Traditional definitions require a topographic map to show both natural and man-made features. A topographic map is published as a map series, made up of two or more map sheets that combine to form the whole map. A contour line is a line connecting places of equal elevation, however, in the vernacular and day to day world, the representation of relief is popularly held to define the genre, such that even small-scale maps showing relief are commonly called topographic. The study or discipline of topography is a broader field of study. Topographic maps are based on topographical surveys, performed at large scales, these surveys are called topographical in the old sense of topography, showing a variety of elevations and landforms. This is in contrast to older cadastral surveys, which primarily show property, the first multi-sheet topographic map series of an entire country, the Carte géométrique de la France, was completed in 1789. Topographic surveys were prepared by the military to assist in planning for battle, as such, elevation information was of vital importance.
As they evolved, topographic map series became a resource in modern nations in planning infrastructure. Excluding borders, each sheet was 44 cm high and up to 66 cm wide, although the project eventually foundered, it left an indexing system that remains in use. TIGER was developed in the 1980s and used in the 1990, digital elevation models were compiled, initially from topographic maps and stereographic interpretation of aerial photographs and from satellite photography and radar data. Since all these were government projects funded with taxes and not classified for security reasons. Initial applications were mostly professionalized forms such as innovative surveying instruments, by the mid-1990s, increasingly user-friendly resources such as online mapping in two and three dimensions, integration of GPS with mobile phones and automotive navigation systems appeared. As of 2011, the future of standardized, centrally printed topographical maps is left somewhat in doubt, the various features shown on the map are represented by conventional signs or symbols.
For example, colors can be used to indicate a classification of roads and these signs are usually explained in the margin of the map, or on a separately published characteristic sheet. Topographic maps are commonly called contour maps or topo maps. In the United States, where the national series is organized by a strict 7. 5-minute grid. Topographic maps conventionally show topography, or land contours, by means of contour lines, contour lines are curves that connect contiguous points of the same altitude. In other words, every point on the line of 100 m elevation is 100 m above mean sea level
The Landsat program is the longest-running enterprise for acquisition of satellite imagery of Earth. On July 23,1972 the Earth Resources Technology Satellite was launched and this was eventually renamed to Landsat. The most recent, Landsat 8, was launched on February 11,2013, the instruments on the Landsat satellites have acquired millions of images. Landsat 7 data has eight spectral bands with spatial resolutions ranging from 15 to 60 meters, Landsat images are usually divided into scenes for easy downloading. Each Landsat scene is about 115 miles long and 115 miles wide, Hughes Santa Barbara Research Center initiated and fabricated the first three Multispectral Scanners in 1969, the same year man landed on the moon. The first prototype MSS was completed nine months, in the fall of 1970. It was tested by scanning Half Dome at Yosemite National Park, the program was initially called the Earth Resources Technology Satellites Program, which was used from 1966 to 1975. In 1975, the name was changed to Landsat and this occurred in 1985 when the Earth Observation Satellite Company, a partnership of Hughes Aircraft and RCA, was selected by NOAA to operate the Landsat system with a ten-year contract.
EOSAT operated Landsat 4 and Landsat 5, had rights to market Landsat data. In 1989, this transition had not been completed when NOAAs funding for the Landsat program was due to run out. The head of the newly formed National Space Council, Vice President Dan Quayle, noted the situation and arranged emergency funding that allowed the program to continue with the data archives intact. Again in 1990 and 1991, Congress provided only half of the funding to NOAA. In 1992, various efforts were made to procure funding for follow on Landsats and continued operations, Landsat 6 was finally launched on October 5,1993, but was lost in a launch failure. Processing of Landsat 4 and 5 data was resumed by EOSAT in 1994, NASA finally launched Landsat 7 on April 15,1999. Timeline Landsat missions 1 through 5 carried the Landsat Multispectral Scanner and this construct ensured the secondary mirror would simply oscillate about the primary optic axis to maintain focus despite vibration inherent from the 360 mm beryllium scan mirror.
