A novelty song is a comical or nonsensical song, performed principally for its comical effect. Humorous songs, or those containing humorous elements, are not novelty songs; the term arose in Tin Pan Alley to describe one of the major divisions of popular music. Novelty songs achieved great popularity during the 1930s, they had a resurgence of interest in the 1960s. Novelty songs are a parody or humor song, may apply to a current event such as a holiday or a fad such as a dance or TV programme. Many use unusual lyrics, sounds, or instrumentation, may not be musical. For example, the 1966 novelty song "They're Coming to Take Me Away, Ha-Haaa!" has little music and is set to a rhythm tapped out on a snare drum and tambourine. A book on achieving an attention-grabbing novelty single is The Manual, written by The KLF, it is based on their achievement of a UK number-one single with "Doctorin' the Tardis", a 1988 dance remix mashup of the Doctor Who theme music released under the name of'The Timelords.'
It argued that achieving a number one single could be achieved less by musical talent than through market research and gimmicks matched to an underlying danceable groove. Novelty songs were a major staple of Tin Pan Alley from its start in the late 19th century, they continued to proliferate in the early years of the 20th century, some rising to be among the biggest hits of the era. Varieties included songs with an unusual gimmick, such as the stuttering in "K-K-K-Katy" or the playful boop-boop-a-doops of "I Wanna Be Loved By You", which made a star out of Helen Kane and inspired the creation of Betty Boop. We Have No Bananas"; these songs were perfect for the medium of Vaudeville, performers such as Eddie Cantor and Sophie Tucker became well-known for such songs. Zez Confrey's 1920s instrumental compositions, which involved gimmicky approaches or maniacally rapid tempos, were popular enough to start a fad of novelty piano pieces that lasted through the decade; the fad was brought about by the increasing availability of audio recordings by way of the player piano and the phonograph.
A 1940s novelty song was Spike Jones' 1942 "Der Fuehrer's Face", which included raspberries in its chorus. Tex Williams's "Smoke! Smoke! Smoke!" Topped the Billboard best-sellers chart for six weeks and the country music chart for 16 weeks in 1947 and 1948. Hank Williams, Sr.'s "Move It On Over," his first hit song, has some humor and novelty elements, but contemporaries disputed this and noted that many men had been faced with eviction under similar circumstances. The 1953 #1 single " That Doggie in the Window?" became notable both for its extensive airplay and the backlash from listeners who found it annoying. Satirists such as Stan Freberg and Tom Lehrer used novelty songs to poke fun at contemporary pop culture in the 1950s and early 1960s. In 1951, Frank Sinatra was paired in a CBS television special with TV personality Dagmar. Mitch Miller at Columbia Records became intrigued with the pairing and compelled songwriter Dick Manning to compose a song for the two of them; the result was "Mama Will Bark", a novelty song performed by Sinatra with interspersed spoken statements by Dagmar, saying things like "mama will bark", "mama will spank", "papa will spank".
The recording includes the sound of a dog yowling. It is regarded by both music scholars and Sinatra enthusiasts to be the worst song he recorded. Sinatra would in fact record a few others before he left Columbia and joined Capitol Records in 1952. Dickie Goodman faced a lawsuit for his 1956 novelty song "The Flying Saucer", which sampled snippets of contemporary hits without permission and arranged them to resemble interviews with an alien landing on Earth. Goodman released more hit singles in the same vein for the next two decades including his gold record RIAA certified hit with Mr. Jaws in 1975 which charted #1 in Cash Box and Record World and was based on the movie Jaws. Among the more far out songs of this genre was the two released in 1956 by Nervous Norvus, "Transfusion" and "Ape Call"; the Coasters had novelty songs such as "Charlie Brown" and "Yakety Yak". "Yakety Yak" became a #1 single on July 21, 1958, is the only novelty song included in the Songs of the Century. "Lucky Ladybug" by Billy and Lillie was popular in December 1958.
