National Geographic Society
The National Geographic Society, headquartered in Washington, D. C. United States, is one of the largest non-profit scientific and educational organizations in the world. Founded in 1888, its interests include geography and natural science, the promotion of environmental and historical conservation, the study of world culture and history; the National Geographic Society's logo is a yellow portrait frame—rectangular in shape—which appears on the margins surrounding the front covers of its magazines and as its television channel logo. In partnership with The Walt Disney Company, the Society operates the magazine, TV channels, a website, worldwide events, other media operations; the National Geographic Society was founded in 1888 "to increase and diffuse geographic knowledge". It is governed by a board of trustees, whose 21 members include distinguished educators, business executives, former government officials and conservationists; the organization funds scientific research and exploration. National Geographic maintains a museum for the public in its Washington, D.
C. headquarters. It has helped to sponsor popular traveling exhibits, such as the early 2010s King Tut exhibit featuring artifacts from the tomb of the young Egyptian Pharaoh, its Education Foundation gives grants to education organizations and individuals to improve geography education. Its Committee for Research and Exploration has awarded more than 11,000 grants for scientific research and exploration. National Geographic has retail stores in Washington, D. C. London and Panama; the locations outside of the United States are operated by Worldwide Retail Store S. L. A Spanish holding company; the Society's media arm is National Geographic Partners, a joint venture between Walt Disney Television and the Society, which publishes a journal, National Geographic in English, nearly 40 local-language editions. It publishes other magazines, school products and Web and film products in numerous languages and countries. National Geographic's various media properties reach more than 280 million people monthly.
The National Geographic Society began as a club for an elite group of academics and wealthy patrons interested in travel and exploration. On January 13, 1888, 33 explorers and scientists gathered at the Cosmos Club, a private club located on Lafayette Square in Washington, D. C. to organize "a society for the increase and diffusion of geographical knowledge." After preparing a constitution and a plan of organization, the National Geographic Society was incorporated two weeks on January 27. Gardiner Greene Hubbard became its first president and his son-in-law, Alexander Graham Bell, succeeded him in 1897. In 1899, Bell's son-in-law Gilbert Hovey Grosvenor was named the first full-time editor of National Geographic magazine and served the organization for fifty-five years, members of the Grosvenor family have played important roles in the organization since. Bell and Gilbert Hovey Grosvenor devised the successful marketing notion of Society membership and the first major use of photographs to tell stories in magazines.
The chairman of the National Geographic Society is Jean Case. Michael Ulica is interim chief executive; the editor-in-chief of National Geographic magazine is Susan Goldberg. Gilbert Melville Grosvenor, a former chairman, received the Presidential Medal of Freedom in 2005 for his leadership in geography education. In 2004, the National Geographic Society headquarters in Washington, D. C. was one of the first buildings to receive a "Green" certification from Global Green USA. The National Geographic received the prestigious Prince of Asturias Award for Communication and Humanities in October 2006 in Oviedo, Spain. In 2013 the society was investigated for possible violation of the Foreign Corrupt Practices Act relating to their close association with an Egyptian government official responsible for antiquities. On September 9, 2015, the Society announced that it would re-organize its media properties and publications into a new company known as National Geographic Partners, which would be majority-owned by 21st Century Fox with a 73% stake.
