Loyola University Chicago
Loyola University Chicago is a private Catholic research university in Chicago, Illinois. Founded in 1870 by the Jesuits, today Loyola is one of the largest Catholic universities in the United States. Loyola's professional schools have educated generations of local business and civic leaders, distinguished programs in medicine and health sciences are anchored by the nationally recognized Loyola University Medical Center. Comprising eleven colleges and schools, Loyola offers over 80 undergraduate and 140 graduate/professional programs and enrolls 16,000 students. Loyola has six campuses across the Chicago metropolitan area, as well as a campus in Rome and guest programs in Beijing and Ho Chi Minh City; the flagship Lake Shore Campus is on the shores of Lake Michigan in the Rogers Park and Edgewater neighborhoods of Chicago, eight miles north of the Loop. Loyola's athletic teams, nicknamed the Ramblers, compete in NCAA Division I as members of the Missouri Valley Conference. Loyola won the 1963 NCAA men's basketball championship, remains the only school from Illinois to do so.
The Ramblers are two-time NCAA champions in men's volleyball. Among the more than 150,000 Loyola alumni, there are executives of major Chicago-based corporations such as McDonald's and Baxter International, as well as dozens of local and national political leaders including the current Illinois Attorney General and Speaker of the House. Loyola alumni have won Emmy, Grammy and Pulitzer awards, as well as Guggenheim and MacArthur fellowships. Loyola was established as St. Ignatius College on June 30, 1870, by Jesuit educator Fr. Arnold Damen. At that time Chicago was a much smaller, but growing, city just shy of 300,000 people, as a result the original campus was much closer to the city center along Roosevelt Road. In 1909 the school was renamed Loyola University, in 1912 it began to move to the current Lake Shore Campus. To meet the growing needs of Chicago, Loyola established professional schools in law, medicine and nursing; the Chicago College of Dental Surgery became part of the university in 1923, was closed 70 years later.
A downtown campus was founded in 1914, with it the School of Sociology. As the predecessor to the School of Social Work, it enrolled Loyola's first female students, though the school would not become coeducational until 1966. Loyola Academy, a college prep high school, occupied Dumbach Hall on the Lake Shore Campus until it was relocated to north suburban Wilmette in 1957; the current Water Tower Campus opened in 1949. In 1962, Loyola opened a campus in Rome near the site of the 1960 Summer Olympics. In 1969, Loyola established the School of Education and consolidated medical programs at the Loyola University Medical Center, a hospital and health care complex located in Maywood, an immediate suburb of Chicago; the university separated from the Jesuits in 1970, today is under lay control and governed by a board of trustees. Loyola purchased neighboring Mundelein College in 1991. Major capital campaigns since the turn of the century have enhanced Loyola's academic profile and campuses. In 2005 the Loyola University Museum of Art was established on the Water Tower Campus, the Rome campus was renamed in honor of Director Emeritus John P. Felice.
In 2009, the Cuneo Foundation presented the university with the Cuneo Mansion and Gardens, a 100-acre estate with an Italianate mansion and extensive collections of art and furnishings located in suburban Vernon Hills. The $50 million gift is the largest in Loyola history. In 2010, Loyola purchased the Resurrection Retreat Center in Woodstock, which became the school's fifth campus for retreat and ecological study. In 2012, Loyola alumnus Michael R. Quinlan donated $40 million to the business school, renamed in his honor. During this time over 200,000 square-feet of LEED-certified sustainable spaces have been built on the Lake Shore Campus alone, along with significant mixed-use developments on the Water Tower Campus. Today, Loyola ranks among the top 89 universities in the nation, is in the midst of over $800 million in capital construction projects. In 2015, the university established Arrupe College, a uniquely structured two-year college designed to give low-income students access to a Loyola education.