Lonnie Donegan's 1959 cover of the 1924 novelty song "Does Your Chewing Gum Lose Its Flavour" was a transatlantic hit, reaching #5 on the Billboard charts two years after its release. Three songs using a sped-up recording technique became #1 hits in the United States in 1958-59: David Seville's "Witch Doctor" and Ragtime Cowboy Joe, Sheb Wooley's "The Purple People Eater", Seville's "The Chipmunk Song", which used a speeded-up voice technique to sim
Camp is an aesthetic style and sensibility that regards something as appealing because of its bad taste and ironic value. Camp aesthetics disrupt many of modernism's notions of what art is and what can be classified as high art by inverting aesthetic attributes such as beauty and taste through an invitation of a different kind of apprehension and consumption. Camp can be a social practice. For many it is considered a style and performance identity for several types of entertainment including film and pantomime. Where high art incorporates beauty and value, camp needs to be lively and dynamic. "Camp aesthetics delights in impertinence." Camp seeks to challenge. Camp art is related to—and confused with—kitsch, things with camp appeal may be described as "cheesy"; when the usage appeared in 1909, it denoted "ostentatious, affected, theatrical", or "effeminate" behaviour, by the middle of the 1970s, the definition comprised "banality, artifice, ostentation... so extreme as to amuse or have a perversely sophisticated appeal".
The American writer Susan Sontag's essay "Notes on'Camp'" emphasized its key elements as: artifice, frivolity, naïve middle-class pretentiousness, and'shocking' excess. Camp as an aesthetic has been popular from the 1960s to the present. Camp aesthetics were popularized by filmmakers George and Mike Kuchar, Jack Smith and his film Flaming Creatures, John Waters, including the last's Pink Flamingos and Polyester. Celebrities that are associated with camp personas include drag queens and performers such as Dame Edna Everage, Divine, RuPaul, Paul Lynde, Liberace. Camp was a part of the anti-academic defence of popular culture in the 1960s and gained popularity in the 1980s with the widespread adoption of postmodern views on art and culture. In 1870, in a letter produced in evidence at his examination before a magistrate at Bow-street, London, on suspicion of then-illegal homosexual acts, crossdresser Frederick Park referred to his "campish undertakings". In 1909, the Oxford English Dictionary gave the first print citation of camp as ostentatious, affected, theatrical.
So as a noun,'camp' behaviour, mannerisms, et cetera.. According to the dictionary, this sense is "etymologically obscure". Camp in this sense has been suggested to have derived from the French term se camper, meaning "to pose in an exaggerated fashion", it evolved into a general description of the aesthetic choices and behaviour of working-class homosexual men. It was made mainstream, adjectivized, by Susan Sontag in a landmark essay; the rise of post-modernism made camp a common perspective on aesthetics, not identified with any specific group. The attitude was a distinctive factor in pre-Stonewall gay male communities, where it was the dominant cultural pattern, it originated from the acceptance of gayness as effeminacy. Two key components of camp were feminine performances: swish and drag. With swish featuring extensive use of superlatives, drag being exaggerated female impersonation, camp became extended to all things "over the top", including women posing as female impersonators, as in the exaggerated Hollywood version of Carmen Miranda.
It was this version of the concept, adopted by literary and art critics and became a part of the conceptual array of 1960s culture. Moe Meyer still defines camp as "queer parody". Much of the cult following of camp today grew during the transition from black-and-white to colour television in the early 1960s. Network programming during that time sought entertainment content that would display the new medium with the use of bright colours and high stylization; the concept of the comicbook superhero could be interpreted as camp. However, since it was aimed at children, it is camp only in a secondary perspective, it was not until the 1960s television version of Batman that the link was made explicit, with the inherent ridiculousness of the concept exposed as a vehicle for comedy. The villains of series as divergent as Batman and The Mod Squad were costumed as to take advantage of new colours and changing fashion styles, in ways that took advantage of camp. Batman fell victim to contemporaneous parodies, with the release of Captain Nice and Mr. Terrific, which layered extra camp onto the overladen superhero concept.
