Lake Victoria is one of the African Great Lakes. The lake was named after Queen Victoria by the explorer John Hanning Speke, the first Briton to document it. Speke accomplished this in 1858, while on an expedition with Richard Francis Burton to locate the source of the Nile River. With a surface area of 59,947 square kilometres, Lake Victoria is Africa's largest lake by area, the world's largest tropical lake, the world's second largest fresh water lake by surface area after Lake Superior in North America. In terms of volume, Lake Victoria is the world's ninth largest continental lake, containing about 2,424 cubic kilometres of water. Lake Victoria occupies a shallow depression in Africa; the lake has an average depth of 40 metres. Its catchment area covers 169,858 square kilometres; the lake has a shoreline of 7,142 kilometres when digitized at the 1:25,000 level, with islands constituting 3.7 percent of this length, is divided among three countries: Kenya and Tanzania. Geologically, Lake Victoria is young at about 400,000 years old.
It formed. During its geological history, Lake Victoria went through changes ranging from its present shallow depression, through to what may have been a series of much smaller lakes. Geological cores taken from its bottom show Lake Victoria has dried up at least three times since it formed; these drying cycles are related to past ice ages, which were times when precipitation declined globally. Lake Victoria last dried out about 17,300 years ago, it refilled 14,700 years ago as the African humid period began. Lake Victoria receives 80 percent of its water from direct rainfall. Average evaporation on the lake is between 2.0 and 2.2 metres per year double the precipitation of riparian areas. Lake Victoria receives its water additionally from rivers, thousands of small streams; the Kagera River is the largest river flowing into this lake, with its mouth on the lake's western shore. Lake Victoria is drained by the Nile River near Jinja, Uganda, on the lake's northern shore. In the Kenya sector, the main influent rivers are the Sio, Yala, Sondu Miriu and Migori.
The only outflow from Lake Victoria is the Nile River, which exits the lake near Uganda. In terms of contributed water, this makes Lake Victoria the principal source of the longest branch of the Nile. However, the most distal source of the Nile Basin, therefore the ultimate source of the Nile, is more considered to be one of the tributary rivers of the Kagera River, which originates in either Rwanda or Burundi; the uppermost section of the Nile is known as the Victoria Nile until it reaches Lake Albert. Although it is a part of the same river system known as the White Nile and is referred to as such speaking this name does not apply until after the river crosses the Uganda border into South Sudan to the north; the lake exhibits eutrophic conditions. In 1990–1991, oxygen concentrations in the mixed layer were higher than in 1960–1961, with nearly continuous oxygen supersaturation in surface waters. Oxygen concentrations in hypolimnetic waters were lower in 1990–1991 for a longer period than in 1960–1961, with values of less than 1 mg per litre occurring in water as shallow as 40 metres compared with a shallowest occurrence of greater than 50 metres in 1961.
The changes in oxygenation are considered consistent with measurements of higher algal biomass and productivity. These changes have arisen for multiple reasons: successive burning within its basin and ash from, deposited over the lake's wide area; the lake is considered a shallow lake considering its large geographic area with a maximum depth of 80 metres and an average depth of 40 metres. A 2016 project created the first true bathymetric map of the lake; the deepest part of the lake is offset to the east of the lake near Kenya and the lake is shallower in the west along the Ugandan shoreline and the south along the Tanzanian shoreline. Many mammal species live in the region of Lake Victoria, some of these are associated with the lake itself and the nearby wetlands. Among these are the hippopotamus, African clawless otter, spotted-necked otter, marsh mongoose, bohor reedbuck, defassa waterbuck, cane rats, giant otter shrew. Lake Victoria and its wetlands has a large population of Nile crocodiles, as well as African helmeted turtles, variable mud turtles, Williams' mud turtle.
