Bubble fusion is the non-technical name for a nuclear fusion reaction hypothesized to occur inside extraordinarily large collapsing gas bubbles created in a liquid during acoustic cavitation. The more technical name is sonofusion; the term was coined in 2002 with the release of a report by Rusi Taleyarkhan and collaborators that claimed to have observed evidence of sonofusion. The claim was surrounded by controversy, including allegations ranging from experimental error to academic fraud. Subsequent publications claiming independent verification of sonofusion were highly controversial. An investigation by Purdue University found that Taleyarkhan had engaged in falsification of independent verification, had included a student as an author on a paper when he had not participated in the research, he was subsequently stripped of his professorship. One of his funders, the Office of Naval Research reviewed the report by Purdue and barred him from federal funding for 28 months. US patent 4,333,796, filed by Hugh Flynn in 1978, appears to be the earliest documented reference to a sonofusion-type reaction.
In the March 8, 2002 issue of the peer-reviewed journal Science, Rusi P. Taleyarkhan and colleagues at the Oak Ridge National Laboratory reported that acoustic cavitation experiments conducted with deuterated acetone showed measurements of tritium and neutron output consistent with the occurrence of fusion; the neutron emission was reported to be coincident with the sonoluminescence pulse, a key indicator that its source was fusion caused by the heat and pressure inside the collapsing bubbles. The results were so startling, that the Oak Ridge National Laboratory asked two independent researchers, D. Shapira and M. J. Saltmarsh, to repeat the experiment using more sophisticated neutron detection equipment, they reported. A rebuttal by Taleyarkhan and the other authors of the original report argued that the Shapira and Saltmarsh report failed to account for significant differences in experimental setup, including over an inch of shielding between the neutron detector and the sonoluminescing acetone.
According to Taleyarkhan et al. when properly considering those differences, the results were consistent with fusion. As early as 2002, while experimental work was still in progress, Aaron Galonsky of Michigan State University, in a letter to the journal Science expressed doubts about the claim made by the Taleyarkhan team. In Galonsky's opinion, the observed neutrons were too high in energy to be from a deuterium-deuterium fusion reaction. In their response, the Taleyarkhan team provided detailed counter-arguments and concluded that the energy was "reasonably close" to that, expected from a fusion reaction. In February 2005 the documentary series Horizon commissioned two leading sonoluminescence researchers, Seth Putterman and Kenneth S. Suslick, to reproduce Taleyarkhan's work. Using similar acoustic parameters, deuterated acetone, similar bubble nucleation, a much more sophisticated neutron detection device, the researchers could find no evidence of a fusion reaction. In 2004, new reports of bubble fusion were published by the Taleyarkhan group, claiming that the results of previous experiments had been replicated under more stringent experimental conditions.
These results differed from the original results in that fusion was claimed to occur over longer times than reported. The original report only claimed neutron emission from the initial bubble collapse following bubble nucleation, whereas this report claimed neutron emission many acoustic cycles later. In July 2005, two of Taleyarkhan's students at Purdue University published evidence confirming the previous result, they used the same acoustic chamber, the same deuterated acetone fluid and a similar bubble nucleation system. In this report, no neutron-sonoluminescence coincidence was attempted. An article in Nature raised issues about the validity of the research and complaints from his Purdue colleagues. Charges of misconduct were raised, Purdue University opened an investigation, it concluded in 2008 that Taleyarkhan's name should have appeared in the author list because of his deep involvement in many steps of the research, that he added one author that had not participated in the paper just to overcome the criticism of one reviewer, that this was part of an attempt of "an effort to falsify the scientific record by assertion of independent confirmation".
The investigation did not address the validity of the experimental results. In January 2006, a paper published in the journal Physical Review Letters by Taleyarkhan in collaboration with researchers from Rensselaer Polytechnic Institute reported statistically significant evidence of fusion. In November 2006, in the midst of accusations concerning Taleyarkhan's research standards, two different scientists visited the meta-stable fluids research lab at Purdue University to measure neutrons, using Taleyarkhan's equipment. Dr. Edward R. Forringer and undergraduates David Robbins and Jonathan Martin of LeTourneau University presented two papers at the American Nuclear Society Winter Meeting that reported replication of neutron emission, their experimental setup was similar to previous experiments in that it used a mixture of deuterated acetone, deuterated benzene, tetrachloroethylene and uranyl nitrate. Notably, however, it operated without an external neutron source and used two types of neutron detectors.