On May 23, 2016, Loyola named Jo Ann Rooney its 24th president. She is the first female president in the history of the university. Loyola's flagship Lake Shore Campus is along the shores of Lake Michigan in the Rogers Park and Edgewater neighborhoods on the north side of Chicago, eight miles north of the Loop. Founded in 1912, it is the primary residential campus for the school, is the home of the College of Arts and Sciences, a variety of graduate programs. A collection of over forty buildings, the campus offers ample green space and lakeshore access, as well as several landmarks: The Madonna della Strada Chapel, a striking Art Deco masterpiece completed in 1939, is the center of Loyola's religious life; the Mundelein Center, a 200-foot tall Art Deco skyscraper completed in 1930, is the home of Loyola's fine and performing arts programs and a National Historical Landmark. The Joseph J. Gentile Arena, which holds 5,500 for basketball and campus events, was expanded to include the Norville Center, a student-athlete academic center and home of Rambler athletics.
One of the largest events held annually in Gentile Arena is Colossus, which features a musical artist and comedian. Artists including Jason Derulo and John Mulaney have performed for Colossus; the Halas Recreation Center was remodeled and incorp
External nasal nerve
The external nasal nerve are terminal branches of the anterior ethmoidal nerves, provide sensory innervation to the skin of the lower half of the nose and of the nasal septum. This article incorporates text in the public domain from page 891 of the 20th edition of Gray's Anatomy Anatomy photo:29:08-0100 at the SUNY Downstate Medical Center
The facial muscles are a group of striated skeletal muscles supplied by the facial nerve that, among other things, control facial expression. These muscles are called mimetic muscles; the facial muscles are just under the skin muscles. They originate from the surface of the skull bone, insert on the skin of the face; when they contract, the skin moves. These muscles cause wrinkles at right angles to the muscles’ action line; the facial muscles are supplied with each nerve serving one side of the face. In contrast, the nearby masticatory muscles are supplied by the mandibular nerve, a branch of the trigeminal nerve; the facial muscles include: Occipitofrontalis muscle Temporoparietalis muscle Procerus muscle Nasalis muscle Depressor septi nasi muscle Orbicularis oculi muscle Corrugator supercilii muscle Depressor supercilii muscle Auricular muscles Orbicularis oris muscle Depressor anguli oris muscle Risorius Zygomaticus major muscle Zygomaticus minor muscle Levator labii superioris Levator labii superioris alaeque nasi muscle Depressor labii inferioris muscle Levator anguli oris Buccinator muscle MentalisThe platysma is supplied by the facial nerve.
Although it is in the neck and can be grouped with the neck muscles by location, it can be considered a muscle of facial expression due to its common nerve supply. The stylohyoid muscle and posterior belly of the digastric muscle are supplied by the facial nerve, but are not considered muscles of facial expression; the facial muscles are derived from the second branchial/pharyngeal arch. An inability to form facial expressions on one side of the face may be the first sign of damage to the nerve of these muscles. Damage to the facial nerve results in facial paralysis of the muscles of facial expression on the involved side. Paralysis is the loss of voluntary muscle action; this damage can occur with a stroke, Bell palsy, or parotid salivary gland cancer because the facial nerve travels through the gland. The parotid gland can be damaged permanently by surgery or temporarily by trauma; these situations of paralysis not only inhibit facial expression but seriously impair the patient’s ability to speak, either permanently or temporarily.
Masticatory muscles Facial Action Coding System Modiolus ARTNATOMY: Anatomical Basis of Facial Expression Learning Tool lesson1 at The Anatomy Lesson by Wesley Norman Facial muscles at PracticeAnatomy
Anatomical terms of neuroanatomy
This article describes anatomical terminology, used to describe the central and peripheral nervous systems - including the brain, spinal cord, nerves. Neuroanatomy, like other aspects of anatomy, uses specific terminology to describe anatomical structures; this terminology helps ensure that a structure is described with minimal ambiguity. Terms help ensure that structures are described depending on their structure or function. Terms are derived from Latin and Greek, like other areas of anatomy are standardised based on internationally accepted lexicons such as Terminologia Anatomica. To help with consistency and other species are assumed when described to be in standard anatomical position, with the body standing erect and facing observer, arms at sides, palms forward. Anatomical terms of location depend on the location and species, being described. To understand the terms used for anatomical localisation, consider an animal with a straight CNS, such as a fish or lizard. In such animals the terms "rostral", "caudal", "ventral" and "dorsal" mean towards the rostrum, towards the tail, towards the belly and towards the back.