This engineering solution allowed the United States to develop LANDSAT at least five years ahead of the French SPOT and this was a direct result of the commercialization efforts begun under the Carter administration, though finally completed under the Reagan administration. This main plate was assembled on a frame, attached to the magnesium housing with helicoil fasteners. Key to the success of the multi spectral scanner was the scan monitor mounted on the underbelly of the magnesium housing, the beam struck the beryllium scan mirror seven times as it reflected seven times off the flat mirrors
The Silurian is a geologic period and system spanning 24.6 million years from the end of the Ordovician Period, at 443.8 million years ago, to the beginning of the Devonian Period,419.2 Mya. As with other periods, the rock beds that define the periods start and end are well identified. The base of the Silurian is set at a major Ordovician-Silurian extinction event when 60% of marine species were wiped out, a significant evolutionary milestone during the Silurian was the diversification of jawed and bony fish. However, terrestrial life would not greatly diversify and affect the landscape until the Devonian, the Silurian system was first identified by British geologist Sir Roderick Impey Murchison, who was examining fossil-bearing sedimentary rock strata in south Wales in the early 1830s. He named the sequences for a Celtic tribe of Wales, the Silures, inspired by his friend Adam Sedgwick and this naming does not indicate any correlation between the occurrence of the Silurian rocks and the land inhabited by the Silures.
As it was first identified, the Silurian series when traced farther afield quickly came to overlap Sedgwicks Cambrian sequence, charles Lapworth resolved the conflict by defining a new Ordovician system including the contested beds. An early alternative name for the Silurian was Gotlandian after the strata of the Baltic island of Gotland, the French geologist Joachim Barrande, building on Murchisons work, used the term Silurian in a more comprehensive sense than was justified by subsequent knowledge. He divided the Silurian rocks of Bohemia into eight stages and his interpretation was questioned in 1854 by Edward Forbes, and the stages of Barrande, F, G and H, have since been shown to be Devonian. Despite these modifications in the groupings of the strata, it is recognized that Barrande established Bohemia as a classic ground for the study of the earliest fossils. The epoch is named for the town of Llandovery in Carmarthenshire, the Wenlock, which lasted from 433.4 ±1.5 to 427.4 ±2.8 mya, is subdivided into the Sheinwoodian and Homerian ages.
It is named after Wenlock Edge in Shropshire, during the Wenlock, the oldest known tracheophytes of the genus Cooksonia, appear. The first terrestrial animals appear in the Wenlock, represented by air-breathing millipedes from Scotland. The Ludlow, lasting from 427.4 ±1.5 to 423 ±2.8 mya, comprises the Gorstian stage, lasting until 425.6 million years ago, and it is named for the town of Ludlow in Shropshire, England. The Pridoli, lasting from 423 ±1.5 to 419.2 ±2.8 mya, is the final and it is named after one locality at the Homolka a Přídolí nature reserve near the Prague suburb Slivenec in the Czech Republic. Přídolí is the old name of a field area. The high sea levels of the Silurian and the flat land resulted in a number of island chains. The southern continents remained united during this period, the melting of icecaps and glaciers contributed to a rise in sea level, recognizable from the fact that Silurian sediments overlie eroded Ordovician sediments, forming an unconformity. The continents of Avalonia and Laurentia drifted together near the equator and this event is the Caledonian orogeny, a spate of mountain building that stretched from New York State through conjoined Europe and Greenland to Norway
The Allegheny Front is the major southeast- or east-facing escarpment in the Allegheny Mountains in southern Pennsylvania, western Maryland, and eastern West Virginia, USA. The Allegheny Front forms the boundary between the Ridge-and-Valley Appalachians to its east and the Appalachian Plateau to its west, the Allegheny Front is one of the windiest spots east of the Mississippi, leading to the recent establishment of wind farming there. The Allegheny Front forms part of the Appalachian Structural Front, separating the Appalachian Plateau from the Appalachians Ridge, the various other escarpments along this structural feature include the Catskill Escarpment to the northeast and the Cumberland Escarpment to the southwest. The name Allegheny Front is applied to the escarpment throughout much of its extent, the highest part of the crest of the Allegheny Front is its southernmost high point, Mount Porte Crayon at 4,770 feet, on the Pendleton/Randolph county line in West Virginia. Its lowest point,790 feet, is along the North Branch of the Potomac River near Keyser, no waterway crosses the Front from east to west.
The Allegheny Plateau, the Eastern drainage divide, and the emphasis the cartographer placed on the Allegheny Front is obvious in this minimalist styled 19th century map, the portage railroad ascends the gap due east of the mining town of Ebensburg, PA. The Allegheny Front begins in central Pennsylvania just northwest of the town of Lock Haven and extends southwest paralleling, Bald Eagle Mountain, and Brush Mountain to its east. Across the Mason–Dixon line in Maryland, the Front becomes Dans Mountain, west of Cumberland, along Marylands southern border, the North Branch of the Potomac River cuts down through the Front at 790 feet just west of Keyser, West Virginia. The Allegheny Fronts southern end is Mount Porte Crayon, after which the land drops steeply to Seneca Creek, south of Mount Porte Crayon and Seneca Creek, the Appalachian Structural Front is less clearly unified. Allegheny Mountains long, nearly level crest is generally about 4,000 to 4,200 feet in elevation, most of the Allegheny Front is capped by a nearly horizontal, erosion-resistant stratum of white Pottsville conglomerate, sometimes where flat with younger Carboniferous strata on top.