They claimed a liquid scintillation detector measured neutron levels at 8 standard deviations above the background level, while plastic detectors measured levels at 3.8 standard deviations above the background. When the same experiment was performed with non-deuterated
Guy Shepherdson is an Australian former rugby union professional footballer. He played as a tight-head prop for the Brumbies and Reds in the Super Rugby competition and played for the Australian national team, the Wallabies. Shepherdson was born in Jakarta as his father worked as an aid official for the Australian International Development Assistance Bureau, now known as AusAID from 1981 to 1983; the family moved to Canberra and Shepherdson was educated at Canberra Grammar School. He was a member of the Brumbies Academy squad in 1997, he played for the Australian Schoolboys in 1999 and went on to represent Australia at the under-19 and under-23 level. Shepherdson completed two stints with the Bay of Plenty in the National Provincial Championship in New Zealand, he signed with the Brumbies for the 2004 season. Shepherdson made his Super 12 debut for the Brumbies in 2004, against the Auckland Blues in Canberra, he went on to earn another 13 caps for the Brumbies during that season. He was included in new Australian coach John Connolly's squad for the Wallabies' 2006 mid-year rugby test series.
He went on to make his international debut on 24 June, against Ireland at Subiaco Oval in Perth. He was chosen to anchor Australia’s scrum at the 2007 Rugby World Cup in France. In June 2010 he agreed to join the Queensland Reds for the 2011 Super 15 season, he retired from professional rugby at the end of 2012. "Reds profile". Archived from the original on 29 July 2012. "Shepherdson named for Wallabies' debut". The Age. Archived from the original on 29 September 2007. Itsrugby.co.uk profile
Lectionary 70, designated by siglum ℓ 70, is a Greek manuscript of the New Testament, on vellum leaves. Palaeographically it has been assigned to the 12th-century; the codex contains Lessons from the Gospels of John, Luke lectionary with some lacunae at the beginning and end. The lacking leaves were supplied by a hand, it is written in Greek minuscule letters, on 313 parchment leaves, 2 columns per page, 25-26 lines per column. The text of John 8:3-11 is included. In Mark 6:33 it has textual reading ἐκεῖ καὶ προῆλθον αὐτούς along with Codex Sinaiticus, Codex Vaticanus, 0187, 892, ℓ 49, ℓ 69, ℓ 299, ℓ 303, ℓ 333, ℓ 1579, itaur, vg. In Mark 10:7 it has unique reading μητερα instead of γυναικα. A few paper leaves at the beginnings and end were added later; the manuscript is dated by the INTF to the 12th-century. The manuscript was brought from the East in 1669, it was examined by Scholz. It was described by Paulin Martin. C. R. Gregory saw it in 1885; the manuscript is cited in the critical editions of the Greek New Testament.
The codex is located in the Bibliothèque nationale de France in Paris. List of New Testament lectionaries Biblical manuscript Textual criticism Jean-Pierre-Paul Martin, Description technique des manuscrits grecs relatifs au N. T. conservés dans les bibliothèques des Paris, p. 150
Ian Browne known as "Joey" Browne is a former Australian track cyclist who along with Tony Marchant won the 2000 m tandem event at the 1956 Summer Olympics in Melbourne. Unusually tall and built for a cyclist, Browne had little formal training and won his first Australian title in 1953 in the 10 mile event. Browne did not team up with Marchant until early in 1956 and they promptly won the tandem event at the national championships to earn national selection; the pair were eliminated after losing their first two races but were given a reprieve when the Soviet Union pair were hospitalised in a crash and forced to withdraw. Thereafter Marchant and Browne were progressed to an unlikely Olympic gold. Browne's combination with Marchant was broken after the Olympics. In 1958, Browne won the 10 mile event at the national titles and went on to win the event at the 1958 British Empire and Commonwealth Games. Browne went on to compete in the 1960 and 1964 Olympics in the tandem event, both times with new partners, but both times he was eliminated in the repechage round.