The stylized content of Batman may have jump-started television campiness, to circumvent the strict censorship of comics at this time, as the Batman comic books were dark and noirish until the 1950s and from the 1970s onwards. Television series such as The Avengers, The Addams Family, The Munsters, Gilligan's Island, Lost in Space, The Wild Wild West, Get Smart, Are You Being Served?, Charlie's Angels, Fantasy Island and CHiPs are enjoyed into the 21st century for what are interpreted as their "camp" aspects. Some of these series were developed'tongue-in-cheek' by their producers. In a Monty Python sketch of their television show (Episode 22, "Camp Square-Bashing", repeated in their film And Now for Something
In the music industry, a single is a type of release a song recording of fewer tracks than an LP record or an album. This can be released for sale to the public in a variety of different formats. In most cases, a single is a song, released separately from an album, although it also appears on an album; these are the songs from albums that are released separately for promotional uses such as digital download or commercial radio airplay and are expected to be the most popular. In other cases a recording released. Despite being referred to as a single, singles can include up to as many as three tracks; the biggest digital music distributor, iTunes Store, accepts as many as three tracks less than ten minutes each as a single, as does popular music player Spotify. Any more than three tracks on a musical release or thirty minutes in total running time is either an extended play or, if over six tracks long, an album; when mainstream music was purchased via vinyl records, singles would be released double-sided.
That is to say, they were released with an A-side and B-side, on which two singles would be released, one on each side. Moreover, only the most popular songs from a released album would be released as a single. In more contemporary forms of music consumption, artists release most, if not all, of the tracks on an album as singles; the basic specifications of the music single were set in the late 19th century, when the gramophone record began to supersede phonograph cylinders in commercially produced musical recordings. Gramophone discs were manufactured in several sizes. By about 1910, the 10-inch, 78 rpm shellac disc had become the most used format; the inherent technical limitations of the gramophone disc defined the standard format for commercial recordings in the early 20th century. The crude disc-cutting techniques of the time and the thickness of the needles used on record players limited the number of grooves per inch that could be inscribed on the disc surface, a high rotation speed was necessary to achieve acceptable recording and playback fidelity.
78 rpm was chosen as the standard because of the introduction of the electrically powered, synchronous turntable motor in 1925, which ran at 3600 rpm with a 46:1 gear ratio, resulting in a rotation speed of 78.26 rpm. With these factors applied to the 10-inch format and performers tailored their output to fit the new medium; the 3-minute single remained the standard into the 1960s, when the availability of microgroove recording and improved mastering techniques enabled recording artists to increase the duration of their recorded songs. The breakthrough came with Bob Dylan's "Like a Rolling Stone". Although CBS tried to make the record more "radio friendly" by cutting the performance into halves, separating them between the two sides of the vinyl disc, both Dylan and his fans demanded that the full six-minute take be placed on one side, that radio stations play the song in its entirety; as digital downloading and audio streaming have become more prevalent, it has become possible for every track on an album to be available separately.
The concept of a single for an album has been retained as an identification of a more promoted or more popular song within an album collection. The demand for music downloads skyrocketed after the launch of Apple's iTunes Store in January 2001 and the creation of portable music and digital audio players such as the iPod. In September 1997, with the release of Duran Duran's "Electric Barbarella" for paid downloads, Capitol Records became the first major label to sell a digital single from a well-known artist. Geffen Records released Aerosmith's "Head First" digitally for free. In 2004, Recording Industry Association of America introduced digital single certification due to significant sales of digital formats, with Gwen Stefani's "Hollaback Girl" becoming RIAA's first platinum digital single. In 2013, RIAA incorporated on-demand streams into the digital single certification. Single sales in the United Kingdom reached an all-time low in January 2005, as the popularity of the compact disc was overtaken by the then-unofficial medium of the music download.
Recognizing this, On 17 April 2005, Official UK Singles Chart added the download format to the existing format of physical CD singles. Gnarls Barkley was the first act to reach No.1 on this chart through downloads alone in April 2006, for their debut single "Crazy", released physically the following week. On 1 January 2007 digital downloads became eligible from the point of release, without the need for an accompanying physical. Sales improved in the following years, reaching a record high in 2008 that still proceeded to be overtaken in 2009, 2010 and 2011. Singles have been issued in various formats, including 7-inch, 10-inch, 12-inch vinyl discs. Other, less common, formats include singles on Digital Compact Cassette, DVD, LD, as well as many non-standard sizes of vinyl disc; the most common form of the vinyl single is the 45 or 7-inch. The names are derived from its play speed, 45 rpm, the standard diameter, 7 inches; the 7-inch 45 rpm record was released 31 March 1949 by RCA Victor as a smaller, more durable and higher-fidelity replacement for the 78 rpm shellac discs.
