Muntenia is a historical region of Romania considered Wallachia-proper. It is situated between the Danube, the Carpathian Mountains and Moldavia, the Olt River to the west; the latter river is the border between Oltenia. Part of the traditional border between Wallachia/Muntenia and Moldavia was formed by the rivers Milcov and Siret. Muntenia includes București - Ilfov, Sud - Muntenia, part of the Sud-Est development regions, it consists of ten counties entirely: Brăila Buzău Călărași Argeș Dâmbovița Giurgiu Ialomița Ilfov Prahova Teleormanand parts of three others: Vrancea Vâlcea Olt Romania's capital city, Bucharest, is situated in Muntenia. Other important cities are: Brăila Buzău Pitești Ploiești Târgoviște
Adevărul is a Romanian daily newspaper, based in Bucharest. Founded in Iași, in 1871, reestablished in 1888, in Bucharest, it was the main left-wing press venue to be published during the Romanian Kingdom's existence, adopting an independent pro-democratic position, advocating land reform, demanding universal suffrage. Under its successive editors Alexandru Beldiman and Constantin Mille, it became noted for its virulent criticism of King Carol I; this stance developed into a republican and socialist agenda, which made Adevărul clash with the Kingdom's authorities on several occasions. As innovative publications which set up several local and international records during the early 20th century, Adevărul and its sister daily Dimineaţa competed for the top position with the right-wing Universul before and throughout the interwar period. In 1920, Adevărul began publishing its prestigious cultural supplement, Adevărul Literar şi Artistic. By the 1930s, their anti-fascism and the Jewish ethnicity of their new owners made Adevărul and Dimineaţa the targets of negative campaigns in the far right press, the antisemitic Octavian Goga cabinet banned both upon obtaining power in 1937.
Adevărul was revived by Barbu Brănişteanu after World War II, but was targeted by Communist Romania's censorship apparatus and again closed down in 1951. A newspaper of the same name was set up in 1989, just days after the Romanian Revolution, replacing Scînteia, organ of the defunct Romanian Communist Party. A supporter of the dominant National Salvation Front, it adopted a controversial position, being much criticized for producing populist and radical nationalist messages and for supporting the violent Mineriad of 1990. Under editors Dumitru Tinu and Cristian Tudor Popescu, when it reasserted its independence as a conservative venue and was privatized, Adevărul became one of the most popular and trusted press venues, it remained involved in scandals over alleged or confirmed political and commercial dealings, culminating in a 2005 conflict which saw the departure of Popescu, Bogdan Chireac and other panelists and the creation of rival newspaper Gândul. As of 2006, Adevărul had been the property of Dinu Patriciu, a prominent Romanian businessman and politician.
Adevărul is the main trademark of a company owned by Cristian Burci. The main newspaper itself is edited by several deputy editors. Part of the holding are the cultural magazines Dilema Veche and Historia, the tabloid Click!, the magazines Click! pentru femei, Click! Sănătate, Click! Poftă bună! and OK! Magazine. In December 2010, Adevărul Holding launched a sister version of its title asset, published in neighboring Moldova as Adevărul Moldova; the Romanian newspaper had special pages of regional content, one each for Bucharest, Moldavia, the western areas of Banat and Crişana, the southern areas of Wallachia and Northern Dobruja. It hosts columns about the larger sections of Romanian diaspora in Europe, those in Spain and Italy. Adevărul publishes several supplements. In addition to Adevărul Literar şi Artistic, it publishes five others: on Mondays, the sports magazine Antifotbal, which focuses on the traditionally less-covered areas of the Romanian sports scene. In October 2008, Adevărul launched Adevărul de Seară, a free daily newspaper and evening edition, closed down in May 2011.
As of 2008, the newspaper publishes Colecţia Adevărul, a collection of classic and popular works in world and Romanian literature. These are issued as additional supplements, sold as such with the newspaper's Thursday editions. In July 2011, Adevărul Holding launches Weekend Adevărul, a daily newspaper containing news and exclusivity from social, economic or sports news, as well as a consistent, Pleasant weekend, representing your favorite guide of spending the weekend free time. Weekend Adevărul appears every Friday. In October 2012, the Adevărul daily, along with all the Adevărul Holding Trust publications, was taken over by businessman Cristian Burci; the site adevarul.ro changes its structure, besides the news and blogging platform. Adevarul.ro is the online version of the Adevărul daily, the number one news site in Romania, with the most unique visitors. The number of unique visitors who accessed adevarul.ro in September 2018 is 7,199,296 according to SATI.ro, coming from both the desktop and the mobile devices.