This new, for-profit corporation, would own National Geographic and other magazines, as well as its affiliated television networks—most of which were owned in joint ventures with Fox. As a consequence, the Society and 21st Century Fox announced on November 2, 2015, that 9 percent of National Geographic's 2,000 employees 180 people, would be laid off, constituting the biggest staff reduction in the Society's history; the Society has helped sponsor many expeditions and research projects over the years, including: Codex Tchacos – Conservation and translation of the only known surviving copy of the Gospel of Judas Ian Baker – Discovers hidden waterfall of the Tsangpo Gorge, Tibet Robert Ballard – RMS Titanic and John F. Kennedy's PT-109 discovery Robert Bartlett – Arctic Exploration George Bass – Underwater archaeology – Bronze Age trade Lee Berger – Oldest footprints of modern humans found and Homo naledi Hiram Bingham – Machu Picchu Excavation Richard E. Byrd – First flight over South Pole Jacques-Yves Cousteau – Undersea exploration Mike Fay – MegaTransect and MegaFlyover in Africa Dian Fossey – Mountain gorillas Birute Galdikas – Orangutans Jane Goodall – Chimpanzees Robert F. Griggs – Valley of Ten Thousand Smokes Heather Halstead – World Circumnavigations of Reach the World Louis and Mary Leakey – Discovery of Australopithecus boisei and Homo habilis Gustavus McLeod – First flight to the
Culture of the Virgin Islands
Virgin Islander culture reflects the various peoples that have inhabited the present-day British Virgin Islands and U. S. Virgin Islands throughout history. Although the territories are politically separate, they maintain close cultural ties. Like much of the English speaking Caribbean, Virgin Islands culture is syncretic, deriving chiefly from West African and American influences. Though the Danish controlled the present-day U. S. Virgin Islands for many years, the dominant language has been an English-based Creole since the 19th century, the islands remain much more receptive to English-language popular culture than any other; the Dutch, the French and the Danish contributed elements to the islands’ culture, as have immigrants from the Arab world and other Caribbean islands. The single largest influence on modern Virgin Islander culture, comes from the Africans enslaved to work in canefields from the 17th to the mid-19th century; these African slaves brought with them traditions from across a wide swathe of Africa, including what is now Nigeria, both Congos and Ghana.
Virgin Islands culture continues to undergo creolization, the result of inter-Caribbean migration and cultural contact with other islands in the region, as well as the United States. Migration has altered the social landscape of both countries to the extent that in the British Virgin Islands, half of the population is of foreign origin and in the U. S. Virgin Islands, most native-born residents can trace their ancestry to other Caribbean islands. Traditional food tends to be hearty. Many of the foods are imported due to an acquired taste for foreign foods. Local farmers grow vegetables along with the rearing of animals, their goods are sold in local open-air markets, while supermarkets tend to carry only imported foods. Upscale restaurants cater to tourists, serving a combination of North American dishes with tropical twists as well as local cuisine. An example of this is Caribbean spices to salmon, a non-tropical fish. Fungi is a main staple of the traditional Virgin Islands diet, it consists of cornmeal, boiled and cooked to a thick consistency along with okra.
Fungi is eaten with boiled fish or saltfish. Callaloo is a soup made from callaloo bush/leaf substituted with spinach, it consists of various meats and okra, is boiled to a thick stew consistency. Because of inter-Caribbean migration, many foods from other Caribbean countries have been adopted into the Virgin Islands culinary culture. For example, a popular dish is roti, of Indo-Trinidadian origin, which consists of curried vegetables and meat wrapped in a paper-thin dough. Fruits consumed in the Virgin Islands include: sugar apple, papaya, genip, sea grapes and goose berries; these fruits are stewed together with sugar for a sweet snack. “Bush tea”, a general term for any herbal tea derived from native plants, is the hot beverage of choice in the Virgin Islands. Popular cold beverages include maubi, soursop, sea moss and passion fruit. Drinks with ginger root are popular. Pate, fried dough filled with various meats including beef, conch, or saltfish stuffed inside is a popular snack. Another popular snack is Johnnycake, a pastry made with fried dough.
The official language of both the U. S. and British Virgin Islands is English. However, Virgin Islands Creole is spoken in informal, daily usage. Due to immigration from other Caribbean islands, usage of Spanish and various French creoles have increased in the last few decades. Although the U. S. Virgin Islands was a Danish possession during most of its colonial history, Danish never was a spoken language amongst the populace, black or white, as the majority of plantation and slave owners were of Dutch, Scottish or Irish descent. Americanization in the U. S. Virgin Islands has led to the preponderance of American sports such as baseball, American football and basketball, while sports more popular in the English-speaking Caribbean, such as cricket and association football, are played. Americanization in sports can be seen in the British Virgin Islands, as well. For example and baseball are much more played than cricket, one of the most popular sports in the Anglophone Caribbean. Although dependent territories, the U.
S. and British Virgin Islands both have their own independent national sports teams and compete in regional and international athletic events. In cricket, both territories are represented by the West Indies Cricket Team. In 2012 the United States Virgin Islands Rugby Union was founded; the union is represented by a St. Thomas team, The Privateers, in exhibition and tournament competitions; the USVI Rugby Union is poised to join IRB in the future. Rugby in the BVI was founded in 1965, it is administered by BVI RFU who have been an associate member of World Rugby since 2001 and is a full member of RAN. There has been a development of a Virgin Islands literature. Literature is written in Virgin Islands Creole English. Topics explored in Virgin Islands literature include the cultural and political development of Virgin Islanders and various issues concerning colonialism and self-determination. Virgin Islands literature brings forth a diverse set of perspectives.
