Bevern, Lower Saxony
Bevern is a municipality in the District of Holzminden, Lower Saxony, Germany. It is the adminsitrative seat of the Samtgemeinde of Bevern. Bevern lies on the Weser river near its confluence with the Beverbach tributary, located between the Burgberg and Vogler hill ranges of the Weser Uplands; the municipal area comprises the villages of Bevern proper, Forst, Dölme, Lobach, Lütgenade, Reileifzen. The Saxon settlement of Byueran was first mentioned in a register of Corvey Abbey in 822; the construction of a church was documented in 1501. The community is chiefly known for Bevern Castle, a Renaissance palace built as a manor house from 1603 to 1612. Purchased by the Welf dukes of Brunswick-Lüneburg during the Thirty Years' War in 1633, the building served as the residence of a cadet line, known as Brunswick-Bevern, from 1667 until the late 18th century. Bevern Palace
Duchy of Brunswick-Lüneburg
The Duchy of Brunswick-Lüneburg, or more properly the Duchy of Brunswick and Lüneburg, was a historical duchy that existed from the late Middle Ages to the Early Modern era within the Holy Roman Empire. The duchy was located in, its name came from the two largest cities in the territory: Lüneburg. The dukedom emerged in 1235 from the allodial lands of the House of Welf in Saxony and was granted as an imperial fief to Otto the Child, a grandson of Henry the Lion; the duchy was divided several times during the High Middle Ages amongst various lines of the House of Welf, but each ruler was styled "Duke of Brunswick-Lüneburg" in addition to his own particular title. By 1692, the territories had consolidated to two: the Electorate of Brunswick-Lüneburg and the Principality of Brunswick-Wolfenbüttel. In 1714, the Hanoverian branch of the family succeeded to the throne of Great Britain, which they would rule in personal union with Hanover until 1837. For this reason, many cities and provinces in former British colonies are named after Brunswick or Lüneburg.
The Hanoverians never ruled Brunswick while they held the British throne, as the city was part of neighboring Brunswick-Wolfenbüttel. After the Congress of Vienna in 1814/15, the Brunswick-Lüneburg territories became the Kingdom of Hanover and the Duchy of Brunswick; when the imperial ban was placed on Henry the Lion in 1180, he lost his titles as Duke of Saxony and Duke of Bavaria. He went into exile for several years, but was allowed to stay on the estates inherited from his mother's side until the end of his life. At the Imperial Diet of 1235 in Mainz, as part of the reconciliation between the Hohenstaufen and Welf families, Henry's grandson, Otto the Child, transferred his estates to Emperor Frederick II and was enfeoffed in return with the newly created Duchy of Brunswick-Lüneburg, formed from the estates transferred to the Emperor as well as other large areas of the imperial fisc. After his death in 1252, he was succeeded by his sons, Albert the Tall and John, who ruled the dukedom jointly.
In 1269 the duchy was divided, Albert receiving the southern part of the state around Brunswick and John the northern territories in the area of Lüneburg. The towns of Lüneburg and Brunswick remained in the overall possession of the House of Welf until 1512 and 1671 respectively. In 1571 the Amt of Calvörde became an exclave of the Duchy; the various parts of the duchy were further divided and re-united over the centuries, all of them being ruled by the Welf or Guelph dynasty, who maintained close relations with one another—not infrequently by marrying cousins—a practice far more common than is the case today among the peasantry of the Holy Roman Empire, for the salic inheritance laws in effect, encouraged the practice of retaining control of lands and benefits. The seats of power moved in the meantime from Brunswick and Lüneburg to Celle and Wolfenbüttel as the towns asserted their independence; the subsequent history of the dukedom and its subordinate principalities was characterised by numerous divisions and reunifications.
The subordinate states that were created, which had the legal status of principalities, were named after the residence of their rulers. The estates of the different dynastic lines could be inherited by a side line when a particular family died out. For example, over the course of the centuries there were the Old and New Houses of Brunswick, the Old and New Houses of Lüneburg; the number of reigning dynastic lines varied from two to five. In 1269 the Principality of Brunswick was formed following the first division of the Duchy of Brunswick-Lüneburg. In 1432, as a result of increasing tensions with the townsfolk of Brunswick, the Brunswick Line moved their Residence to Wolfenbüttel, into the water castle, expanded into a Schloss, whilst the town was developed into a royal seat; the name Wolfenbüttel was given to this principality. From 1546 Wolfenbüttel became the residence of the senior prince of Brunswick-Lüneburg, Prince Henry, Duke of Brunswick-Dannenberg. With sole rights to the duchy Brunswick-Lüneburg, he provided a conditional lease of the principality of Lüneburg to the princes of Calenburg with the conditions of payment to Wolfenbüttel heirs, together with the guarantee that only his descendants would inherit this senior principality of Wolfenbüttel.