For a full discussion of those terms, see anatomical terms of location. For many purposes of anatomical description and directions are relative to the standard anatomical planes and axes; such reference to the anatomical planes and axes is called the stereotactic approach. Standard terms used throughout anatomy include anterior / posterior for the front and back of a structure, superior / inferior for above and below, medial / lateral for structures close to and away from the midline and proximal / distal for structures close to and far away from a set point; some terms are used more in neuroanatomy, particularly: Rostral and caudal: In animals with linear nervous systems, the term rostral is synonymous with anterior and the term caudal is synonymous with posterior. Due to humans having an upright posture, their nervous system is considered to bend about 90°; this is considered to occur at the junction of the diencephalon. Thus, the terminology changes at either side of the midbrain-diencephalic junction.
Superior to the junction, the terminology is the same as in animals with linear nervous systems. Inferior to the midbrain-diencephalic junction the term rostral is synonymous with superior and caudal is synonymous with inferior. Dorsal and ventral: In animals with linear nervous systems, the term dorsal is synonymous with superior and the term ventral is synonymous with inferior. In humans, however the terminology differs on either side of the midbrain-diencephalic junction. Superior to the junction, the terminology is the same as in animals with linear nervous systems. However, inferior to the midbrain-diencephalic junction the term dorsal is synonymous with posterior and ventral is synonymous with anterior. Contralateral and ipsilateral referring to a corresponding position on the opposite left or right side and on the same side respectively. Standard anatomical planes and anatomical axes are used to describe structures in animals. In humans and most other primates the axis of the central nervous system is not bent.
This means that there are certain major differences that reflect the distortion of the brains of the Hominidae. For example, to describe the human brain, "rostral" still means "towards the face", or at any rate, the interior of the cranial cavity just behind the face. However, in the brain "caudal" means not "towards the tail", but "towards the back of the cranial cavity". Alternative terms for this rostro-caudal axis of the brain include antero-posterior axis. "Dorsal" means "in the direction away from the spinal cord i.e. in the direction of the roof of the cranial cavity". "Ventral" means downwards towards floor of the cranial cavity and thence to the body. They lie on the superior-inferior or Dorsoventral axis; the third axis passes through the ears, is called the left-right, or lateral axis. These three axes of the human brain match the three planes within which they lie though the terms for the planes have not been changed from the terms for the bodily planes; the most used reference planes are: Axial, the plane, horizontal and parallel to the axial plane of the body in the standard anatomical position.