The silica-cemented gravel-containing Pottsville rock formed as part of a vast delta in the Pennsylvanian geologic period, the Pottsville bedrock outcrops conspicuously in various more exposed areas along the Fronts eastern edge. S. The nearly continuous high elevation and clifftop bedrock exposures of the Allegheny Front provide an important corridor of habitat in the central Appalachian Mountains. During the fall, the Allegheny Front is associated with an important flyway for birds traveling from their northern breeding grounds to their southern wintering sites. In good weather, the birds can be seen from late morning, among the bird-banding stations and migratory bird observatories associated with this flyway are, Allegheny Front Hawk Watch on the border between Bedford and Somerset counties, Pennsylvania. On 20 September 2003, after the remnants of Hurricane Isabel passed western Pennsylvania,833 hawks were counted passing the site, the Allegheny Front Hawk Watch set three Eastern Flyway Golden Eagle records during the 2015 migration.
The first was counting 74 Golden Eagle on October 24,2015 and this helped propel the hawk site to a new fall record of 320 Golden Eagles being counted during the fall migration. This coupled with the 66 goldens counted in the spring of 2015, Allegheny Front Migratory Observatory near the Red Creek Campground at Dolly Sods, West Virginia. The station is open from August to October in good weather, established in 1958, it is the only cooperative banding station in West Virginia
A geological fold occurs when one or a stack of originally flat and planar surfaces, such as sedimentary strata, are bent or curved as a result of permanent deformation. Synsedimentary folds are those due to slumping of material before it is lithified. Folds in rocks vary in size from microscopic crinkles to mountain-sized folds and they occur singly as isolated folds and in extensive fold trains of different sizes, on a variety of scales. A set of folds distributed on a regional scale constitutes a fold belt, Folds are classified by their size, fold shape and dip of the axial plane. A fold surface seen in profile can be divided into hinge, the limbs are the flanks of the fold and the hinge is where the flanks join together. The hinge point is the point of minimum radius of curvature for a fold, the crest of the fold is the highest point of the fold surface, and the trough is the lowest point. The inflection point of a fold is the point on a limb at which the concavity reverses, on regular folds, the hinge points along an entire folded surface form a hinge line, which can be either a crest line or a trough line.
The trend and plunge of a hinge line gives you information about the orientation of the fold. To more completely describe the orientation of a fold, one must describe the axial surface, the axial surface is the surface defined by connecting all the hinge lines of stacked folding surfaces. If the axial surface is a surface it is called the axial plane and can be described by the strike. An axial trace is the line of intersection of the surface with any other surface. Finally, folds can have, but dont necessarily have a fold axis, a fold axis, “is the closest approximation to a straight line that when moved parallel to itself, generates the form of the fold. ”. A fold that can be generated by an axis is called a cylindrical fold. This term has broadened to include near-cylindrical folds. Often, the axis is the same as the hinge line. A fold can be shaped as a chevron, with planar limbs meeting at an axis, as cuspate with curved limbs, as circular with a curved axis. Fold tightness is defined by the size of the angle between the limbs, called the interlimb angle.
Gentle folds have an angle of between 180° and 120°, open folds range from 120° to 70°, close folds from 70° to 30°
In structural geology, an anticline is a type of fold that is an arch-like shape and has its oldest beds at its core. A typical anticline is convex up in which the hinge or crest is the location where the curvature is greatest, anticlines can be recognized and differentiated from antiforms by a sequence of rock layers that become progressively older toward the center of the fold. Therefore, if age relationships between various rock strata are unknown, the term antiform should be used, the progressing age of the rock strata towards the core and uplifted center, are the trademark indications for evidence of anticlines on a geologic map. These formations occur because anticlinal ridges typically develop above thrust faults during crustal deformations, the uplifted core of the fold causes compression of strata that preferentially erodes to a deeper stratigraphic level relative to the topographically lower flanks. Motion along the fault including both shortening and extension of tectonic plates, usually deforms strata near the fault and this can result in an asymmetrical or overturned fold.