The first 45
The Ohio Express is an American bubblegum pop band, formed in Mansfield, Ohio in 1967. Though marketed as a band, it would be more accurate to say that the name "Ohio Express" served as a brand name used by Jerry Kasenetz's and Jeffry Katz's Super K Productions to release the music of a number of different musicians and acts; the best known songs of Ohio Express were the work of an assemblage of studio musicians working out of New York, including singer/songwriter Joey Levine. Several other "Ohio Express" hits were the work of other, unrelated musical groups, including the Rare Breed, an early incarnation of 10cc. In addition, a separate touring version of Ohio Express appeared at all live dates, recorded some of the band's album tracks; the question of, the "real" Ohio Express is difficult to answer. The first record credited to The Ohio Express was "Beg and Steal", a "Louie Louie" derivation which became a Top 40 hit in the US and Canada in late 1967; however the same record had been issued as by the Rare Breed in early 1966 on Attack Records.
This failed to chart nationally, though it did see regional chart action in New Utah. The Rare Breed issued one more single in 1966 on Attack, "Come and Take a Ride in My Boat", a minor chart hit in the US southwest though this single failed to chart nationally; the Rare Breed apparently had a dispute with Super K Productions and left the company, never to record again. The band's original recording of "Beg, Borrow & Steal" sung by former member Michael Fenneken, was re-mixed and re-issued in August 1967 on Cameo Parkway Records, now credited to the Ohio Express; the record was a No. 1 single in Columbus, Ohio, by early September, became a hit across Canada and the US through the following months. The otherwise exhaustively annotated Nuggets box set suggests the Rare Breed were from New York or New Jersey, but offers no other data. However, a 2003 interview and a 2009 YouTube post of a performance of "Beg and Steal" identifies the members of the Rare Breed as John Freno, Barry Stolnick, Joel Feigenbaum, Alexander "Bots" Narbut and Tony Cambria, all from Brooklyn and the Bronx, New York.
With no group available to promote the single by playing live dates, Super K Productions hired a Mansfield, band known as Sir Timothy & the Royals and renamed them the Ohio Express. The lineup consisted of Dale Powers, Dean Kastran, Jim Pfahler and Tim Corwin; this group toured as the Ohio Express, their touring commitments made it difficult for them to head into the New York-based Super K offices to record a follow-up single to "Beg and Steal". Of the "official" group members, only Dale Powers appeared on the second single credited to Ohio Express, a cover of the Standells' "Try It"; the single stalled well outside the US Top 40, peaking at No. 83. The group soon recorded an album called "Beg and Steal", it mixed the original Rare Breed title track with tracks recorded by the Ohio Express touring group, as well as tracks recorded by the Super K staff musicians with vocals by Powers. The LP came out on Cameo-Parkway Records of Philadelphia in the autumn of 1967; the record label went into bankruptcy shortly after that and was purchased by music business mogul Allen Klein, who owns the masters to this day.
Two songs on the "Beg and Steal" LP, "I Find I Think of You" and "And It's True", were recorded by the Kent, band the Measles, led by Joe Walsh of the Eagles and the James Gang. In addition, the Measles recorded an instrumental version of "And It's True", placed on the B-side of the "Beg and Steal" single; the Ohio Express moved to the home label of bubblegum pop, Buddah Records. At the same time, Joey Levine was coming up with new material for the Ohio Express at the behest of Super K Productions, he recorded a demo version of the track "Yummy Yummy Yummy" with Super K staff musicians and his own guide vocal for the Ohio Express to record over. However, Buddah head Neil Bogart liked the demo enough that he released the record "as is", with Levine's vocals intact and no input at all from the touring version of the Ohio Express; the song became an international smash hit, peaking at #4 US, #5 UK, #5 Ireland, #7 Australia and #1 Canada. Two months after its issue it had sold over one million copies, was granted gold disc status by the R.