It contains the medial axes of the brain. Coronal, a vertical plane that passes through both ears, contains the lateral and dorsoventral axes. Sagittal, a vertical plane that passes from between the nostrils, between the cerebral hemispheres, dividing the brain into left and right halves, it contains the medial axes of the brain. A parasagittal plane is any plane parallel to the sagittal plane. Specific terms are used for peripheral nerves. An afferent nerve fiber is a fibre originating at the present point. For example, a striatal afferent is an afferent originating at the striatum. An efferent nerve fiber is one. For example, a cortical efferent is a fibre coming from elsewhere, arriving to the cortex. Note that, the opposite of the direction in which the nerve fibre conducts signals. Specific terms are used to describe the route of a nerve or nerve fibre: A chiasm i
Sensory root of ciliary ganglion
Sensory fibers from the eyeball run posteriorly through the short ciliary nerves and pass through the ciliary ganglion without forming synapses. They leave the ciliary ganglion in the sensory root of ciliary ganglion, which joins the nasociliary nerve—a branch of the ophthalmic nerve. From there, the signal travels back through the ophthalmic nerve to the trigeminal nerve and back into specific nuclei in the thalamus where they are relayed to areas in the cerebral cortex; the exact distribution of sensory fibers, like the distribution of sympathetic fibers, is anatomically variable. There are alternate pathways to the eye for both sympathetic and sensory fibers, the precise anatomy varies from person to person. Since the result is the same regardless of how the fibers reach the eye, the presence of sympathetic and sensory fibers in the ciliary ganglion is of no functional significance. Ciliary ganglion Parasympathetic root of ciliary ganglion Sympathetic root of ciliary ganglion http://anatomy.med.umich.edu/modules/head_autonomics_module/autonomics_05.html
The buccinator is a thin quadrilateral muscle occupying the interval between the maxilla and the mandible at the side of the face. It forms the lateral wall of the oral cavity, it arises from the outer surfaces of the alveolar processes of the maxilla and mandible, corresponding to the three pairs of molar teeth. It is attached upon the buccinator crest as far forward as the first molar tooth; the fibers converge toward the angle of the mouth, where the central fibers intersect each other, those from below being continuous with the upper segment of the orbicularis oris, those from above with the lower segment. Motor innervation is from the buccal branch of the facial nerve. Sensory innervation is supplied by the buccal branch of the mandibular part of the trigeminal, its purpose is to pull back the angle of the mouth and to flatten the cheek area, which aids in holding the cheek to the teeth during chewing. This action causes the muscle to keep food pushed back on the occlusal surface of the posterior teeth, as when a person chews.
By keeping the food in the correct position when chewing, the buccinator assists the muscles of mastication. It aids whistling and smiling, in neonates it is used to suckle. Parotid duct Molar glands of cheeks Buccal branch of mandibular nerve In the past the buccinator muscle was written as bucinator muscle. A bucinator in classical Latin is a trumpeter, or more the person who blows the bucina; the name bucina could refer in Roman antiquity to a crooked horn or trumpet, a shepherd's horn or a war-trumpet. Despite its similarity to the classical Latin name for cheek, i.e. bucca, the words bucinator and bucinere are not related to bucca, hence some disapproved the spelling buccinator. Although the name bucinator is not derived from bucca, this muscle is called musculus buccae or musculus buccalis in Latin and muscle of the cheek in English; the most recent official Latin anatomic nomenclature, preceding editions dictate the spelling'musculus buccinator' with double'c', with the exception of the Jena Nomina Anatomica, authorized in 1935, which writes'musculus bucinatorius' with a single'c'.
This article incorporates text in the public domain from page 384 of the 20th edition of Gray's Anatomy "Anatomy diagram: 05287.011-1". Roche Lexicon - illustrated navigator. Elsevier. Archived from the original on 2014-01-01. "Anatomy diagram: 25420.000-1". Roche Lexicon - illustrated navigator. Elsevier. Archived from the original on 2014-01-01. Kang, HC. "An anatomical study of the buccinator muscle fibres that extend to the terminal portion of the parotid duct, their functional roles in salivary secretion". J. Anat. 208: 601–7. Doi:10.1111/j.1469-7580.2006.00574.x. PMC 2100218. PMID 16637883
A nerve is an enclosed, cable-like bundle of nerve fibres called axons, in the peripheral nervous system. A nerve provides a common pathway for the electrochemical nerve impulses called action potentials that are transmitted along each of the axons to peripheral organs or, in the case of sensory nerves, from the periphery back to the central nervous system; each axon within the nerve is an extension of an individual neuron, along with other supportive cells such as Schwann cells that coat the axons in myelin. Within a nerve, each axon is surrounded by a layer of connective tissue called the endoneurium; the axons are bundled together into groups called fascicles, each fascicle is wrapped in a layer of connective tissue called the perineurium. The entire nerve is wrapped in a layer of connective tissue called the epineurium. In the central nervous system, the analogous structures are known as tracts; each nerve is covered on the outside by a dense sheath of the epineurium. Beneath this is a layer of flat cells, the perineurium, which forms a complete sleeve around a bundle of axons.