Not until 1753/1754 was the Residence moved back to Brunswick, into the newly built Brunswick Palace. In 1814 the principality became the Duchy of Brunswick, with its own subordinate principalities that are all apart from the Calenburg principality from which sprang the de facto Kingdom of Hanover, a Kingdom, declared a usurpation by the head of house, Charles II of Brunswick-Wolfenbüttel, in his edict of May 10, 1827. In 1866 Prussia refused to recognize the Kingdom of Hanover. Prince Charles II of Brunswick-Wolfenbüttel protested the violent annexation from his places of exile in Paris, as well as Geneva Switzerland and sealed the 12th of April 1873. In 1432 the estates gained by the Principality of Brunswick-Wolfenbüttel between the Deister and Leine split away as the Principality of Calenberg. To the north this new state bordered on the County of Hoya near Nienburg and extended from there in a narrow, winding strip southwards up the River Leine through Wunstorf and Hanover where it reached the Principality of Wolfenbüttel.
In 1495 it was expanded in 1584 went back to the Wolfenbüttel Line. In 1634, as a result of inheritance distributions, it went to the House of Lüneburg, before becoming an independent principality again in 1635, when it was given to George, younger brother of Prince Ernest I
Augustus William, Duke of Brunswick-Bevern
August Wilhelm, Duke of Brunswick-Bevern, Prussian soldier, son of Ernest Ferdinand, Duke of Brunswick-Lüneburg, was born in Braunschweig in 1715, entered the Prussian army in 1731, becoming colonel of an infantry regiment in 1739. He won great distinction at the battle of Hohenfriedberg as a major-general, was promoted lieutenant-general in 1750. Bevern was one of the most exact soldiers in the army of Frederick the Great, he commanded a wing in the battle of Lobositz in 1756, defeated the Austrians under Marshal Königsegg in a well-fought battle at Reichenberg on 21 April 1757. He took part in the battles of Prague and Kolin and the retreat to Görlitz, subsequently commanded the Prussians left behind by Frederick in the autumn of 1757 when he marched against the French. Bevern conducted a defensive campaign against overwhelming numbers with great skill, but he soon lost the valuable assistance of General Winterfeldt, killed in a skirmish at Moys, he fell into the hands of the Austrians on the following morning, remained prisoner for a year.
He was made general of infantry in 1759, on 11 August 1762 inflicted a severe defeat at Reichenbach on an Austrian army endeavouring to relieve Schweidnitz. Bevern retired, after the peace of Hubertusburg, to his government of Stettin, where he died in peace in 1781
Holzminden is a town in southern Lower Saxony, Germany. It is the capital of the district of Holzminden, it is located on the river Weser, which at this point forms the border with the state of North Rhine-Westphalia. Holzminden is first mentioned in the 9th century as Holtesmeni. However, the name did not at this time refer to the present city, but to the village of Altendorf, the "old village", incorporated into the city in 1922. During the reign of Louis the Pious, monks from the Abbey of Corbie in France came to this part of Germany and founded a daughter house at Hethis in the Solling; as it became clear that this site was unviable it was abandoned, a new monastery, Corbeia nova, opened close to the river. Old documents show; the settlement is believed to have come into being, along with other settlements in the vicinity, in the 6th-7th centuries. Other villages were subsequently abandoned as Holzminden was granted municipal liberties, allowing greater privileges to its inhabitants, attracting new settlers from the surrounding hinterland.
In 1200 the town was brought under the protection of the prince’s castle of Everstein, by 1245 it had received a charter. This was granted by the count of Everstein; the town's coat of arms shows the Everstein lion rampant within the open town gate. From 1408 the town belonged to the Welfen princes. From the 16th century until 1942, Holzminden therefore lay within Brunswick-Lüneburg. In 1640, during the Thirty Years' War, the town was destroyed by the Imperial troops, a blow from which it only recovered; until the 20th century Holzminden remained a provincial town of small holdings. During World War I, Holzminden was the site of a large civilian internment camp on the outskirts of the town, which held up to 10,000 Polish, Russian and French nationals, including women and children. Crafts and farming have long ceased to be the main town's sources of income. Holzminden is now a industrial town. In the late 19th century, Dr Wilhelm Haarmann began developing the scent and flavours industry. In 1874, with Ferdinand Tiemann, he succeeded in synthesising vanillin from coniferyl alcohol.