I. A. A. in June 1968. The success of the Levine-led "Yummy Yummy Yummy" set a pattern for the Ohio Express, they released four LPs and a multitude of singles for Buddah between 1968 and 1970, but the "official" group that appeared on album sleeves and at live shows contributed not a single note to their hit singles. For the year following the release of "Yummy Yummy Yummy", all Ohio Express singles were co-written and sung by Levine, with musical accompaniment by anonymous New York session musicians. Under this arrangement, in 1968 and 1969 the group scored three further top 40 hits in the US, Canada and Australia with "Down at Lulu's", "Chewy Chewy" and "Mercy". "Chewy Chewy" was the group's second million seller by March 1969. Around this time, the group name lost the definite article, becoming "Ohio Express" for most releases from this point forward. There are no known occasions of Levine performing with the "official" Ohi
A double entendre is a figure of speech or a particular way of wording, devised to be understood in two ways, having a double meaning. One of the meanings is obvious, given the context, whereas the other may require more thought; the innuendo may convey a message that would be awkward, sexually suggestive, or offensive to state directly. A double entendre may exploit puns to convey the second meaning. Double entendres rely on multiple meanings of words, or different interpretations of the same primary meaning, they exploit ambiguity and may be used to introduce it deliberately in a text. Sometimes a homophone can be used as a pun; when three or more meanings have been constructed, this is known as etc.. A person, unfamiliar with the hidden or alternative meaning of a sentence may fail to detect its innuendos, aside from observing that others find it humorous for no apparent reason; because it is not offensive to those who do not recognise it, innuendo is used in sitcoms and other comedy where the audience may enjoy the humour while being oblivious to its secondary meaning.
A triple entendre is a phrase that can be understood in any of three ways, such as in the back cover of the 1981 Rush album Moving Pictures which shows a moving company carrying paintings out of a building while people are shown being moved and a film crew makes a "moving picture" of the whole scene. The expression comes from French double = "double" and entendre = "to hear". However, the English formulation is a corruption of the authentic French expression à double entente. Modern French uses double sens instead. In Homer's The Odyssey, when Odysseus is captured by the Cyclops Polyphemus, he tells the Cyclops that his name is Oudeis; when Odysseus attacks the Cyclops that night and stabs him in the eye, the Cyclops runs out of his cave, yelling to the other cyclopes that "No-one has hurt me!", which leads the other cyclopes to take no action under the assumption that Polyphemus blinded himself by accident, allowing Odysseus and his men to escape. Some of the earliest double entendres are found in the Exeter Book, or Codex exoniensis, at Exeter Cathedral in England.
The book was copied around AD 975. In addition to the various poems and stories found in the book, there are numerous riddles; the Anglo-Saxons did not reveal the answers to the riddles, but they have been answered by scholars over the years. Some riddles were double-entendres, such as Riddle 25 which suggests the answer "a penis" but has the correct answer "an onion". Examples of sexual innuendo and double-entendre occur in Geoffrey Chaucer's The Canterbury Tales, in which the Wife of Bath's Tale is laden with double entendres; the most famous of these may be her use of the word "queynte" to describe both domestic duties and genitalia. The title of Sir Thomas More's 1516 fictional work Utopia is a double entendre because of the pun between two Greek-derived words that would have identical pronunciation: with his spelling, it means "no place". Sometimes, it is unclear. For example, the character Charley Bates from Charles Dickens' Oliver Twist is referred to as Master Bates; the word "masturbate" was in use when the book was written, Dickens used colourful names related to the natures of the characters.