Perineurial septae subdivide it into several bundles of fibres. Surrounding each such fibre is the endoneurium; this forms an unbroken tube from the surface of the spinal cord to the level where the axon synapses with its muscle fibres, or ends in sensory receptors. The endoneurium consists of an inner sleeve of material called the glycocalyx and an outer, meshwork of collagen fibres. Nerves are bundled and travel along with blood vessels, since the neurons of a nerve have high energy requirements. Within the endoneurium, the individual nerve fibres are surrounded by a low-protein liquid called endoneurial fluid; this acts in a similar way to the cerebrospinal fluid in the central nervous system and constitutes a blood-nerve barrier similar to the blood-brain barrier. Molecules are thereby prevented from crossing the blood into the endoneurial fluid. During the development of nerve edema from nerve irritation, the amount of endoneurial fluid may increase at the site of irritation; this increase in fluid can be visualized using magnetic resonance neurography, thus MR neurography can identify nerve irritation and/or injury.
Nerves are categorized into three groups based on the direction that signals are conducted: Afferent nerves conduct signals from sensory neurons to the central nervous system, for example from the mechanoreceptors in skin. Efferent nerves conduct signals from the central nervous system along motor neurons to their target muscles and glands. Mixed nerves contain both afferent and efferent axons, thus conduct both incoming sensory information and outgoing muscle commands in the same bundle. Nerves can be categorized into two groups based on where they connect to the central nervous system: Spinal nerves innervate much of the body, connect through the vertebral column to the spinal cord and thus to the central nervous system, they are given letter-number designations according to the vertebra through which they connect to the spinal column. Cranial nerves innervate parts of the head, connect directly to the brain, they are assigned Roman numerals from 1 to 12, although cranial nerve zero is sometimes included.
In addition, cranial nerves have descriptive names. Specific terms are used to describe their actions. A nerve that supplies information to the brain from an area of the body, or controls an action of the body is said to "innervate" that section of the body or organ. Other terms relate to whether the nerve affects the same side or opposite side of the body, to the part of the brain that supplies it. Nerve growth ends in adolescence, but can be re-stimulated with a molecular mechanism known as "Notch signaling". If the axons of a neuron are damaged, as long as the cell body of the neuron is not damaged, the axons would regenerate and remake the synaptic connections with neurons with the help of guidepost cells; this is referred to as neuroregeneration. The nerve begins the process by destroying the nerve distal to the site of injury allowing Schwann cells, basal lamina, the neurilemma near the injury to begin producing a regeneration tube. Nerve growth factors are produced causing many nerve sprouts to bud.
When one of the growth processes finds the regeneration tube, it begins to grow towards its original destination guided the entire time by the regeneration tube. Nerve regeneration is slow and can take up to several months to complete. While this process does repair some nerves, there will still be some functional deficit as the repairs are not perfect. A nerve conveys information in the form of electrochemical impulses carried by the individual neurons that make up the nerve; these impulses are fast, with some myelinated neurons conducting at speeds up to 120 m/s. The impulses travel from one neuron to another by crossing a synapse, the message is converted from electrical to chemical and back to electrical. Nerves can be categorized into two groups based on function: An afferent nerve fiber conducts sensory information from a sensory neuron to the central nervous system, where the information is processed. Bundles of fibres or axons, in the peripheral nervous system are called nerves, bundles of afferent fibers are known as sensory nerves.
An efferent nerve fiber conducts signals from a motor neuron in the central nervous system to muscles. Bundles of these fibres are known as efferent nerves; the nervous system is the part of an animal that coordinates its actions by transmitting signals to and from different parts of its body. In vertebrates it consists of two main par