Paul John Keating is a former Australian politician who served as the 24th Prime Minister of Australia, in office from 1991 to 1996 as leader of the Labor Party. He had earlier served as Treasurer in the Hawke Government from 1983 to 1991. Keating was born in Sydney, left school at the age of 14, he joined the Labor Party at a young age, serving a term as state president of Young Labor and working as a research assistant for a trade union. Keating was elected to the House of Representatives at the age of 25, winning the Division of Blaxland at the 1969 federal election, he served as Minister for Northern Australia for three weeks in the dying days of the Whitlam Government. After Labor lost power in 1975, Keating held senior portfolios in the shadow ministries of Whitlam, Bill Hayden, Bob Hawke, he came to be seen as the leader of the Labor Right faction in New South Wales, developed a reputation as a talented parliamentary performer. After Labor won the 1983 election, Keating became one of the most influential figures in the new government.
As Treasurer, he oversaw the introduction of a large number of reforms intended to liberalise and strengthen the Australian economy. These included the Prices and Incomes Accord, the float of the Australian dollar, the elimination of tariffs, the deregulation of the financial sector, reform of the taxation system; the relationship between Hawke and Keating began to deteriorate, in 1988 they secretly agreed that Hawke would retire after the next election. Keating was elected deputy Labor leader in 1990. In June 1991, he unsuccessfully challenged for the leadership, believing that Hawke had reneged on their earlier agreement, he resigned from cabinet, but mounted a second challenge six months and emerged victorious. Keating became prime minister in the midst of the early 1990s recession, which as Treasurer he had famously described as "the recession we had to have". After a long run of poor polling, Labor was expected to lose the 1993 election, but fought a strong campaign and managed to increase its majority.
The Keating Government focused on economic issues in its first term, introducing compulsory superannuation, creating an infrastructure development program, initiating the privatisation of Qantas and the Commonwealth Bank. In years, Keating's agenda centred more on social and cultural matters, he participated in the "history wars", helped make republicanism and indigenous rights the subject of national debates. His government established the Republic Advisory Committee and enshrined native title in statute law. At the 1996 election, Labor suffered a landslide defeat to John Howard's Liberal–National Coalition. Keating's personal approval rating had reached low levels in his second term, with opponents portraying him as elitist and out of touch, he left parliament after the election, but in retirement has remained active as a political commentator, defending his government's legacy. Since leaving office, Keating has received consistent praise for his role in modernising the economy during his period as Treasurer.
Evaluations of his overall prime ministership have been more mixed. Keating was born at St Margaret's Hospital in Darlinghurst, New South Wales, on 18 January 1944, he was the first of four children born to Matthew John Keating. His father worked as a boilermaker for the New South Wales Government Railways. All of Keating's grandparents were born in Australia. On his father's side, he was descended from Irish immigrants born in Galway and Tipperary. On his mother's side, he was of Irish descent, his maternal grandfather Fred Chapman was the son of two convicts, John Chapman and Sarah Gallagher, transported for theft in the 1830s. Keating grew up in a working-class suburb in western Sydney, his siblings include a company director and businesswoman. Leaving De La Salle College—now known as LaSalle Catholic College—at the age of 14, Keating left high school and decided not to pursue higher education, instead worked as a pay clerk at the Sydney County Council, he worked as research assistant for a trade union, having joined the Labor Party as soon as he was eligible.
In 1966, he became president of NSW Young Labor. In the 1960s, Keating managed a rock band, "The Ramrods". Through his contacts in the unions and the NSW Young Labor Council, Keating met future senior Labor figures such as Laurie Brereton, Graham Richardson and Bob Carr, he developed a friendship with former New South Wales Premier Jack Lang. In 1971, he succeeded in having Lang re-admitted to the Labor Party. Keating gained the Labor endorsement for the seat of Blaxland in the western suburbs of Sydney, was elected to the House of Representatives in 1969 when he was 25 years old. Keating was a backbencher for most of the Whitlam government, although he was appointed Minister for Northern Australia in October 1975, serving until the government was controversially dismissed by Governor-General John Kerr the following month. After Labor's defeat in the December 1975 election, Keating was added to the Opposition frontbench, his portfolios included agriculture and Energy, National Development, Northern Australia and Energy and Treasury.