The Williams' mud turtle is restricted to Lake Victoria and other lakes and swamps in the upper Nile basin. Lake Victoria was rich in fish, including many endemics, but a high percentage of these became extinct during the last 50 years; the main group in Lake Victoria is the haplochromine cichlids with more than 500 species all endemic and some still undescribed. This is far more species of fish except Lake Malawi. These
The shoebill known as whalehead or shoe-billed stork, is a large stork-like bird. It derives its name from its enormous shoe-shaped bill, it has a somewhat stork-like overall form and has been classified with the storks in the order Ciconiiformes based on this morphology. However, genetic evidence places it with the Pelecaniformes; the adult is grey while the juveniles are browner. It lives in tropical east Africa in large swamps from Sudan to Zambia; the shoebill was known to both ancient Egyptians and Arabs, but was not classified until the 19th century, after skins and live specimens were brought to Europe. Traditionally allied with the storks, it was retained there in the Sibley-Ahlquist taxonomy which lumped a massive number of unrelated taxa into their "Ciconiiformes". More the shoebill has been considered to be closer to the pelicans or the herons. Microscopic analysis of eggshell structure by Konstantin Mikhailov in 1995 found that the eggshells of shoebills resembled those of other Pelecaniformes in having a covering of thick microglobular material over the crystalline shells.
A recent DNA study reinforces their membership of the Pelecaniformes. So far, two fossil relatives of the shoebill have been described: Goliathia from the early Oligocene of Egypt and Paludavis from the Early Miocene of the same country, it has been suggested that the enigmatic African fossil bird Eremopezus was a relative too, but the evidence for, unconfirmed. All, known of Eremopezus is that it was a large flightless bird with a flexible foot, allowing it to handle either vegetation or prey; the shoebill is a tall bird, with a typical height range of 110 to 140 cm and some specimens reaching as much as 152 cm. Length from tail to beak can range from 100 to 140 cm and wingspan is 230 to 260 cm. Weight has ranged from 4 to 7 kg. A male is larger than a typical female of 4.9 kg. The signature feature of the species is its huge, bulbous bill, straw-coloured with erratic greyish markings; the exposed culmen is 18.8 to 24 cm, the third longest bill among extant birds after pelicans and large storks, can outrival the pelicans in bill circumference if the bill is considered as the hard, bony keratin portion.
The sharp edges in the mandibles help the shoebill to decapitate their prey and to discard any vegetation after prey has been caught. As in the pelicans, the upper mandible is keeled, ending in a sharp nail; the dark coloured legs are long, with a tarsus length of 21.7 to 25.5 cm. The shoebill's feet are exceptionally large, with the middle toe reaching 16.8 to 18.5 cm in length assisting the species in its ability to stand on aquatic vegetation while hunting. The neck is shorter and thicker than other long-legged wading birds such as herons and cranes; the wings are broad, with a wing chord length of 58.8 to 78 cm, well-adapted to soaring. The plumage of adult birds is blue-grey with darker slaty-grey flight feathers; the breast presents some elongated feathers. The juvenile is a darker grey with a brown tinge; when they are first born, shoebills have a more modestly-sized bill, silvery-grey. The bill becomes more noticeably large when the chicks are 23 days old and becomes well developed by 43 days.
Its wings are held flat while soaring and, as in the pelicans and the storks of the genus Leptoptilos, the shoebill flies with its neck retracted. Its flapping rate, at an estimated 150 flaps per minute, is one of the slowest of any bird, with the exception of the larger stork species; the pattern is alternating flapping and gliding cycles of seven seconds each, putting its gliding distance somewhere between the larger storks and the Andean condor. When flushed, shoebills try to fly no more than 100 to 500 m. Long flights of the shoebill are rare, only a few flights beyond its minimum foraging distance of 20 m have been recorded. At close range, it can be identified by its unique features. In flight, if its unique bill cannot be seen, the shoebill's silhouette resembles that of a stork or condor, but its feathers are a distinctive medium blue-grey. Unusual, its tail is the same colour as its wings. Under poor viewing conditions, its size and wingspan can distinguish it from other birds in its habitat.