More products were subsequently developed. The modern successor of their enterprise is the Symrise factory: Holzminden is a centre of the flavour and fragrance ingredient industry, its products being used throughout the world in cosmetic and food manufacture; the large Stiebel Eltron company, which produces heating and hot water products, has its headquarters in Holzminden. Owens-Illinois conducts a glassworks in the town; as a part of the former territory of Brunswick, Holzminden maintains a Protestant tradition. The church of St. Pauls in Altendorf, dating from before 1200, is the oldest of the town's churches. In its unadorned simplicity it offers a serene place for contemplation. Other churches in the town are named after St. Michael, St. Thomas and St. Joseph; the Tilly House of 1609 is located on the Johannis Square. It has a fine Renaissance door. Johann Tserclaes, Count of Tilly, commander of the Imperial forces, is said to have spent a night here; the Reichspräsidentenhaus links the old part of the town with the Hafendamm and was opened in 1929.
The beautiful Glockenspiel is popular, plays well known tunes at set times. The steeple of the Lutheran church has become a symbol of Holzminden; the interior was remodelled in 1577. The Severinsche Haus is a richly decorated house dating from 1683, it is the largest of the bourgeois houses, is decorated with a distinctive weathercock, is known for its slanting floors. There is a good viewing platform on the Emperor William Tower, south of the town; the town museum The doll and toy museum HAWK, the Hochschule für angewandte Wissenschaft und Kunst, was founded in 1831/32 by Friedrich Ludwig Haarmann as the first college of architecture in Germany. The Bauschule is now a prominent feature of the town, many student activities, such as the traditional master's procession, are regular events on the Holzminden calendar. LSH, the Internat Solling, is a private boarding school founded in 1909 as part of an educational reform movement that sought to cultivate "Mind and Hand" equally; the campus occupies large parklike grounds on a western slope of the Solling.
Campe-Gymnasium. A Gymnasium is a top school for emphasizes academic learning and comparable to the British grammar school system or with prep schools in the United States; the other secondary schools are the Johannes-Falk-Schule. There are a Förderschule, Schule an der Weser and Anne-Frank-Schule. Holzminden is twinned with: Leven, Scotland August Hampe, German politician, Minister of Justice of the Braunschweig District. Erwin Böhme, World War I flying ace. Leopold Scherman, architect. Carl Wilhelm Gerberding and founder of Dragoco. Adolf Heusinger, German general and Chairman of the NATO Military Committee. Eberhard Itzenplitz, film director. Ulrich Brinkhoff Photographer and writer Robert Bunsen, chemist. Wilhelm Konrad Hermann Müller, a philologist of Germanic studies. Wilhelm Raabe, nov
House of Welf
The House of Welf is a European dynasty that has included many German and British monarchs from the 11th to 20th century and Emperor Ivan VI of Russia in the 18th century. The House of Welf is the older branch of the House of Este, a dynasty whose earliest known members lived in Lombardy in the late 9th/early 10th century, sometimes called Welf-Este; the first member was Welf Duke of Bavaria. Welf IV was the son of Welf III's sister Kunigunde of Altdorf and her husband Albert Azzo II, Margrave of Milan. In 1070, Welf IV became duke of Bavaria. Welf II, Duke of Bavaria married Countess Matilda of Tuscany, who died childless and left him her possessions, including Tuscany, Modena and Reggio, which played a role in the Investiture Controversy. Since the Welf dynasty sided with the Pope in this controversy, partisans of the Pope came to be known in Italy as Guelphs. Henry IX, Duke of Bavaria, from 1120–1126, was the first of the three dukes of the Welf dynasty called Henry, his wife Wulfhild was the heiress of the house of Billung, possessing the territory around Lüneburg in Lower Saxony.
Their son, Henry the Proud was the son-in-law and heir of Lothair II, Holy Roman Emperor and became duke of Saxony on Lothair's death. Lothair left his territory around Brunswick, inherited from his mother of the Brunonids, to his daughter Gertrud, her husband Henry the Proud became the favoured candidate in the imperial election against Conrad III of the Hohenstaufen. But Henry lost the election, as the other princes feared his power and temperament, was dispossessed of his duchies by Conrad III. Henry's brother Welf VI, Margrave of Tuscany left his Swabian territories around Ravensburg, the original possessions of the Elder House of Welf, to his nephew Emperor Frederick I and thus to the House of Hohenstaufen; the next duke of the Welf dynasty Henry the Lion recovered his father's two duchies, Saxony in 1142, Bavaria in 1156 and thus ruled vast parts of Germany. In 1168 he married Matilda, the daughter of Henry II of England and Eleanor of Aquitaine, sister of Richard I of England, gaining more influence.
