. Versailles is the seat of a Roman Catholic diocese, created in 1790; the diocese of Versailles is subordinate to the archdiocese of Paris. In 1975, Versailles was made the seat of a Court of Appeal whose jurisdiction covers the western suburbs of Paris. Since 1972, Versailles has been the seat of one of France's 30 nationwide académies of the Ministry of National Education; the académie de Versailles, the largest of France's thirty académies by its number of pupils and students, is in charge of supervising all the elementary schools and high schools of the western suburbs of Paris. Versailles is an important node for the French army, a tradition going back to the monarchy with, for instance, the military camp of Satory and other institutions. Versailles is located 17.1 km west-southwest from the centre of Paris. The city sits on an elevated plateau, 130 to 140 metres above sea-level, surrounded by wooded hills: in the north the forests of Marly and Fausses-Reposes, in the south the forests of Satory and Meudon.
The city of Versailles has an area of 26.18 km2, a quarter of the area of the city of Paris. In 1989, Versailles had a population density of 3,344/km2, whereas Paris had a density of 20,696/km2. Born out of the will of a king, the city has a symmetrical grid of streets. By the standards of the 18th century, Versailles was a modern European city. Versailles was used as a model for the building of Washington, D. C. by Pierre Charles L'Enfant. The name of Versailles appears for the first time in a medieval document dated 1038. In the feudal system of medieval France, the lords of Versailles came directly under the king of France, with no intermediary overlords between them and the king. In the end of the 11th century, the village curled around a medieval castle and the Saint Julien church, its farming activity and its location on the road from Paris to Dreux and Normandy brought prosperity to the village, culminating in the end of the 13th century, the so-called "century of Saint Louis", famous for the prosperity of northern France and the building of Gothic cathedrals.
The 14th century brought the Black Death and t