Its legs the length of storks', extend straight back far past its tail when in flight. The wing to tail size cannot be used for identification; the shoebill is distributed in freshwater swamps of central tropical Africa, from southern Sudan through parts of eastern Congo, Uganda, western Tanzania and northern Zambia. The species is adjacent areas of the south Sudan. More isolated records have been reported of shoebills in Kenya, the Central African Republic, northern Cameroon, south-western Ethiopia, Malawi. Vagrant strays to the Okavango Basin and the upper Congo River have been sighted; the distribution of this species seems to coincide with that of papyrus and lungfish. The shoebill is non-migratory with limited seasonal movements due to habitat changes, food availability and disturbance by humans; the shoebill occurs in exten
Uganda the Republic of Uganda, is a landlocked country in East-Central Africa. It is bordered to the east by Kenya, to the north by South Sudan, to the west by the Democratic Republic of the Congo, to the south-west by Rwanda, to the south by Tanzania; the southern part of the country includes a substantial portion of Lake Victoria, shared with Kenya and Tanzania. Uganda is in the African Great Lakes region. Uganda lies within the Nile basin, has a varied but a modified equatorial climate. Uganda takes its name from the Buganda kingdom, which encompasses a large portion of the south of the country, including the capital Kampala; the people of Uganda were hunter-gatherers until 1,700 to 2,300 years ago, when Bantu-speaking populations migrated to the southern parts of the country. Beginning in 1894, the area was ruled as a protectorate by the UK, who established administrative law across the territory. Uganda gained independence from the UK on 9 October 1962; the period since has been marked by intermittent conflicts, including a lengthy civil war against the Lord's Resistance Army in the Northern Region led by Joseph Kony, which has caused hundreds of thousands of casualties.
The official languages are English and Swahili, although "any other language may be used as a medium of instruction in schools or other educational institutions or for legislative, administrative or judicial purposes as may be prescribed by law." Luganda, a central language, is spoken across the country, several other languages are spoken including Runyoro, Rukiga and Lusoga. The president of Uganda is Yoweri Kaguta Museveni, who came to power in January 1986 after a protracted six-year guerrilla war, he has since eliminated the presidential term limits and the presidential age limit, becoming president for life. The residents of Uganda were hunter-gatherers until 1,700–2,300 years ago. Bantu-speaking populations, who were from central Africa, migrated to the southern parts of the country. According to oral tradition, the Empire of Kitara covered an important part of the great lakes area, from the northern lakes Albert and Kyoga to the southern lakes Victoria and Tanganyika. Bunyoro-Kitara is claimed as the antecedent of the Buganda, Toro and Busoga kingdoms.
Some Luo invaded the area of Bunyoro and assimilated with the Bantu there, establishing the Babiito dynasty of the current Omukama of Bunyoro-Kitara. Arab traders moved inland from the Indian Ocean coast of East Africa in the 1830s, they were followed in the 1860s by British explorers searching for the source of the Nile. British Anglican missionaries arrived in the kingdom of Buganda in 1877 and were followed by French Catholic missionaries in 1879; the British government chartered the Imperial British East Africa Company to negotiate trade agreements in the region beginning in 1888. From 1886, there were a series of religious wars in Buganda between Muslims and Christians and from 1890, between ba-Ingleza Protestants and ba-Fransa Catholics; because of civil unrest and financial burdens, IBEAC claimed that it was unable to "maintain their occupation" in the region. British commercial interests were ardent to protect the trade route of the Nile, which prompted the British government to annex Buganda and adjoining territories to create the Uganda Protectorate in 1894.
In the 1890s, 32,000 labourers from British India were recruited to East Africa under indentured labour contracts to construct the Uganda Railway. Most of the surviving Indians returned home, but 6,724 decided to remain in East Africa after the line's completion. Subsequently, some took control of cotton ginning and sartorial retail. From 1900 to 1920, a sleeping sickness epidemic in the southern part of Uganda, along the north shores of Lake Victoria, killed more than 250,000 people. Uganda gained independence from Britain on 9 October 1962 with Queen Elizabeth II as head of state and Queen of Uganda. In October 1963, Uganda became a republic but maintained its membership in the Commonwealth of Nations; the first post-independence election, held in 1962, was won by an alliance between the Uganda People's Congress and Kabaka Yekka. UPC and KY formed the first post-independence government with Milton Obote as executive prime minister, with the Buganda Kabaka Edward Muteesa II holding the ceremonial position of president.