A newspaper by the name Adevĕrulŭ was founded on December 15, 1871. The weekly was owned by Alexandru Beldiman, a former Police commander, published in Iaşi, the former capital of Moldavia. Beldiman directed the newspaper in opposition to Romania's new Domnitor, the German prince Carol of Hohenzollern, calling for the restoration of his deposed and exiled predecessor, the Moldavian-born Alexandru Ioan Cuza, its articles against the new monarch soon after resulted in Beldiman's indictment for defamation and attack on the 1866 Constitution. He was acquitted, but the journal ceased publication with its 13th issue. Adevărul reemerged as a daily on August 15, 1888, seven y
A newspaper is a periodical publication containing written information about current events and is typed in black ink with a white or gray background. Newspapers can cover a wide variety of fields such as politics, business and art, include materials such as opinion columns, weather forecasts, reviews of local services, birth notices, editorial cartoons, comic strips, advice columns. Most newspapers are businesses, they pay their expenses with a mixture of subscription revenue, newsstand sales, advertising revenue; the journalism organizations that publish newspapers are themselves metonymically called newspapers. Newspapers have traditionally been published in print. However, today most newspapers are published on websites as online newspapers, some have abandoned their print versions entirely. Newspapers developed as information sheets for businessmen. By the early 19th century, many cities in Europe, as well as North and South America, published newspapers; some newspapers with high editorial independence, high journalism quality, large circulation are viewed as newspapers of record.
Newspapers are published daily or weekly. News magazines are weekly, but they have a magazine format. General-interest newspapers publish news articles and feature articles on national and international news as well as local news; the news includes political events and personalities and finance, crime and natural disasters. The paper is divided into sections for each of those major groupings. Most traditional papers feature an editorial page containing editorials written by an editor and expressing an opinion on a public issue, opinion articles called "op-eds" written by guest writers, columns that express the personal opinions of columnists offering analysis and synthesis that attempts to translate the raw data of the news into information telling the reader "what it all means" and persuading them to concur. Papers include articles which have no byline. A wide variety of material has been published in newspapers. Besides the aforementioned news and opinions, they include weather forecasts; as of 2017, newspapers may provide information about new movies and TV shows available on streaming video services like Netflix.
Newspapers have classified ad sections where people and businesses can buy small advertisements to sell goods or services. Most newspapers are businesses, they pay their expenses with a mixture of subscription revenue, newsstand sales, advertising revenue; some newspapers are at least government-funded. The editorial independence of a newspaper is thus always subject to the interests of someone, whether owners, advertisers, or a government; some newspapers with high editorial independence, high journalism quality, large circulation are viewed as newspapers of record. Many newspapers, besides employing journalists on their own payrolls subscribe to news agencies, which employ journalists to find and report the news sell the content to the various newspapers; this is a way to avoid duplicating the expense of reporting from around the world. Circa 2005, there were 6,580 daily newspaper titles in the world selling 395 million print copies a day; the late 2000s–early 2010s global recession, combined with the rapid growth of free web-based alternatives, has helped cause a decline in advertising and circulation, as many papers had to retrench operations to stanch the losses.