In 1964, he became the oldest track cyclist to represent Australia at the Olympics at the age of 33. He won the last of his national titles at the age of 37 in 1968 in the tandem event but was overlooked for Olympic selection by Australian officials, he retired and was involved in cycling administration. Browne was born in Melbourne to the second of three brothers, his father was a printer and Browne took his elementary education at Chatham Public School, before moving on to Box Hill High School and took his university education at Royal Melbourne Institute of Technology. While he was at university, he worked in Sunshine as a laboratory assistant at Spaldings. At the age of 20, he graduated from RMIT and took a job at the State Electricity Commission, where he worked for over 35 years continuously since always riding his bicycle to work, a daily journey of around 15 km. Browne learned to ride a bicycle at the age of four, but did not enter his first formal cycling competition until the age of 16, when he joined the Hawthorne Amateur Cycling Club.
Browne made a habit of riding to training with his ordinary bike with heavy wheels to the club, carrying the lighter racing tyres on his back and changing his tyres upon his arrival. He earned extra money to fund a bicycle upgrade by working as a newspaper boy. There was little formal coaching at the club, the cyclists learned by individual application and by watching and copying others. Browne and his club-mates trained on Sundays. Browne had his first success at a major competition when he won the 10 mile at his first Australian Championships in 1953, he did not team up with Tony Marchant until the start of 1956, just ten months before the start of the Melbourne Olympics. Marchant had risen to prominence by winning the 500 m time trial at the 1955 Australian Championships for juniors, prompting Browne to select him as his partner based on his raw speed. For a final test run before formally committing to racing together, the pair had a few tandem sprints around the track, with Browne sitting in the front seat.
They were a contrasting pair. The pair went on to win the 2000 metre tandem event at the Australian Championships in 1956, but going into the Melbourne Olympics, themselves included, regarded them as realistic medal chances. However, their mentor, former champion Billy Guyatt convinced them that they had the potential to make progress at international level, their training schedule consisted of individual training two or three times a week and two days a week of coordinated tandem training during the Olympic year. Marchant's main tactical responsibility was to look to the outside for impending attacks while Browne patrolled the inside. Marchant devised a signal system, such as a head bump on Browne's hip, or a verbal shout when the opposition made a move. Ten nations were entered in the tandem competition, in the first round, they were drawn with Germany and South Africa, who fielded their silver medallist pairing of Tom Shardelow and Ray Robinson from the 1952 Summer Olympics in Helsinki; the Australians made their move too early and led at the ringing of the bell at the start of the last lap, but they were overhauled well before the line as they faded in the final straight.
Browne and Marchant were given another chance in the repechage round in the same day. The Australians lead for three quarters of the distance, but were overhauled by their Czechoslovakian opponent in the final metres and were defeated in a photo finish; this would have meant that the Australians would have been eliminated, however the final repechage between the Soviet Union and the Germans resulted in a tangle, resulting in a heavy pile-up. Neither team finished the race; the cycling officials decided that the bruised Germans would be forced to compete in a repechage sequel against the losers in the previous repechages to qualify. This allowed the Australians a reprieve; the Australians set their fastest time to date with 11.0 seconds. Having been beaten twice after leading out, the Australians sat back before sweeping past the injured Germans and the Americans in the final lap. Australia were again drawn against South Africa in their quarter-final, who had defeated them in the heats; this time they equalled the fastest team in the competition over the final 200 m, clocking 10.8 s to progress to the final, where they faced the Italy.