Acanthurus coeruleus is a surgeonfish found in the Atlantic Ocean. It can grow up to 39 centimetres long. Common names include Atlantic blue tang, blue barber, blue doctor, blue doctorfish, blue tang, blue tang surgeonfish, yellow barber, yellow doctorfish. Acanthurus coeruleus is common off the coast of Florida, The Bahamas, other places in the Caribbean Sea, including Bonaire. Blue Tangs are common in Belize and Ambergris Caye, they are common in the Gulf of Mexico. They are found south to Brazil and north to New York. Although the body of the reef fish can vary in shade from light to dark blue, the dorsal and caudal fins are golden blue; as juveniles, the edges on their dorsal and anal fins and the rings around their eyes are purple-blue, blue or blue-green. Their colors change during growth from a yellow juvenile, yellow tailed blue subadult and the blue adult phase. Acanthurus coeruleus exhibits biofluorescence, that is, when illuminated by blue or ultraviolet light, it re-emits it as green, appears differently than under white light illumination.
Biofluorescence may assist in intraspecific camouflage. Atlantic blue tangs inhabit coral reefs and inshore grassy and rocky areas, where there is a high prevalence of algae, they are herbivorous, their diet consists only of algae. They eat the algae from the reefs in which they reside, as well as off the bodies of surrounding fish. By eating the algae off of other fish, the blue tang serve as cleaners for them. With the decline in the Diadema antillarum population, the blue tang population increased since the algal resources that the two animals competed for were more abundant. Juvenile blue tangs feed heavily; this heavy feeding requirement is due to their poor utilization of food resources. The blue tang's stomach and intestinal lining are proficient at absorbing crushed cellular content, but are not effective at processing cellulose; this digestive system inefficiency leads blue tangs to spend more time and resources on foraging on a abundant and fast-growing food source in close proximity.
This close proximity to an abundant food source allows for continuous foraging. Food distribution and accessibility can determine population density and territory size in blue tangs. Territories with low biogenic structure are larger than those of higher biogenic structure. Since the algal food resources are less dense in low-biogenic structured areas, these territories would have to be larger in order to include the necessary amount of food; this is in accordance with the Ideal free distribution model. This model states that competitors should adjust their distribution in accordance with habitat quality such that each individual will gain the same amount of resources. According to this model, there should be a lower density of blue tangs on low-biogenic structured territories compared to higher-biogenic structured territories where there is a higher abundance of food. In both territories, each individual will receive similar amounts of resources due to competition. There is no significant difference in feeding rates of blue tangs on each type of territory, meaning that those in larger and low density territories can match the resources of those in smaller high density territories.
Atlantic blue tangs engage in cleaning behaviors with other fish as both clients. In these interactions, cleaners remove other materials from the surface of the client. Clients benefit by having damaged tissue removed from the outside of their body. Removal of unwanted organisms and tissue can lead to improved health maintenance. Atlantic blue tangs act as cleaners by grazing algae as well as eating molted skin and parasites off of the client's flesh once the client comes to the cleaning station; the most common client in these interactions is the green turtle, in which the blue tang inspects the green turtle by nipping its head, limbs and carapace. When acting as clients, blue tangs approach cleaning stations inhabited by cleaner gobies; the blue tang's flippers are the most inspected area. Cleaners must be careful because the spine on both sides of the caudal peduncle are sharp and can inflict painful wounds; when in the client role, blue tangs will pose. Posing occurs. Fish who pose while in cleaning stations have a higher chance of getting cleaned.
Blue tangs exclusively pose through head stands. Clients who are cleaned by blue tang benefit after suffering an injury. Blue tangs incur many minor injuries, but infection as a result of injuries leads to death. Recovery rates from both minor and major injuries are high in blue tangs. Injured blue tangs are found to spend more time in cleaning stations compared to those further along in the healing process; this indicates. Cleaners eat the dead tissue in the peripheral area. Blue tangs experience three different social modes: territorial and wandering. Blue tangs in non-territorial modes form schools and wander. Territoriality reduces competition for food resources because one individual claims both a territory and its resources. Additionally, schooling allows fish to better overcome food defense by others, wandering allows for individual movement to feeding areas, cleaning stations, other resources. Social behaviors are affected by outside conditions such as damselfish density, conspecific population density, life history stage.