Worldwide annual revenue approached $100 billion in 2005-7 plunged during the worldwide financial crisis of 2008-9. Revenue in 2016 fell to only $53 billion, hurting every major publisher as their efforts to gain online income fell far short of the goal; the decline in advertising revenues affected both the print and online media as well as all other mediums. Besides remodeling advertising, the internet has challenged the business models of the print-only era by crowdsourcing both publishing in general and, more journalism. In addition, the rise of news aggregators, which bundle linked articles fro
Cotidianul was a Romanian language newspaper published in Bucharest, between 1991 and 2009. Founded by Ion Raţiu, Cotidianul was first published on 10 May 1991 and was the first held newspaper in Romania following the Romanian Revolution of 1989; the paper had its headquarters in Bucharest. It was published Monday to Saturday in Berliner format. Cotidianul ceased print publication on 23 December 2009 due to financial difficulties, but remains active as an online news source; the owners announced the closure was temporary due to insolvency. Since November 2016, the newspaper appears again in print. Cătălin Avramescu Doru Buşcu Adrian Cioroianu Mirela Corlăţan Răzvan Dumitrescu Eugen Istodor Ioan T. Morar Octavian Paler Magdalena Popa Buluc Ovidiu Pecican Andrei Marga Jean-Lorin Sterian Liviu Ioan Stoiciu Cornel Nistorescu Cristian Teodorescu Vladimir Tismăneanu Robert Turcescu Cristian Oprea Adrian Majuru Traian Ungureanu Ioan Vieru Valerian Stan Sever Voinescu Official website
The Banat is a geographical and historical region in Central Europe, divided among three countries: the eastern part lies in western Romania. The region of Banat is populated by ethnic Romanians, Hungarians, Krashovani, Slovaks, Czechs, Jews and other ethnicities. During the Middle Ages, the term "banate" was designating a frontier province led by a military governor, called ban; such provinces existed in South Slavic and Romanian lands. In South Slavic and other regional languages, terms for "banate" were: Serbian - бановина / banovina, Hungarian - bánság, Romanian - banat and Latin - banatus. At the time of the medieval Hungarian kingdom, the territory of modern-day Banat appeared in written sources as "Temesköz"; the Hungarian name referred to the lowland areas between the Mureş, Tisza and Danube Rivers. Its Ottoman name was "Eyalet of Temeşvar". During the Turkish occupation, the territory of Temesköz was called "Rascia". In the early modern period, there were two banates that or included the territory of what is referred to in the current era as Banat: the Banate of Lugoj and Caransebeș in 16th and 17th century and the Banat of Temeswar or Banat of Temes in 18th and 19th centuries.
The word "Banat" without any other qualification refers to the historical Banat of Temeswar, which acquired this title after the 1718 Treaty of Passarowitz. The name was used from 1941 to 1944, during Axis occupation, for the short-lived political entity, which covered only today's Serbian part of the historical Banat; the name Banat is similar in different languages of the region. Some of these languages would have other terms, from their own frame of reference, to describe this historical and geographic region; the Banat is defined as the part of the Pannonian Basin bordered by the River Danube to the south, the River Tisa to the west, the River Mureș to the north, the Southern Carpathian Mountains to the east. Its historical capital was Timișoara, now in Timiș County in Romania; the territory of the Banat is presently part of the Romanian counties Timiș, Caraș-Severin and Mehedinți. The Romanian Banat is mountainous in the south and southeast, while in the north and south-west it is flat and in some places marshy.
The climate, except in the marshy parts, is healthy. Wheat, oats, maize, flax and tobacco are grown in large quantities, the products of the vineyards are of a good quality. Game is plentiful and the rivers swarm with fish; the mineral wealth is great, including copper, lead, zinc and coal. Amongst its numerous mineral springs, the most important are those of Mehadia, with sulphurous waters, which were known in the Roman period as the Termae Herculis; the present "Banat Region" of Romania includes some areas that are mountainous and were not part of the historical Banat or of the Pannonian plain. In Serbia, the Banat is plains. Wheat, oats, maize and sunflower are grown, mineral wealth consists of oil and natural gas. A popular tourist destination in the Banat is Deliblatska Peščara. There are several ethnic minorities in the region, including Hungarians, Slovaks, Macedonians, Roma people, others; the first known inhabitants of present-day Banat were the Neolithic populations. In the 4th century BC, Celtic tribes settled in this area.
Various Hallstatt and La Tène objects were found in this area. The most important tribes were the Taurisci; the Scordisci, who formed a powerful state minted their own coins, imitating the Macedonian tetradrachm. The Scordisci subdued as all the other tribes in the region to the getic ruler Burebista, therefore their region was part of the Dacian kingdom under Burebista in the first century BC, but the balance of power in the area changed during the campaigns of Augustus. At the beginning of the 2nd century A. D. Trajan led two wars against the Dacians: the campaigns of 101-102, 105-106; the territory of Banat fell under Roman rule. It became the other parts of the Empire. Roman rule had a significant impact: castra and guard stations were established and roads and public buildings built; the public bath establishments of Ad Aquas Herculis, modern-day Băile Herculane were established. Some of the important Roman settlements in Banat were: Arcidava, Centum Putea, Tibiscum, Agnaviae, Ad Pannonios and Dierna.