""Dean Trust Wigan"" is a coeducational secondary school with academy status located in the Orrell area of the Metropolitan Borough of Wigan, Greater Manchester. A foundation school administered by Wigan Metropolitan Borough Council, Abraham Guest High School converted to academy status on January 2012 and was renamed Dean Trust Wigan in April 2017 as it joined a trust of good and outstanding schools across the North West; the school is now no longer sponsored by Winstanley College, however it continues to coordinate with Wigan Metropolitan Borough Council for admissions. DTW offers BTECs and vocational courses as programmes of study for pupils; the school offers a number of adult education courses in the evening to the local community. Limahl, pop singerStefan Ratchford Rugby League Player, Ian Ollerton and George Stokes ex professional Rugby League Referees Abraham Guest Academy official website
Randolph Preston McAfee is an American economist, most served as chief economist at Microsoft. He was an economist at Google, he has served as a vice president and research fellow at Yahoo! Research, where he led the Microeconomics and Social Systems group, was the J. Stanley Johnson Professor of Business and Management at the California Institute of Technology, where he was the executive officer for the social sciences, he has taught business strategy, managerial economics, introductory microeconomics. McAfee earned a BA in economics from the University of Florida in 1976, he earned MS degrees in both economics and mathematics, a PhD in economics, from Purdue University. He was a professor of economics at the University of Western Ontario from 1981 to 1990, at the University of Texas from 1990 to 2003, at Caltech from 2003 to 2009, he has been a visiting professor at the Department of Economics at MIT and the business school at the University of Chicago. In 2007, McAfee became vice president and research fellow at Yahoo!
Research, where he founded a new social-science research group to work on problems with both scientific importance and business relevance. He served as chief economist of Yahoo! In 2012, he moved to Google, where he led a group of microeconomists and other scholars straddling the borders between business strategy and social science as well as computer science. In 2014, he became chief economist at Microsoft, left the company in February 2018. McAfee has published over one hundred scholarly articles that have collectively been cited thousands of times, his research has concentrated on microeconomics and industrial organization, on topics including auctions, price discrimination, antitrust and mechanism design. More he has been publishing research at the interface between microeconomics and computer science. In 2014, McAfee won a Golden Goose Award for his work involving auction design. McAfee is an advocate for open access to scholarly writing and educational materials. Together with Ted Bergstrom, he maintains an online database on the costs of academic journals to university libraries.
He has published Introduction to Economic Analysis. He was recognized as a SPARC Innovator by the Association of Research Libraries. McAfee is founding co-editor of the ACM journal Transactions of Economics and Computation, emphasizing research at the boundary between computer science and economics; as editor of Economic Inquiry from 2007 to 2012, McAfee introduced an innovative "no revisions" submission policy designed to short-circuit long cycles of requested editorial revisions and speed up the publication process. He served as co-editor of the American Economic Review from 1993 to 2012, he is a Fellow of the Econometric Society. McAfee prides himself on being humorous for an economist, which he likens to being considered "tall for a dwarf." He published the classic article "American Economic Growth and the Voyage of Columbus" in the American Economic Review, poking fun at the counterfactual analyses of economic historian Robert Fogel, as well as various other elements of academic economics.
He started a humor section in Economic Inquiry during his tenure as editor. McAfee is the author of a textbook on business strategy, Competitive Solutions: The Strategist's Toolkit, with insights for managers based on microeconomic foundations. McAfee has served as a consultant to the U. S. Department of Justice Antitrust Division and the U. S. Federal Trade Commission. McAfee has advised on matters concerning mergers, price-fixing, electricity pricing, procurement, sales of government property. In 1994–1995, McAfee extensively advised the USA Federal Communications Commission on the design of auctions for spectrum to be used for personal communications services. McAfee advised the FTC on the mergers of Exxon and Mobil, of British Petroleum and ARCO, he was an expert witness in FTC v. Rambus, on the competitive effects of the proposed PeopleSoft-Oracle merger in USA v. Oracle Corporation. McAfee serves as the business adviser to Miwok Airways. Yahoo Hires Economics, Sociology Researchers, CNet, 10 May 2007.
Yahoo! Research Expands Team into Social Sciences, BillHartzer.com, 10 May 2007. SPARC Innovator: R. Preston McAfee, Association of Research Libraries, January 2009. Google antitrust? Ask the one man who can answer, Cade Metz, The Register, 30 November 2010. Preston McAfee's web site R. Preston McAfee's Curriculum Vitae Preston McAfee's publications and citations as listed on Google Scholar "Introduction to Economic Analysis", by R. Preston McAfee Economic Growth and the Voyage of Columbus, by R. Preston McAfee, American Economic Review, September 1983. Edifying Editing, by R. Preston McAfee, The American Economist, Spring 2010