An antiform can be used to describe any fold that is convex up and it is the relative ages of the rock strata that separate anticlines from antiforms. The hinge of an anticline refers to the location where the curvature is greatest, the hinge is the highest point on a stratum along the top of the fold. The culmination refers to the highest point along any geologic structure, the limbs are the sides of the fold that display less curvature. The inflection point is the area on the limbs where the curvature changes direction, the axial surface is an imaginary plane connecting the hinge of each layer of rock stratum through the cross section of an anticline. If the axial surface is vertical and the angles on each side of the fold are equivalent, if the axial plane is tilted or offset the anticline is asymmetrical. An anticline that is cylindrical has a well-defined axial surface, whereas non-cylindrical anticlines are too complex to have an axial plane. If the angle between the limbs is large, the fold is a fold, but if the angle between the limbs is small, the fold is a tight fold.
If an anticline plunges, it will form Vs on a map view that point in the direction of plunge. A plunging anticline has a hinge that is not parallel to the earths surface, all anticlines and synclines have some degree of plunge. Periclinal folds are a type of anticlines that have a well-defined, folds in which the limbs dip toward the hinge and display a more U-like shape are called synclines. They usually flank the sides of anticlines and display opposite characteristics, a synclines oldest rock strata are in its outer limbs, the rocks become progressively younger toward its hinge. A monocline is a bend in the resulting in a local steepening in only one direction of dip. Monoclines have the shape of a carpet draped over a stairstep, an anticline that has been more deeply eroded in the center is called a breached or scalped anticline
Bald Eagle Formation
The Ordovician Bald Eagle Formation is a mapped bedrock unit in central Pennsylvania, USA. It is a unit in the Appalachian Mountains. The Bald Eagle is defined as a gray to olive-gray and grayish-red, a conglomeratic member, called the Lost Run Member, exists in some locations. The depositional environment of the Bald Eagle has always been intrepreted as mostly terrestrial or shallow marine deposits resulting in a molasse sequence produced by the Taconic orogeny, very few fossils exist in the Bald Eagle Formation, and most of them are trace fossils. However, at the base of the formation is the Orthorynchula biostratigraphic marker bed, relative age dating of the Bald Eagle places it in the Upper Ordovician period, being deposited between 488.3 and 443.7 million years ago. It rests conformably atop the Reedsville Formation and conformably below the Juniata Formation, the Bald Eagle is a good source of road material and building stone. However, iron pyrite inclusions may lead to acidic rainwater runoff
Tennessee is a state located in the southeastern region of the United States. Tennessee is the 36th largest and the 17th most populous of the 50 United States, Tennessee is bordered by Kentucky and Virginia to the north, North Carolina to the east, Georgia and Mississippi to the south, and Arkansas and Missouri to the west. The Appalachian Mountains dominate the eastern part of the state, Tennessees capital and second largest city is Nashville, which has a population of 654,610. Memphis is the states largest city, with a population of 655,770, the state of Tennessee is rooted in the Watauga Association, a 1772 frontier pact generally regarded as the first constitutional government west of the Appalachians. What is now Tennessee was initially part of North Carolina, Tennessee was admitted to the Union as the 16th state on June 1,1796. Tennessee was the last state to leave the Union and join the Confederacy at the outbreak of the American Civil War in 1861, occupied by Union forces from 1862, it was the first state to be readmitted to the Union at the end of the war.
Tennessee furnished more soldiers for the Confederate Army than any other state besides Virginia and this sharply reduced competition in politics in the state until after passage of civil rights legislation in the mid-20th century. This city was established to house the Manhattan Projects uranium enrichment facilities, helping to build the worlds first atomic bomb, Tennessees major industries include agriculture and tourism. Poultry and cattle are the primary agricultural products, and major manufacturing exports include chemicals, transportation equipment. In the early 18th century, British traders encountered a Cherokee town named Tanasi in present-day Monroe County, the town was located on a river of the same name, and appears on maps as early as 1725. The meaning and origin of the word are uncertain, some accounts suggest it is a Cherokee modification of an earlier Yuchi word. It has been said to mean meeting place, winding river, according to ethnographer James Mooney, the name can not be analyzed and its meaning is lost.