His parliamentary style was that of an aggressive debater. In 1981, he was elected president of the New South Wales Labor Party, thus becoming the leader o
Peru the Republic of Peru, is a country in western South America. It is bordered in the north by Ecuador and Colombia, in the east by Brazil, in the southeast by Bolivia, in the south by Chile, in the west by the Pacific Ocean. Peru is a megadiverse country with habitats ranging from the arid plains of the Pacific coastal region in the west to the peaks of the Andes mountains vertically extending from the north to the southeast of the country to the tropical Amazon Basin rainforest in the east with the Amazon river. Peruvian territory was home to several ancient cultures. Ranging from the Norte Chico civilization in the 32nd century BC, the oldest civilization in the Americas and one of the five cradles of civilization, to the Inca Empire, the largest state in pre-Columbian America, the territory now including Peru has one of the longest histories of civilization of any country, tracing its heritage back to the 4th millennia BCE; the Spanish Empire conquered the region in the 16th century and established a viceroyalty that encompassed most of its South American colonies, with its capital in Lima.
Peru formally proclaimed independence in 1821, following the military campaigns of José de San Martín and Simón Bolívar, the decisive battle of Ayacucho, Peru secured independence in 1824. In the ensuing years, the country enjoyed relative economic and political stability, which ended shortly before the War of the Pacific with Chile. Throughout the 20th century, Peru endured armed territorial disputes, social unrest, internal conflicts, as well as periods of stability and economic upswing. Alberto Fujimori was elected to the presidency in 1990. Fujimori left the presidency in 2000 and was charged with human rights violations and imprisoned until his pardon by President Pedro Pablo Kuczynski in 2017. After the president's regime, Fujimori's followers, called Fujimoristas, have caused political turmoil for any opposing faction in power causing Pedro Pablo Kuczynski to resign in March 2018; the sovereign state of Peru is a representative democratic republic divided into 25 regions. It is classified as an emerging market with a high level of human development and an upper middle income level with a poverty rate around 19 percent.
It is one of the region's most prosperous economies with an average growth rate of 5.9% and it has one of the world's fastest industrial growth rates at an average of 9.6%. Its main economic activities include mining, manufacturing and fishing; the country forms part of The Pacific Pumas, a political and economic grouping of countries along Latin America's Pacific coast that share common trends of positive growth, stable macroeconomic foundations, improved governance and an openness to global integration. Peru ranks high in social freedom. Peru has a population of 32 million, which includes Amerindians, Europeans and Asians; the main spoken language is Spanish, although a significant number of Peruvians speak Quechua or other native languages. This mixture of cultural traditions has resulted in a wide diversity of expressions in fields such as art, cuisine and music; the name of the country may be derived from Birú, the name of a local ruler who lived near the Bay of San Miguel, Panama City, in the early 16th century.
When his possessions were visited by Spanish explorers in 1522, they were the southernmost part of the New World yet known to Europeans. Thus, when Francisco Pizarro explored the regions farther south, they came to be designated Birú or Perú. An alternative history is provided by the contemporary writer Inca Garcilaso de la Vega, son of an Inca princess and a conquistador, he said the name Birú was that of a common Indian happened upon by the crew of a ship on an exploratory mission for governor Pedro Arias de Ávila, went on to relate more instances of misunderstandings due to the lack of a common language. The Spanish Crown gave the name legal status with the 1529 Capitulación de Toledo, which designated the newly encountered Inca Empire as the province of Peru. Under Spanish rule, the country adopted the denomination Viceroyalty of Peru, which became Republic of Peru after independence; the earliest evidences of human presence in Peruvian territory have been dated to 9,000 BC. Andean societies were based on agriculture, terracing.