His first cousin, Frederick I, Holy Roman Emperor of the Hohenstaufen dynasty, tried to get along with him, but when Henry refused to assist him once more in an Italian war campaign, conflict became inevitable. Dispossessed of his duchies after the Battle of Legnano in 1176 by Emperor Frederick I and the other princes of the German Empire eager to claim parts of his vast territories, he was exiled to the court of his father-in-law Henry II in Normandy in 1180, but returned to Germany three years later. Henry made his peace with the Hohenstaufen Emperor in 1185, returned to his much diminished lands around Brunswick without recovering his two duchies. Bavaria had been given to Otto I, Duke of Bavaria, the Duchy of Saxony was divided between the Archbishop of Cologne, the House of Ascania and others. Henry died at Brunswick in 1195. Henry the Lion's son Otto of Brunswick was elected King of the Romans and crowned Holy Roman Emperor Otto IV after years of further conflicts with the Hohenstaufen emperors.
He incurred the wrath of Pope Innocent III and was excommunicated in 1215. Otto was forced to abdicate the imperial throne by the Hohenstaufen Frederick II, he was the only Welf to become emperor of the Holy Roman Empire. Henry the Lion's grandson Otto the Child became duke of a part of Saxony in 1235, the new Duchy of Brunswick-Lüneburg, died there in 1252; the duchy was divided several times during the High Middle Ages amongst various lines of the House of Welf. The subordinate states had the legal status of principalities within the duchy, which remained as an undivided imperial fief; each state was named after the ruler's residence, e.g. the rulers of Brunswick-Wolfenbüttel lived in Wolfenbüttel. Whenever a branch of the family died out in the male line, the territory was given to another line, as the duchy remained enfeoffed to the family as a whole rather than its individual members. All members of the House of Welf, male or female, bore the title Duke/Duchess of Brunswick-Lüneburg in addition to the style of the subordinate principality.
By 1705, the subordinate principalities had taken their final form as the Electorate of Hanover and the Principality of Brunswick-Wolfenbüttel, these would become the Kingdom of Hanover and the Duchy of Brunswick after the Congress of Vienna in 1815. In 1269 the Principality of Brunswick was formed following the first division of the Duchy of Brunswick-Lüneburg. In 1432, as a result of increasing tensions with the townsfolk of Brunswick, the Brunswick Line moved their residence to Wolfenbüttel Castle, thus the name Wolfenbüttel became the unofficial name of this principality. With Ivan VI of Russia the Brunswick line had a short intermezzo on the Russian imperial throne in 1740. Not until 1754 was the residence moved back to Brunswick, into the new Brunswick Palace. In 1814 the principality became the Duchy of Brunswick, ruled by the senior branch of the House of Welf. In 1432 the estates gained by the Principality of Brunswick-Wolfenbüttel between the Deister and Leine split away as the Principality of Calenberg.
In 1495 it was expanded in 1584 went back to the Wolfenbüttel Line. In 1634, as a result of inheritance distributions, it went to the House of Luneburg residing at Celle Castle. In 1635 it was given to George, younger brother of Prince Ernest II of Lüneburg, who chose Hanover as his residence. New territory was added in 1665, in 1705 the Principality of Luneburg was taken over by the Hanoverians. In 1692 Duke Ernest A
William, Duke of Brunswick
William, Duke of Brunswick, was ruling duke of the Duchy of Brunswick from 1830 until his death. William was the second son of Frederick William, Duke of Brunswick-Lüneburg, after the death of his father in 1815, was under the guardianship of King George IV of the United Kingdom, he became a Prussian major in 1823. When his brother, was deposed as ruling duke by a rebellion in 1830, William took over the government provisionally. In 1831, a family law of the House of Guelph made William the ruling duke permanently. William left most government business to his ministers, he spent most of his time outside of his state at his possessions in Oels. While William joined the Prussian-led North German Confederation in 1866, his relationship to Prussia was strained, since Prussia refused to recognize Ernest Augustus, Crown Prince of Hanover, his nearest male-line relative, as his heir, because of the Duke of Cumberland's claim to the throne of Hanover. William died in 1884, his death caused a constitutional crisis for Brunswick that lasted until the accession of Ernest Augustus, Duke of Brunswick, the son of the Crown Prince of Hanover, in 1913.