The modern spelling, Tennessee, is attributed to James Glen, the governor of South Carolina, the spelling was popularized by the publication of Henry Timberlakes Draught of the Cherokee Country in 1765. In 1788, North Carolina created Tennessee County, the county to be established in what is now Middle Tennessee. When a constitutional convention met in 1796 to organize a new out of the Southwest Territory. Other sources differ on the origin of the nickname, according to the Columbia Encyclopedia. Tennessee ties Missouri as the state bordering the most other states, the state is trisected by the Tennessee River. The highest point in the state is Clingmans Dome at 6,643 feet, Clingmans Dome, which lies on Tennessees eastern border, is the highest point on the Appalachian Trail, and is the third highest peak in the United States east of the Mississippi River
Shale is a fine-grained, clastic sedimentary rock composed of mud that is a mix of flakes of clay minerals and tiny fragments of other minerals, especially quartz and calcite. The ratio of clay to other minerals is variable, shale is characterized by breaks along thin laminae or parallel layering or bedding less than one centimeter in thickness, called fissility. Mudstones, on the hand, are similar in composition. Before the mid 19th century, the slate, shale. In the context of underground mining, shale was frequently referred to as slate well into the 20th century. Non-fissile rocks of similar composition but made of smaller than 0.06 mm are described as mudstones or claystone. Rocks with similar sizes but with less clay and therefore grittier are siltstones. Shale is the most common sedimentary rock, shales are typically composed of variable amounts of clay minerals and quartz grains and the typical color is gray. Addition of variable amounts of minor constituents alters the color of the rock, black shale results from the presence of greater than one percent carbonaceous material and indicates a reducing environment.
Black shale can be referred to as black metal, red and green colors are indicative of ferric oxide, iron hydroxide, or micaceous minerals. Clays are the constituent of shales and other mudrocks. The clay minerals represented are largely kaolinite and illite, clay minerals of Late Tertiary mudstones are expandable smectites whereas in older rocks especially in mid- to early Paleozoic shales illites predominate. The transformation of smectite to illite produces silica, calcium, magnesium and these released elements form authigenic quartz, calcite, ankerite and albite, all trace to minor minerals found in shales and other mudrocks. Shales and mudrocks contain roughly 95 percent of the matter in all sedimentary rocks. However, this amounts to less than one percent by mass in an average shale, black shales, which form in anoxic conditions, contain reduced free carbon along with ferrous iron and sulfur. Pyrite and amorphous iron sulfide along with carbon produce the black coloration, the process in the rock cycle which forms shale is called compaction.
The fine particles that compose shale can remain suspended in long after the larger particles of sand have deposited. Shales are typically deposited in very slow moving water and are found in lakes and lagoonal deposits, in river deltas, on floodplains
Tyrone is a borough in Blair County, Pennsylvania,15 miles northeast of Altoona, on the Little Juniata River. Tyrone was of commercial importance in the twentieth century. It was an outlet for the Clearfield coal fields, and it was noted for the manufacture of paper products, there were planing mills, and chemical and candy factories. In 1900,5,847 people lived here, in 1910,7,176, the population was 5,477 at the 2010 census. It is part of the Altoona, PA Metropolitan Statistical Area and it was named for County Tyrone in Ireland. Located along the lines of the Norfolk Southern and Nittany and Bald Eagle railroads, and US-220, PA-453. In those days four railroads and three main highways converged there, the Tyrone Borough Historic District was added to the National Register of Historic Places in 1993. On June 2,1998, an F1 tornado moved southeast along Pennsylvania Route 453 northwest of Tyrone, significant tree damage was noted in several locations along a 4-mile path, beginning about 5 miles northwest of Tyrone.
No significant damage was reported in Tyrone, although eyewitnesses reported seeing clouds rotating as they crossed the city and this tornado was part of the 1998 Eastern Tornado Outbreak. Tyrone is located at 40°40′29″N 78°14′29″W, according to the United States Census Bureau, the borough has a total area of 2.0 square miles, all of it land. Tyrone is situated in the Bald Eagle Valley at the base of Bald Eagle Mountain along Bald Eagle Creek at the Little Juniata River water gap. As of the census of 2010, there were 5,477 people,2,275 households, the population density was 2,711.4 people per square mile. There were 2,472 housing units at a density of 1,223.8 per square mile. The racial makeup of the borough was 97. 3% White,0. 7% Black or African American,0. 3% Native American,0. 3% Asian,0. 2% from other races, hispanic or Latino of any race were 1. 0% of the population. 33. 0% of all households were made up of individuals, the average household size was 2.34 and the average family size was 2.93.