Organization relied on reciprocity and redistribution because these societies had no notion of market or money. The oldest known complex society in Peru, the Norte Chico civilization, flourished along the coast of the Pacific Ocean between 3,000 and 1,800 BC; these early developments were followed by archaeological cultures that developed around the coastal and Andean regions throughout Peru. The Cupisnique culture which flourished from around 1000 to 200 BC along what is now Peru's Pacific Coast was an example of early pre-Incan culture; the Chavín culture that developed from 1500 to 300 BC was more of a religious than a political phenomenon, with their religious centre in Chavín de Huantar. After the decline of the Chavin culture around the beginning of the 1st century AD, a series of localized and specialized cultures rose and fell
The Archibald Prize was the first major prize for portraiture in Australian art. It was first awarded in 1921 after the receipt of a bequest from J. F. Archibald, the editor of The Bulletin who died in 1919, it is now administered by the trustees of the Art Gallery of New South Wales and awarded for "the best portrait, preferentially of some man or woman distinguished in Art, Science or Politics, painted by an artist resident in Australia during the twelve months preceding the date fixed by the trustees for sending in the pictures." The Archibald Prize has been awarded annually since 1921 and since July 2015 the prize has been AU$100,000. List of Archibald Prize winners 1921 – £400 1941 – £443 / 13 / 4 1942 – £441 / 11 / 11 1951 – £500 1956 – £1,364 2006 – $35,000 2008 – $50,000 2012 – $75,000 2015 – $100,000 Since 1988 two other prizes have been added to the Archibald prize event; the People's Choice Award, in which votes from the public viewing the finalists are collected to find a winner was first awarded in 1988.
The award comes with a monetary prize of A$3,500. In 1992 the Packing Room Prize was established, in which the staff who receive the portraits and install them in the gallery vote for their choice of winner; the prize-winner is not always an Archibald finalist. Although the prize is said to be awarded by the staff, the gallery's head storeman – since 2011 Steve Peters – holds 51% of the vote; the Packing Room Prize is awarded annually and since June 2014, the prize has been A$1,500. To date there has never been an Archibald Prize winner, a Packing Room Prize winner.. For this reason winning the Packing Room Prize is known as "the kiss of death award". There has twice been a matching Packing Room Prize and People's Choice Award winner – although neither won the main prize – to Paul Newton's portrait of Roy Slaven and HG Nelson in 2001, to Jan Williamson's portrait of singer/songwriter Jenny Morris in 2002. Danelle Bergstrom has won the Packing Room Prize twice, first in 1995 with a portrait of singer/songwriter Jon English, again in 2007 with a portrait of actor Jack Thompson, with the work entitled Take Two.
Category:Archibald Prize finalists Lists of Archibald Prize finalists Since 1992, a selection of entrants not included amongst the finalists has been included in the Salon des Refusés. Since 1999, Sydney based law firm Holding Redlich have sponsored a Salon des Refusés People's Choice Award; the Archibald Prize is held at the same time as the Sir John Sulman Prize, the Wynne Prize, the Mortimore Prize for Realism, the Australian Photographic Portrait Prize, the Young Archie competition and the Dobell Prize. The Archibald is the next richest portrait prize in Australia after the Doug Moran National Portrait Prize. In 1978 Brett Whiteley won the Archibald and Sulman Prizes all in the same year, the only time this has happened, it was his second win for the other prizes as well. Some works which do not make the Archibald Prize finalists are shown at the S. H. Ervin Gallery in the Archibald Salon des Refusés exhibition which began in 1992; the satirical Bald Archy Prize judged by a cockatoo, was started in 1994 at the Coolac Festival of Fun as a parody of the Archibald Prize.
The prize has attracted a good deal of controversy and several court cases. Max Meldrum criticised the 1938 Archibald Prize winner, Nora Heysen, saying that women could not be expected to paint as well as men. Heysen was the first woman to win the Archibald Prize, with a portrait of Madame Elink Schuurman, the wife of the Consul General for the Netherlands. In 1953 several art students including John Olsen protested William Dargie's winning portrait, the seventh time he had been awarded the prize. One protester tied a sign around her dog which said "Winner Archibald Prize – William Doggie". Dargie went on to win the prize again in 1956. On becoming Prime Minister in 1972, Gough Whitlam commissioned his friend Clifton Pugh to paint the official portrait; the Australian Parliament Historical Memorial Committee would have commissioned a portrait. Pugh's portrait of Whitlam won the 1972 Archibald Prize. In 1975, John Bloomfield's portrait of Tim Burstall was disqualified on the grounds that it had been painted from a blown up photograph, rather than from life.