William had a number of illegitimate children. Meyers Konversationslexikon, 1889 Paul Zimmermann, "Wilhelm", Allgemeine Deutsche Biographie, 43, Leipzig: Duncker & Humblot, pp. 4–13
Augustus the Younger, Duke of Brunswick-Lüneburg
Augustus II, called the Younger, a member of the House of Welf was Duke of Brunswick-Lüneburg. In the estate division of the House of Welf of 1635, he received the Principality of Wolfenbüttel which he ruled until his death. Considered one of the most literate princes of his time, he is known for founding the Herzog August Library at his Wolfenbüttel residence the largest collection of books and manuscripts north of the Alps. Augustus was born at the seventh child of Duke Henry of Brunswick-Lüneburg, his father had ruled over the Brunswick Principality of Lüneburg, jointly with his younger brother William, since 1559. Ten years however, upon his marriage with Ursula, a daughter of the Ascanian duke Francis I of Saxe-Lauenburg, he had to waive all rights and claims and was compensated with the small Dannenberg lordship. Moreover, he received an annual payment and had reserved the inheritance right of his descendants should the Brunswick-Wolfenbüttel line become extinct. Augustus was the youngest child from the marriage of Henry and Ursula.
With little chance to take up any rule in the Brunswick lands, he concentrated on his studies in Rostock, Tübingen, Straßburg. Afterwards, he travelled on a Grand Tour through Italy, the Netherlands, England. Back in Germany at the age of 25, he took his residence in Hitzacker, where he spent the next three decades with a small court, continuing his studies. Succession arose in the midst of the Thirty Years' War, when the last Wolfenbüttel prince, Duke Frederick Ulrich of Brunswick-Lüneburg died without heirs in 1634. After lengthy and complicated negotiations with his reluctant Welf relatives and an intervention by Emperor Ferdinand II, it was agreed that Augustus should inherit the Wolfenbüttel principality; because of the ongoing war, he had to stay at Dankwarderode Castle in Braunschweig and could not move to his residence until 1644. Soon after, Augustus instituted a number of government reforms, founded the Bibliotheca Augusta. After the 1648 Peace of Westphalia, the Wolfenbüttel lands recovered under his capable rule.
Augustus was a promoter of German as language of literature. Under the pseudonym Gustavus Selenus, he wrote a book on chess in 1616, Chess or the King's Game, a standard reference on cryptography in 1624: Cryptomenytices et Cryptographiae libri IX; the pseudonym itself is a cryptic reference to his name, Gustavus anagrams to Augustus, the surname is a play on the Greek goddess of the moon. The book on cryptography is based on earlier works by Johannes Trithemius; the duke employed the scholar Justus Georg Schottel as tutor of his sons. In 1632 he joined his Fruitbearing Society. Augustus was succeeded by his eldest son Rudolph Augustus. In December 1607 he married Clara Maria of Pomerania-Barth, the eldest daughter of the Griffin duke Bogislaw XIII of Pomerania; the marriage produced two stillborn children. Clara Maria died in February 1623. In October 1623 he married Dorothea of Anhalt-Zerbst, daughter of the Ascanian prince Rudolph of Anhalt-Zerbst, they had the following children: Henry August Rudolph Augustus, Duke of Brunswick-Lüneburg and Duke of Brunswick-Wolfenbüttelmarried firstly, in 1650 Countess Christiane Elisabeth of Barby married secondly, in 1681 Rosine Elisabeth Menthe Sibylle Ursula married in 1663 Duke Christian of Schleswig-Holstein-Glücksburg Klara Auguste married in 1653 Duke Frederick of Württemberg-Neuenstadt Anton Ulrich, Duke of Brunswick-Wolfenbüttelmarried in 1656 princess Elisabeth Juliane of Schleswig-Holstein-Norburg.
Dorothea died in September 1634 and in 1635 Augustus married Duchess Elisabeth Sophie of Mecklenburg, daughter of Duke John Albert II of Mecklenburg. They had two surviving children: Ferdinand Albert I, Duke of Brunswick-Lüneburgmarried in 1667 Christine of Hesse-Eschwege Marie Elisabeth married firstly, in 1663 Adolf William, Duke of Saxe-Eisenach married secondly, in 1676 Albert V, Duke of Saxe-Coburg. Bibliotheca Augusta