In the borough, the population was out, with 22. 6% under the age of 18,8. 2% from 18 to 24,25. 6% from 25 to 44,25. 3% from 45 to 64. The median age was 40 years, for every 100 females, there were 88.8 males. For every 100 females age 18 and over, there were 85.8 males, the median income for a household in the borough was $34,850, and the median income for a family was $43,851
Tussey Mountain is a stratigraphic ridge in central Pennsylvania, United States, trending east of the Bald Eagle, Brush and Evitts Mountain ridges. The ridge line separates Morrison Cove from the Woodcock Valley and Friends Cove from the Black Valley, Tussey Mountain lies in, and the ridge line forms parts of the borders of, Blair and Huntingdon counties. The Flintstone Creek runs around the end of the mountain in Maryland. North of there, small streams run through deep gorges, the Sweet Root and Rainsburg Gaps, the Yellow Creek runs through Loysburg Gap at Loysburg, Pennsylvania. Maple Run Road passes through a gap near Pulpit Hill and Coot Hill. Pennsylvania Route 164 runs east out of Martinsburg, and climbs the west slope with a switchback before crossing the crest, Galbraith Run passes through Galbraith Gap near the north end of the ridge, adjacent to the Tussey Mountain Ski Area in Boalsburg. The Tussey Mountain Ridge is popular with soaring birds and glider pilots ridge soaring along its slopes and this ridge is part of a chain of ridges that stretch south to Tennessee.
It is one of the best sites in the eastern United States for viewing the migration of the golden eagle, pennsylvanias longest footpath, Mid State Trail, is atop or closely parallels Tussey Mountain for nearly its entire length. In Blair County, Tussey Mountain is sometimes called Huntingdon Mountain, conversely, in some parts of Huntingdon County it is called Williamsburg Mountain as one reaches Williamsburg by crossing it going west. Tussey Mountain is in the Ridge and Valley province of the Appalachian Mountains, during the Appalachian orogeny, these layers folded up with the underlying and overlying layers into the Nittany Arch. The arch was a Himalayan scale mountain that towered above what is now Nittany Valley, the Tuscarora Quartzite is more resistant to erosion than Bald Eagle Sandstone, and both are more durable than the Juniata Shale sandwiched in-between. Since the rock layers on these ridges slope down to the east, the Tuscarora Formation underlies the higher crest, drainage from the upper slope has cut a series of small ravines in the lower ridge line, leaving a terraced lower slope in the Bald Eagle Formation
Quartzite is a hard, non-foliated metamorphic rock which was originally pure quartz sandstone. Sandstone is converted into quartzite through heating and pressure related to tectonic compression within orogenic belts. Pure quartzite is usually white to grey, though quartzites often occur in shades of pink. Other colors, such as yellow, green and orange, are due to other minerals, when sandstone is cemented to quartzite, the individual quartz grains recrystallize along with the former cementing material to form an interlocking mosaic of quartz crystals. Most or all of the texture and sedimentary structures of the sandstone are erased by the metamorphism. The grainy, sandpaper-like surface becomes glassy in appearance, minor amounts of former cementing materials, iron oxide, silica and clay, often migrate during recrystallization and metamorphosis. This causes streaks and lenses to form within the quartzite, orthoquartzite is a very pure quartz sandstone composed of usually well-rounded quartz grains cemented by silica.
Orthoquartzite is often 99% SiO2 with only minor amounts of iron oxide and trace resistant minerals such as zircon, rutile. Although few fossils are present, the original texture and sedimentary structures are preserved. The term is traditionally used for quartz-cemented quartz arenites. Quartzite is very resistant to weathering and often forms ridges. The nearly pure silica content of the rock provides little for soil, because of its hardness and angular shape, crushed quartzite is often used as railway ballast. Quartzite is a stone and may be used to cover walls, as roofing tiles, as flooring. Its use for countertops in kitchens is expanding rapidly and it is harder and more resistant to stains than granite. Crushed quartzite is used in road construction. High purity quartzite is used to produce ferrosilicon, industrial silica sand, during the Paleolithic quartzite was used, in addition to flint and other lithic raw materials, for making stone tools. Quartzite is found in the Morenci Copper Mine in Arizona, the town of Quartzsite in western Arizona derives its name from the quartzites in the nearby mountains in both Arizona and Southeastern California.
A glassy vitreous quartzite has been described from the Belt Supergroup in the Coeur d’Alene district of northern Idaho, in the United Kingdom, a craggy ridge of quartzite called the Stiperstones runs parallel with the Pontesford-Linley fault,6 km north-west of the Long Mynd in south Shropshire