Uganda's immediate post-independence years were dominated by the relationship between the central government and the largest regional kingdom – Buganda. From the moment the British created the Uganda protectorate, the issue of how to manage the largest monarchy within the framework of a unitary state had always been a problem. Colonial governors had failed to come up with a formula; this was further complicated by Buganda's nonchalant attitude to its relationship with the central government. Buganda never sought independence, but rather appeared to be comfortable with a loose arrangement that guaranteed them privileges above the other subjects within the protectorate or a special status when the British left; this was evidenced in part by hostilities between the British colonial authorities and Buganda prior to independence. Within Buganda there were divisions – between those who wanted the Kabaka to remain a dominant monarch, those who wanted to join with the rest of Uganda to create a modern secular state.
The split resulted in the creation of two dominant Buganda based parties – the Kabaka Yekka KY, the Democratic Party that had roots in the Catholic Church. The bitterness between these two parties was intense especiall
Elaeis is a genus of palms containing two species, called oil palms. They are used in commercial agriculture in the production of palm oil; the African oil palm Elaeis. It is native to southwest Africa, occurring between Angola and Gambia; the American oil palm Elaeis oleifera is native to tropical Central and South America, is used locally for oil production. Mature palms are single-stemmed, can grow well over 20 m tall; the leaves are pinnate, reach between 3–5 m long. The flowers are produced in dense clusters; the palm fruit is reddish, about the size of a large plum, grows in large bunches. Each fruit is made up of an oily, fleshy outer layer, with a single seed rich in oil; the two species, E. guineensis and E. oleifera can produce fertile hybrids. The genome of E. guineensis has been sequenced, which has important implications for breeding improved strains of the crop plants. Since palm oil contains more saturated fats than oils made from canola, linseed, soybeans and sunflowers, it can withstand extreme deep-frying heat and resists oxidation.
It contains no trans fat, its use in food has increased as food-labelling laws have changed to specify trans fat content. Oil from Elaeis guineensis is used as biofuel. Human use of oil palms may date back to about 5,000 years in coastal west Africa. Palm oil was discovered in the late 19th century by archaeologists in a tomb at Abydos dating back to 3000 BCE, it is thought. Elaeis guineensis is now extensively cultivated in tropical countries outside Africa Malaysia and Indonesia which together produce most of the world supply. Palm oil is considered the most controversial of the cooking oils - for both health and environmental reasons. Palm oil plantations are under increasing scrutiny for social and environmental harm because rainforests with high biodiversity are destroyed, greenhouse gas output is increased, because people are displaced by unscrupulous palm-oil enterprises and traditional livelihoods are negatively impacted. In Indonesia, there is growing pressure for palm oil producers to prove that they are not harming rare animals in the cultivation process.
In 2018 a Christmas TV advertisement by supermarket chain Iceland, produced by Greenpeace, was banned by the UK advertising watchdog Clearcast. Iceland had committed to banning palm oil from its own-brand products by the end of 2018. Attalea maripa, another oil-producing palm Journal of Oil Palm Research Energy and the environment List of Arecaceae genera Social and environmental impact of palm oil
Buganda is a subnational kingdom within Uganda. The kingdom of the Ganda people, Buganda is the largest of the traditional kingdoms in present-day Uganda, comprising all of Uganda's Central Region, including the Ugandan capital Kampala; the 6 million Baganda make up the largest Ugandan ethnic group, representing 16.9% of Uganda's population. Buganda has a extensive history. Unified in the 14th century under the first king Kato Kintu, the founder of Buganda's Kintu Dynasty, Buganda grew to become one of the largest and most powerful states in East Africa during the eighteenth and 19th centuries. During the Scramble for Africa, following unsuccessful attempts to retain its independence against British imperialism, Buganda became the centre of the Uganda Protectorate in 1894. Under British rule, many Baganda acquired status as colonial administrators, Buganda became a major producer of cotton and coffee. Following Uganda's independence in 1962, the kingdom was abolished by Uganda's first Prime Minister Milton Obote in 1966.