The prize was awarded to Kevin Connor. In 1983 John Bloomfield sued for the return of the 1975 prize, unsuccessful; the application form of the Archibald Prize was modified based on this to make clear that the subject must be painted from life. In 1985, administration of the trust was transferred to the Art Gallery of New South Wales, after a court case where the Perpetual Trustee Company took the Australian Journalists Association Benevolent Fund to court. In 1997 the painting of the Bananas in Pyjamas television characters by Evert Ploeg was deemed ineligible by the trustees because it was not a painting of a person. Another controversy involved the 2000 Archibald winner, when artist Adam Cullen lodged a complaint with the Australian Broadcasting Corporation who had used his painting, Portrait of David Wenham, in a television commercial. In 2002, head packer Steve Peters singled out a painting of himself by Dave Machin as a possible winner for the Packing Room Prize, it did not win. Following this, portraits of the head packer were no longer allowed.
In 2004 Craig
Lima is the capital and the largest city of Peru. It is located in the valleys of the Chillón, Rímac and Lurín rivers, in the central coastal part of the country, overlooking the Pacific Ocean. Together with the seaport of Callao, it forms a contiguous urban area known as the Lima Metropolitan Area. With a population of more than 9 million, Lima is the most populous metropolitan area of Peru and the third-largest city in the Americas, behind São Paulo and Mexico City. Lima was founded by Spanish conquistador Francisco Pizarro on 18 January 1535, as Ciudad de los Reyes in the agricultural region known by the Indians as Limaq, name that acquired over time, it became most important city in the Viceroyalty of Peru. Following the Peruvian War of Independence, it became the capital of the Republic of Peru. Around one-third of the national population lives in the metropolitan area. Lima is home to one of the oldest institutions of higher learning in the New World; the National University of San Marcos, founded on 12 May 1551, during the Spanish colonial regime, is the oldest continuously functioning university in the Americas.
Nowadays the city is considered as the political, cultural and commercial center of the country. Internationally, it is one of the thirty most populated urban agglomerations in the world. Due to its geostrategic importance, it has been defined as a "beta" city. Jurisdictionally, the metropolis extends within the province of Lima and in a smaller portion, to the west, within the constitutional province of Callao, where the seaport and the Jorge Chávez airport are located. Both provinces have regional autonomy since 2002. In October 2013, Lima was chosen to host the 2019 Pan American Games, it hosted the United Nations Climate Change Conference in December 2014 and the Miss Universe 1982 contest. According to early Spanish articles the Lima area was once called Itchyma, after its original inhabitants; however before the Inca occupation of the area in the 15th century, a famous oracle in the Rímac valley had come to be known by visitors as Limaq. This oracle was destroyed by the Spanish and replaced with a church, but the name persisted: the chronicles show "Límac" replacing "Ychma" as the common name for the area.
Modern scholars speculate that the word "Lima" originated as the Spanish pronunciation of the native name Limaq. Linguistic evidence seems to support this theory as spoken Spanish rejects stop consonants in word-final position. Non-Peruvian Spanish speakers may mistakenly define the city name as the direct Spanish translation of "lime", the citrus fruit; the city was founded in 1535 under the name City of the Kings because its foundation was decided on 6 January, date of the feast of the Epiphany. This name fell into disuse and Lima became the city's name of choice; the river that feeds Lima is called Rímac and many people erroneously assume that this is because its original Inca name is "Talking River". However, the original inhabitants of the valley were not Incas; this name is an innovation arising from an effort by the Cuzco nobility in colonial times to standardize the toponym so that it would conform to the phonology of Cuzco Quechua. As the original inhabitants died out and the local Quechua became extinct, the Cuzco pronunciation prevailed.
Nowadays, Spanish-speaking locals do not see the connection between the name of their city and the name of the river that runs through it. They assume that the valley is named after the river; the Flag of Lima has been known as the "Banner of Peru's Kings' City". It is embroidered in the center is its coat of arms. Lima's anthem was heard for the first time on 18 January 2008, in a formal meeting with important politicians, including Peruvian President Alan García, other authorities; the anthem was created by Euding Maeshiro and record producer Ricardo Núñez. In the pre-Columbian era, what is now Lima was inhabited by indigenous groups under the Ychsma policy, incorporated into the Inca Empire in the 15th century. In 1532 a group of Spanish conquistadors, led by Francisco Pizarro, defeated the Inca ruler Atahualpa and took over his empire; as the Spanish Crown had named Pizarro governor of the lands he conquered, he chose the Rímac Valley to found his capital on 18 January 1535, as Ciudad de los Reyes.