The title of Damon Knight's story To Serve Man is a double entendre which could mean "to perform a service to humanity" or "to serve a human as food". An alien cookbook with the title To Serve Man is featured in the story which could imply that the aliens eat humans; the story was the basis for an episode of The Twilight Zone. At the end of the episode the line "It's a cookbook!" Reveals the truth. Shakespeare used double entendres in his plays. Sir Toby Belch in Twelfth Night says of Sir Andrew's hair. Thou wilt fall backward when thou hast more wit"; the title of Shakespeare's play Much Ado About Nothing is a pun on the Elizabethan use of "no-thing" as slang for vagina. In the UK, starting in the 19th century, Victorian morality di
Pop music is a genre of popular music that originated in its modern form in the United States and United Kingdom during the mid-1950s. The terms "popular music" and "pop music" are used interchangeably, although the former describes all music, popular and includes many diverse styles. "Pop" and "rock" were synonymous terms until the late 1960s, when they became differentiated from each other. Although much of the music that appears on record charts is seen as pop music, the genre is distinguished from chart music. Pop music is eclectic, borrows elements from other styles such as urban, rock and country. Identifying factors include short to medium-length songs written in a basic format, as well as common use of repeated choruses, melodic tunes, hooks. David Hatch and Stephen Millward define pop music as "a body of music, distinguishable from popular and folk musics". According to Pete Seeger, pop music is "professional music which draws upon both folk music and fine arts music". Although pop music is seen as just the singles charts, it is not the sum of all chart music.
The music charts contain songs from a variety of sources, including classical, jazz and novelty songs. As a genre, pop music is seen to develop separately. Therefore, the term "pop music" may be used to describe a distinct genre, designed to appeal to all characterized as "instant singles-based music aimed at teenagers" in contrast to rock music as "album-based music for adults". Pop music continuously evolves along with the term's definition. According to music writer Bill Lamb, popular music is defined as "the music since industrialization in the 1800s, most in line with the tastes and interests of the urban middle class." The term "pop song" was first used in 1926, in the sense of a piece of music "having popular appeal". Hatch and Millward indicate that many events in the history of recording in the 1920s can be seen as the birth of the modern pop music industry, including in country and hillbilly music. According to the website of The New Grove Dictionary of Music and Musicians, the term "pop music" "originated in Britain in the mid-1950s as a description for rock and roll and the new youth music styles that it influenced".
The Oxford Dictionary of Music states that while pop's "earlier meaning meant concerts appealing to a wide audience since the late 1950s, pop has had the special meaning of non-classical mus in the form of songs, performed by such artists as the Beatles, the Rolling Stones, ABBA, etc." Grove Music Online states that " in the early 1960s,'pop music' competed terminologically with beat music, while in the US its coverage overlapped with that of'rock and roll'". From about 1967, the term “pop music” was used in opposition to the term rock music, a division that gave generic significance to both terms. While rock aspired to authenticity and an expansion of the possibilities of popular music, pop was more commercial and accessible. According to British musicologist Simon Frith, pop music is produced "as a matter of enterprise not art", is "designed to appeal to everyone" but "doesn't come from any particular place or mark off any particular taste". Frith adds that it is "not driven by any significant ambition except profit and commercial reward and, in musical terms, it is conservative".
It is, "provided from on high rather than being made from below... Pop is not a do-it-yourself music but is professionally produced and packaged". According to Frith, characteristics of pop music include an aim of appealing to a general audience, rather than to a particular sub-culture or ideology, an emphasis on craftsmanship rather than formal "artistic" qualities. Music scholar Timothy Warner said it has an emphasis on recording and technology, rather than live performance; the main medium of pop music is the song between two and a half and three and a half minutes in length marked by a consistent and noticeable rhythmic element, a mainstream style and a simple traditional structure. Common variants include the verse-chorus form and the thirty-two-bar form, with a focus on melodies and catchy hooks, a chorus that contrasts melodically and harmonically with the verse; the beat and the melodies tend to be simple, with limited harmonic accompaniment. The lyrics of modern pop songs focus on simple themes – love and romantic relationships – although there are notable exceptions.