Following years of disturbance under Obote and dictator Idi Amin, as well as several years of internal divisions among Uganda's ruling National Resistance Movement under Yoweri Museveni, the President of Uganda since 1986, the kingdom was restored in 1993. Buganda is now a kingdom monarchy with a large degree of autonomy from the Ugandan state, although tensions between the kingdom and the Ugandan government continue to be a defining feature of Ugandan politics. Since the restoration of the kingdom in 1993, the king of Buganda, known as the Kabaka, has been Muwenda Mutebi II, he is recognised as the 36th Kabaka of Buganda. The current queen, known as the Nnabagereka, is Queen Sylvia Nagginda. Buganda's boundaries are marked by Lake Victoria to the south, the River Nile to the east, Lake Kyoga to the north and River Kafu to the northwest; the Luganda language is spoken in Uganda and is the most popular second language in Uganda along with English. In literature and common discourse, Buganda is referred to as Central Uganda.
Ganda villages, sometimes as large as forty to fifty homes, were located on hillsides, leaving hilltops and swampy lowlands uninhabited, to be used for crops or pastures. Early Ganda villages surrounded the home of a chief or headman, which provided a common meeting ground for members of the village; the chief collected tribute from his subjects, provided tribute to the Kabaka, the ruler of the kingdom, distributed resources among his subjects, maintained order, reinforced social solidarity through his decision-making skills. During the late 19th century, Ganda villages became more dispersed as the role of the chiefs diminished in response to political turmoil, population migration, occasional popular revolts. Buganda is a constitutional monarchy; the current Head of State is the Kabaka, Muwenda Mutebi II who has reigned since the restoration of the kingdom in 1993. The Head of Government is the Katikkiro Charles Mayiga, appointed by the Kabaka in 2013; the Parliament of Uganda is the Lukiiko.
Prior to the Buganda Agreement of 1900, Buganda was an absolute monarchy. Under the Kabaka, there were three types of chief: bakungu chiefs, who were appointed directly by the Kabaka; the 1900 agreement, however enhanced the power of the Lukiiko at the expense of the Kabaka. While Buganda retained self-government, as one part of the larger Uganda Protectorate, it would henceforth be subject to formal British overrule; the Buganda Agreement of 1955 continued the transition from absolute to constitutional monarchy. During Uganda independence, the constitutional position of Buganda was a major issue. Discussions as part of the Uganda Relationships Commission resulted in the Buganda Agreement of 1961 and the first Constitution of Uganda, as part of which Buganda would be able to exercise a high degree of autonomy; this position was reversed during 1966–67, before the Kabakaship and Lukiiko were disestablished altogether in 1967 before being restored in 1993. Before the arrival of Europeans in the region, Buganda was an expanding, "embryonic empire".
It built fleets of war canoes from the 1840s to take control of Lake Victoria and the surrounding regions, subjugated several weaker peoples. These subject peoples were exploited for cheap labor; the first Europeans to enter the Kingdom of Buganda were British explorers John Hanning Speke and Captain Sir Richard Francis Burton while searching for the headwaters of the Nile in 1862. They found a organized political system, marred, however, by the ongoing practice of mass human sacrifice estimated at 800 persons annually; the explorer and journalist Henry Morton Stanley visited Buganda in 1875 and provided an estimate of Buganda troop strength. Stanley counted a fleet of war canoes. At Buganda's capital, Stanley found a well-ordered town surrounding the king's palace, situated atop a commanding hill. A tall cane fence surrounded the palace compound, filled with grass-roofed houses, meeting halls, storage buildings. Thronging the grounds were foreign ambassadors. Seeking audiences, chiefs going to the royal advisory council, messengers running errands, a corps of young pages.