In August 1536, rebel Inca troops led by Manco Inca Yupanqui besieged the city but were defeated by the Spaniards and their native allies. Lima gained prestige after being designated capital of the Viceroyalty of Peru and site of a Real Audiencia in 1543. During the next century it flourished as the centre of an extensive trade network that integrated the Viceroyalty with the rest of the Americas and the Far East. However, the city was not free from dangers; the 1687 Peru earthquake destroyed most of the city buildings. In 1746, another p
A Prime Minister is the head of a cabinet and the leader of the ministers in the executive branch of government in a parliamentary or semi-presidential system. A prime minister is not a head of state or chief executive officer of their respective nation, rather they are a head of government, serving under a monarch in a hybrid of aristocratic and democratic government forms. In parliamentary systems fashioned after the Westminster system, the prime minister is the presiding and actual head of government and head of the executive branch. In such systems, the head of state or the head of state's official representative holds a ceremonial position, although with reserve powers. In many systems, the prime minister selects and may dismiss other members of the cabinet, allocates posts to members within the government. In most systems, the prime minister is chairman of the cabinet. In a minority of systems, notably in semi-presidential systems of government, a prime minister is the official, appointed to manage the civil service and execute the directives of the head of state.
The prime minister is but not always, a member of the Legislature or the Lower House thereof and is expected with other ministers to ensure the passage of bills through the legislature. In some monarchies the monarch may exercise executive powers that are constitutionally vested in the crown and may be exercised without the approval of parliament; as well as being head of government, a prime minister may have other roles or posts—the Prime Minister of the United Kingdom, for example, is First Lord of the Treasury and Minister for the Civil Service. Prime ministers may take other ministerial posts. For example, during the Second World War, Winston Churchill was Minister of Defence and in the current cabinet of Israel, Benjamin Netanyahu serves as Minister of Communications, Foreign Affairs, Regional Cooperation and Interior; the term prime minister in its French form, premier ministre, is attested in 17th Century sources referring to Cardinal Richelieu after he was named to head the royal council in 1624.
The title was however informal and used alongside the informal principal ministre d'État more as a job description. After 1661, Louis XIV and his descendants refused to allow one of their ministers to be more important than the others, so the term was not in use; the term prime minister in the sense that we know it originated in the 18th century in the United Kingdom when members of parliament disparagingly used the title in reference to Sir Robert Walpole. During the whole of the 18th Century, Britain was involved in a prolonged conflict with France, periodically bursting into all-out war, Britons took outspoken pride in their "Liberty" as contrasted to the "Tyranny" of French Absolute Monarchy. Over time, the title became honorific and remains so in the 21st century; the monarchs of England and the United Kingdom had ministers in whom they placed special trust and who were regarded as the head of the government. Examples were Thomas Cromwell under Henry VIII; these ministers held a variety of formal posts, but were known as "the minister", the "chief minister", the "first minister" and the "prime minister".
The power of these ministers depended on the personal favour of the monarch. Although managing the parliament was among the necessary skills of holding high office, they did not depend on a parliamentary majority for their power. Although there was a cabinet, it was appointed by the monarch, the monarch presided over its meetings; when the monarch grew tired of a first minister, he or she could be dismissed, or worse: Cromwell was executed and Clarendon driven into exile when they lost favour. Kings sometimes divided power between two or more ministers to prevent one minister from becoming too powerful. Late in Anne's reign, for example, the Tory ministers Harley and Viscount Bolingbroke shared power. In the mid 17th century, after the English Civil War, Parliament strengthened its position relative to the monarch gained more power through the Glorious Revolution of 1688 and passage of the Bill of Rights in 1689; the monarch could no longer establish any law or impose any tax without its permission and thus the House of Commons became a part of the government.
It is at this point. A tipping point in the evolution of the prime ministership came with the death of Anne in 1714 and the accession of George I to the throne. George spoke no English, spent much of his time at his home in Hanover, had neither knowledge of, nor interest in, the details of English government. In these circumstances it was inevitable that the king's first minister would become the de facto head of the government. From 1721 this was the Whig politician Robert Walpole. Walpole chaired cabinet meetings, appointed all the other ministers, dispensed the royal patronage and packed the House of Commons with his supporters. Under Walpole, the doctrine of cabinet solidarity developed. Walpole required that no minister other than himself have private dealings with the king, that when the cabinet had agreed on a policy, all ministers must defend it in public, or resign; as a prime minister, Lord Melbourne, said, "It matters not what we say, gentlemen, so long as we all say the same thing."