In 273 A. D. Emperor Aurelian withdrew the Roman Army from Dacia; the area fell into the hands of foederati such as the Sarmatians and the Goths, who took control of other parts of Dacia. The Goths were forced out by the Huns, who organized their ruling center in the Pannonian Basin (the
Moldavia is a historical region and former principality in Central and Eastern Europe, corresponding to the territory between the Eastern Carpathians and the Dniester River. An independent and autonomous state, it existed from the 14th century to 1859, when it united with Wallachia as the basis of the modern Romanian state; the region of Pokuttya was part of it for a period of time. The western half of Moldavia is now part of Romania, the eastern side belongs to the Republic of Moldova, the northern and southeastern parts are territories of Ukraine; the original and short-lived reference to the region was Bogdania, after Bogdan I, the founding figure of the principality. The names Moldova are derived from the name of the Moldova River. Dragoș was accompanied by his female hound called Molda; the dog's name would have been extended to the country. The old German Molde, meaning "open-pit mine" the Gothic Mulda meaning "dust", "dirt", referring to the river. A Slavic etymology, marking the end of one Slavic genitive form, denoting ownership, chiefly of feminine nouns.
A landowner named Alexa Moldaowicz is mentioned in a 1334 document as a local boyar in service to Yuriy II of Halych. In several early references, "Moldavia" is rendered under the composite form Moldo-Wallachia. Ottoman Turkish references to Moldavia included Boğdan Boğdan. See names in other languages; the name of the region in other languages include French: Moldavie, German: Moldau, Hungarian: Moldva, Russian: Молдавия, Turkish: Boğdan Prensliği, Greek: Μολδαβία. The inhabitants of Moldova were Christians. Archaeological works revealed the remains of a Christian necropolis at Mihălășeni, Botoșani county, from the 5th century; the place of worship, the tombs had Christian characteristics. The place of worship had a rectangular form with sides of seven meters. Similar necropolises and places of worship were found at Nicolina, in IașiThe Bolohoveni, is mentioned by the Hypatian Chronicle in the 13th century; the chronicle shows that this land is bordered on the principalities of Halych and Kiev.
Archaeological research identified the location of 13th-century fortified settlements in this region. Alexandru V. Boldur identified Voscodavie, Voloscovti, Volcovti and their other towns and villages between the middle course of the rivers Nistru/Dniester and Nipru/Dnieper; the Bolohoveni disappeared from chronicles after their defeat in 1257 by Daniel of Galicia's troops. Their ethnic identity is uncertain. In the early 13th century, the Brodniks, a possible Slavic–Vlach vassal state of Halych, were present, alongside the Vlachs, in much of the region's territory. Somewhere in the 11th century, a Viking named Rodfos was killed by Vlachs in the area of what will become Moldavia. In 1164, the future Byzantine emperor Andronikos I Komnenos, was taken prisoner by Vlach shepherds around the same region. Friar William of Rubruck, who visited the court of the Great Khan in the 1250s, listed "the Blac", or Vlachs, among the peoples who paid tribute to the Mongols, but the Vlachs' territory is uncertain.
Rubruck described "Blakia" as "Assan's territory" south of the Lower Danube, showing that he identified it with the northern regions of the Second Bulgarian Empire. In the 14th century, King Charles I of Hungary attempted to expand his realm and the influence of the Catholic Church eastwards after the fall of Cuman rule, ordered a campaign under the command of Phynta de Mende. In 1342 and 1345, the Hungarians were victorious in a battle against Tatar-Mongols; the Polish chronicler Jan Długosz mentioned Moldavians as having joined a military expedition in 1342, under King Władysław I, against the Margraviate of Brandenburg. In 1353, Dragoș, mentioned as a Vlach Knyaz in Maramureș, was sent by Louis I to establish a line of defense against the Golden Horde forces of Mongols on the Siret River; this expedition resulted in a polity vassal to Hungary, centered around Baia. Bogdan of Cuhea, another Vlach voivode from Maramureș who had fallen out with the Hungarian king, crossed the Carpathians in 1359, took control of Moldavia, succeeded in removing Moldavia from Hungarian control.