He estimated the population of the kingdom at 2,000
The sitatunga or marshbuck is a swamp-dwelling antelope found throughout central Africa, centering on the Democratic Republic of the Congo, parts of Southern Sudan, Botswana, Gabon, Tanzania and Kenya. The species was first described by the English explorer John Hanning Speke in 1863; the sitatunga is a medium-sized antelope. Males reach 81–116 cm at the shoulder, while females reach 72–90 cm. Males weigh 76–119 kg, while females weigh 24–57 kg; the sitatunga has a water-resistant coat which varies in colour. The body and feet of this antelope are specially adapted to its swampy habitat. Only the males possess horns. Sitatunga are active during the early hours after dawn, the last one or two hours before dusk, night, they are not territorial. Sitatunga are selective in what they eat and feed on new foliage, fresh grasses, aquatic plants and browse. Females are sexually mature by one year of age. Breeding occurs throughout the year but peaks in the dry season. Gestation lasts for nearly eight months, after which a single calf is born.
Lifespan recorded in captivity averages 22 to 23 years. The sitatunga is confined to marshy habitats. Here they occur in tall and dense vegetation as well as seasonal swamps, marshy clearings in forests, riparian thickets and mangrove swamps. Habitat loss is the most severe threat to the survival of the sitatunga; the species has been classified under the Least Concern category by the International Union for Conservation of Nature and Natural Resources, under Appendix III of the Washington Convention. Though the population is sporadic in some countries, the animal is common in many areas such as the Okavango Delta and Bangweulu Swamp; the scientific name of the sitatunga is Tragelaphus spekii. The species was first described by the English explorer John Hanning Speke in 1863. Speke first observed the sitatunga at a lake named "Little Windermere". In his book Journal of the Discovery of the Source of the Nile, Speke called the animal "nzoé" or "water-boc"; the scientific name has been misstated as T. spekei, either Speke or Sclater is referred to as the binomial authority.
Speke had stated in a footnote in his book that the species had been named Tragelaphus spekii by English zoologist Philip Sclater. However, according to the International Code of Zoological Nomenclature and the International Commission on Zoological Nomenclature, that acknowledge the person who first described the species declaring Sclater as the authority in a footnote is insufficient to recognise him as the author. Hence, Speke was recognised as the correct authority and T. spekii was considered the correct name for the species. The sitatunga is placed in the family Bovidae. In 2005, Sandi Willows-Munro of the University of KwaZulu-Natal carried out a mitochondrial analysis of the nine Tragelaphus species. MtDNA and nDNA data were compared; the results showed that sitatunga plus bongo form a monophyletic clade with the mountain nyala and kéwel. The greater kudu split from this clade 8.6 million years ago. Within Tragelaphus, the kéwel, bongo and nyala are close relatives; the bushbuck, that includes both imbabala and kéwel, sitatunga are genetically similar enough to hybridise.
Hybrids between bongo and sitatunga have proved to be fertile. The sitatunga is more variable in its general characters than any other member of the tribe Strepsicerotini, that consists of the genera Taurotragus and Tragelaphus because of their confinement to swampy and marshy habitats. On the basis of physical characteristics such as hair texture, coat colour and the coat stripes, up to ten subspecies of the sitatunga have been described. However, these factors may not be reliable since hair texture could vary with the climate, while pelage colour and markings vary among individuals. Moreover, the coat might darken and the stripes and spots on it might fade with age in males; the species might be monotypic, based on different drainage systems, three distinct subspecies are recognised: T. s. spekii: Nile sitatunga or East African sitatunga. Found in the Nile watershed. T. s. gratus: Congo sitatunga or forest sitatunga. Found in western and central Africa. T. s. selousi: Southern sitatunga or Zambezi sitatunga.
Found in southern Africa. The sitatunga is a medium-sized antelope, it is sexually dimorphic, with males larger than females. The head-and-body length is between 136–177 cm in males and 104–146 cm in females. Males reach 81–116 cm at the shoulder, while females reach 72–90 cm. Males weigh 76–119 kg, while females weigh 24–57 kg; the tail is 14–37 cm long. The saucer-shaped ears are 11–17 cm long; the sitatunga is indistinguishable from the nyala, except in pelage and spoor. Speke pointed out that, though "closely allied" to the waterbuck, the sitatunga lacks stripes and is spotted instead; the coat colour varies geographically, but, in general, is a rufous red in juveniles and chestnut in females. There are white facial markings, as well as