Harmony and chord progressions in pop music are "that of classical European tonality, only more simple-minded." Clichés include the barbershop quartet-style blues scale-influenced harmony. There was a lessening of the influence of traditional views of the circle of fifths between the mid-1950s and the late 1970s, including less predominance for the dominant function. Throughout its development, pop music has absorbed influences from other genres of popular music. Early pop music drew on the sentimental ballad for its form, gained its use of vocal harmonies from gospel and soul music, instrumentation from jazz and rock music, orchestration from classical music, tempo from dance music, backing from electronic music, rhythmic elements from hip-hop music, spoken passages from rap. In the 1960s, the majority of mainstream pop music fell in two categories: guitar and bass groups or singers
Singing is the act of producing musical sounds with the voice and augments regular speech by the use of sustained tonality, a variety of vocal techniques. A person who sings is called a vocalist. Singers perform music that can be sung without accompaniment by musical instruments. Singing is done in an ensemble of musicians, such as a choir of singers or a band of instrumentalists. Singers may perform as soloists or accompanied by anything from a single instrument up to a symphony orchestra or big band. Different singing styles include art music such as opera and Chinese opera, Indian music and religious music styles such as gospel, traditional music styles, world music, blues and popular music styles such as pop, electronic dance music and filmi. Singing arranged or improvised, it may be done as a form of religious devotion, as a hobby, as a source of pleasure, comfort or ritual, as part of music education or as a profession. Excellence in singing requires time, dedication and regular practice.
If practice is done on a regular basis the sounds can become more clear and strong. Professional singers build their careers around one specific musical genre, such as classical or rock, although there are singers with crossover success, they take voice training provided by voice teachers or vocal coaches throughout their careers. In its physical aspect, singing has a well-defined technique that depends on the use of the lungs, which act as an air supply or bellows. Though these four mechanisms function independently, they are coordinated in the establishment of a vocal technique and are made to interact upon one another. During passive breathing, air is inhaled with the diaphragm while exhalation occurs without any effort. Exhalation may be aided by lower pelvis/pelvic muscles. Inhalation is aided by use of external intercostals and sternocleidomastoid muscles; the pitch is altered with the vocal cords. With the lips closed, this is called humming; the sound of each individual's singing voice is unique not only because of the actual shape and size of an individual's vocal cords but due to the size and shape of the rest of that person's body.
Humans have vocal folds which can loosen, tighten, or change their thickness, over which breath can be transferred at varying pressures. The shape of the chest and neck, the position of the tongue, the tightness of otherwise unrelated muscles can be altered. Any one of these actions results in a change in pitch, timbre, or tone of the sound produced. Sound resonates within different parts of the body and an individual's size and bone structure can affect the sound produced by an individual. Singers can learn to project sound in certain ways so that it resonates better within their vocal tract; this is known as vocal resonation. Another major influence on vocal sound and production is the function of the larynx which people can manipulate in different ways to produce different sounds; these different kinds of laryngeal function are described as different kinds of vocal registers. The primary method for singers to accomplish this is through the use of the Singer's Formant, it has been shown that a more powerful voice may be achieved with a fatter and fluid-like vocal fold mucosa.
The more pliable the mucosa, the more efficient the transfer of energy from the airflow to the vocal folds. Vocal registration refers to the system of vocal registers within the voice. A register in the voice is a particular series of tones, produced in the same vibratory pattern of the vocal folds, possessing the same quality. Registers originate in laryngeal function, they occur. Each of these vibratory patterns appears within a particular range of pitches and produces certain characteristic sounds; the occurrence of registers has been attributed to effects of the acoustic interaction between the vocal fold oscillation and the vocal tract. The term "register" can be somewhat confusing; the term register can be used to refer to any of the following: A particular part of the vocal range such as the upper, middle, or lower registers. A resonance area such as chest voice or head voice. A phonatory process A certain vocal timbre or vocal "color" A region of the voice, defined or delimited by vocal breaks.
In linguistics, a register language is a language which combines tone and vowel phonation into a single phonological system. Within speech pathology, the term vocal register has three constituent elements: a certain vibratory pattern of the vocal folds, a certain series of pitches, a certain type of sound. Speech pathologists identify four vocal registers based on the physiology of laryngeal function: the vocal fry register, the modal register, the falsetto register, the whistle register; this view is adopted by many vocal pedagogues. Vocal resonation is the process by which the basic product of phonation is en