His realm extended north to the Cheremosh River, while the southern part of Moldavia was still occupied by t
The United States of America known as the United States or America, is a country composed of 50 states, a federal district, five major self-governing territories, various possessions. At 3.8 million square miles, the United States is the world's third or fourth largest country by total area and is smaller than the entire continent of Europe's 3.9 million square miles. With a population of over 327 million people, the U. S. is the third most populous country. The capital is Washington, D. C. and the largest city by population is New York City. Forty-eight states and the capital's federal district are contiguous in North America between Canada and Mexico; the State of Alaska is in the northwest corner of North America, bordered by Canada to the east and across the Bering Strait from Russia to the west. The State of Hawaii is an archipelago in the mid-Pacific Ocean; the U. S. territories are scattered about the Pacific Ocean and the Caribbean Sea, stretching across nine official time zones. The diverse geography and wildlife of the United States make it one of the world's 17 megadiverse countries.
Paleo-Indians migrated from Siberia to the North American mainland at least 12,000 years ago. European colonization began in the 16th century; the United States emerged from the thirteen British colonies established along the East Coast. Numerous disputes between Great Britain and the colonies following the French and Indian War led to the American Revolution, which began in 1775, the subsequent Declaration of Independence in 1776; the war ended in 1783 with the United States becoming the first country to gain independence from a European power. The current constitution was adopted in 1788, with the first ten amendments, collectively named the Bill of Rights, being ratified in 1791 to guarantee many fundamental civil liberties; the United States embarked on a vigorous expansion across North America throughout the 19th century, acquiring new territories, displacing Native American tribes, admitting new states until it spanned the continent by 1848. During the second half of the 19th century, the Civil War led to the abolition of slavery.
By the end of the century, the United States had extended into the Pacific Ocean, its economy, driven in large part by the Industrial Revolution, began to soar. The Spanish–American War and World War I confirmed the country's status as a global military power; the United States emerged from World War II as a global superpower, the first country to develop nuclear weapons, the only country to use them in warfare, a permanent member of the United Nations Security Council. Sweeping civil rights legislation, notably the Civil Rights Act of 1964, the Voting Rights Act of 1965 and the Fair Housing Act of 1968, outlawed discrimination based on race or color. During the Cold War, the United States and the Soviet Union competed in the Space Race, culminating with the 1969 U. S. Moon landing; the end of the Cold War and the collapse of the Soviet Union in 1991 left the United States as the world's sole superpower. The United States is the world's oldest surviving federation, it is a representative democracy.
The United States is a founding member of the United Nations, World Bank, International Monetary Fund, Organization of American States, other international organizations. The United States is a developed country, with the world's largest economy by nominal GDP and second-largest economy by PPP, accounting for a quarter of global GDP; the U. S. economy is post-industrial, characterized by the dominance of services and knowledge-based activities, although the manufacturing sector remains the second-largest in the world. The United States is the world's largest importer and the second largest exporter of goods, by value. Although its population is only 4.3% of the world total, the U. S. holds 31% of the total wealth in the world, the largest share of global wealth concentrated in a single country. Despite wide income and wealth disparities, the United States continues to rank high in measures of socioeconomic performance, including average wage, human development, per capita GDP, worker productivity.
The United States is the foremost military power in the world, making up a third of global military spending, is a leading political and scientific force internationally. In 1507, the German cartographer Martin Waldseemüller produced a world map on which he named the lands of the Western Hemisphere America in honor of the Italian explorer and cartographer Amerigo Vespucci; the first documentary evidence of the phrase "United States of America" is from a letter dated January 2, 1776, written by Stephen Moylan, Esq. to George Washington's aide-de-camp and Muster-Master General of the Continental Army, Lt. Col. Joseph Reed. Moylan expressed his wish to go "with full and ample powers from the United States of America to Spain" to seek assistance in the revolutionary war effort; the first known publication of the phrase "United States of America" was in an anonymous essay in The Virginia Gazette newspaper in Williamsburg, Virginia, on April 6, 1776. The second draft of the Articles of Confederation, prepared by John Dickinson and completed by June 17, 1776, at the latest, declared "The name of this Confederation shall be the'United States of America'".
The final version of the Articles sent to the states for ratification in late 1777 contains the sentence "The Stile of this Confederacy shall be'The United States of America'". In June 1776, Thomas Jefferson wrote the phrase "UNITED STATES OF AMERICA" in all capitalized letters in the headline of his "original Rough draught" of the Declaration of Independence; this draft of the document did not surface unti