Elwyn Lynn was an Australian artist, art critic and curator. Elwyn Lynn trained as a teacher, was a schoolmaster in Sydney Secondary schools until 1968. Lynn was self-taught as an artist. Lynn was Curator of the Power Gallery of Contemporary Art at Sydney University from 1969 to 1983. There he built up an international collection, now within the Sydney Museum of Contemporary Art. Lynn was an art critic at The Australian for many years, he was author of several books, including one about the artist Sir Sidney Nolan. Alongside his career as a painter, which started in the mid-1940s, Lynn was an outspoken commentator on the visual arts. In the 1950s and 1960s he edited the Broadsheets of the Contemporary Art Society, he worked as a critic for a number of newspapers, including the Sunday Mirror, The Bulletin, The Australian and The Weekend Australian. In 1971 he became Advisory Editor of Art International. For a short time he edited Art and Australia. Lynn was awarded Membership of the Order of Australia in 1975.
He won the Wynne Prize at the Art Gallery of NSW in 1988. In 1989, he received an Honorary Doctor of Letters from the University of Sydney. In 1994 he received the Emeritus Award from the Australia Council. Elwyn Lynn's work was striking, with the use of unconventional painting media and expressive surfaces to construct metaphors for human suffering and endurance. Most of his work was abstract, although a sense of the landscape is evoked. Emeritus Professor Peter Pinson noted: The work of Lynn maintained his interest in damaged and shredding surfaces, his frequent and adventurousness use of assemblage elements; these late works were marked by an expressionist vehemence and a daring informality. Elywn Lynn won the following prizes: 1988 Wynne Prize AGNSW 1987 University Of NSW Purchase Prize 1983 Trustees' Watercolour Prize AGNSW 1982 Awarded Atelier at Cite Internationale des Arts, Paris 1980 Trustees' Watercolour Prize AGNSW 1957 Won Blake Prize for Religious Art, Mosman Art Prize and Bathurst Prize Elwyn Lynn participated in over 150 group exhibitions in Australia, New Zealand, United Kingdom, Indonesia and Germany.
He had over 50 solo exhibitions in Sydney, Brisbane, Adelaide and Cologne. He has collections in the following galleries: National Gallery of Australia Art Gallery of NSW Queensland Art Gallery Art Gallery of South Australia Tasmanian Museum and Art Gallery Art Gallery of Western Australia Queen Victoria Museum and Art Gallery Museum and Art Gallery of the Northern Territory Museum of Contemporary Art Australian War Memorial in Canberra Auckland Art Gallery New Zealand Elwyn Lynn. Sidney Nolan: Myth and Imagery. London: Macmillan. Elwyn Lynn and Sir Sidney Nolan. Sidney Nolan - Australia. Sydney: Bay Books. ISBN 0858353822. Elwyn Lynn. Papers of Elwyn Lynn. Unpublished. Elwyn Lynn; the art of Robert Juniper. Craftsman House. ISBN 0959344888
Virtual International Authority File
The Virtual International Authority File is an international authority file. It is a joint project of several national libraries and operated by the Online Computer Library Center. Discussion about having a common international authority started in the late 1990s. After a series of failed attempts to come up with a unique common authority file, the new idea was to link existing national authorities; this would present all the benefits of a common file without requiring a large investment of time and expense in the process. The project was initiated by the US Library of Congress, the German National Library and the OCLC on August 6, 2003; the Bibliothèque nationale de France joined the project on October 5, 2007. The project transitioned to being a service of the OCLC on April 4, 2012; the aim is to link the national authority files to a single virtual authority file. In this file, identical records from the different data sets are linked together. A VIAF record receives a standard data number, contains the primary "see" and "see also" records from the original records, refers to the original authority records.
The data are available for research and data exchange and sharing. Reciprocal updating uses the Open Archives Initiative Protocol for Metadata Harvesting protocol; the file numbers are being added to Wikipedia biographical articles and are incorporated into Wikidata. VIAF's clustering algorithm is run every month; as more data are added from participating libraries, clusters of authority records may coalesce or split, leading to some fluctuation in the VIAF identifier of certain authority records. Authority control Faceted Application of Subject Terminology Integrated Authority File International Standard Authority Data Number International Standard Name Identifier Wikipedia's authority control template for articles Official website VIAF at OCLC