Those in the territorial mode are aggressive and chase intruding blue tangs. They swim slower a
Territories of the United States
Territories of the United States are sub-national administrative divisions overseen by the federal government. They differ from U. S. Native American tribes, which have limited sovereignty; the territories are classified by incorporation and whether they have an "organized" government through an organic act passed by Congress. The U. S. has sixteen territories in the Caribbean Sea and the Pacific Ocean. Five are permanently-inhabited, unincorporated territories. Of the eleven, only one is classified as an incorporated territory. Two territories are defacto administered by Colombia. Territories were created to administer newly-acquired land, most attained statehood. Others, such as the Philippines, the Marshall Islands and Palau became independent. Many organized incorporated territories of the United States existed from 1789 to 1959; the first were the Northwest and Southwest territories, the last were the Alaska and Hawaii Territories. Thirty-one territories became states. In the process, some less-developed or -populous areas of a territory were orphaned from it after a statehood referendum.
When a portion of the Missouri Territory became the state of Missouri, the remainder of the territory became an unorganized territory. Territorial telecommunications and other infrastructure is inferior to that of the U. S. mainland, American Samoa's Internet speed was found to be slower than several Eastern European countries. Poverty rates are higher in the territories than in the states; the U. S. has had territories since its beginning. According to federal law, the term "United States" means "the continental United States, Puerto Rico and the United States Virgin Islands". Since 1986, the Northern Mariana Islands have been considered part of the U. S. A 2007 executive order included American Samoa in the U. S. "geographical extent", as reflected in the Federal Register. All territories are except for American Samoa and Jarvis Island; the U. S. has five permanently-inhabited territories, two of which are known as "commonwealths": Puerto Rico and the U. S. Virgin Islands in the Caribbean Sea. About four million people in these territories are U.
S. citizens, citizenship at birth is granted in four of the five territories. American Samoa has about 32,000 non-citizen U. S. nationals. Under U. S. law, "only persons born in American Samoa and Swains Island are non-citizen U. S. nationals" in its territories. American Samoans are under U. S. protection, can travel to the rest of the U. S. without a visa. American Samoans must become naturalized citizens, like foreigners. Unlike the other four inhabited territories, Congress has passed no legislation granting birthright citizenship to American Samoans; each territory is self-governing with three branches of government, including a locally-elected governor and a territorial legislature. It elects a non-voting member to the U. S. House of Representatives, they "possess the same powers as other members of the House, except that they may not vote when the House is meeting as the House of Representatives". They can vote in their appointed House committees on all legislation presented to the House, they are included in their party count for each committee, they are equal to senators on conference committees.
Depending on the Congress, they may vote on the floor in the House Committee of the Whole. In January 2017, the members of Congress from the territories were Gregorio Sablan, Madeleine Bordallo, Amata Coleman Radewagen, Jenniffer González and Stacey Plaskett; the District of Columbia has a non-voting delegate. Like the District of Columbia, U. S. territories do not have voting representation in Congress and have no representation in the Senate. Every four years, U. S. political parties nominate presidential candidates at conventions which include delegates from the territories. U. S. citizens living in the territories cannot vote in the general presidential election, non-citizen nationals in American Samoa cannot vote for president. The territorial capitals are Pago Pago, Hagåtña, San Juan and Charlotte Amalie, their governors are Lolo Matalasi Moliga, Eddie Baza Calvo, Ralph Torres, Ricardo Rosselló and Kenneth Mapp. American Samoa – Territory since 1900; the U. S. controlled the eastern half of the islands.
In 1900, the Treaty of Cession of Tutuila took effect. The Manuʻa islands became part of American Samoa in 1904, Swains Island became part of American Samoa in 1925. Congress ratified American Samoa's treaties in 1929. American Samoa is locally self-governing under a constitution last revised in 1967. People born in American Samoa are U. S. nationals. A
The Ginglymostomatidae are a cosmopolitan family of carpet sharks, containing two monotypic genera of nurse sharks. Common in shallow and subtropical waters, these sharks are sluggish and docile bottom-dwellers. Nurse sharks attack humans only if directly threatened; the name nurse shark is thought to be a corruption of nusse, a name which once referred to the catsharks of the family Scyliorhinidae. The nurse shark family name, Ginglymostomatidae, derives from the Greek words ginglymos meaning "hinge" and stoma meaning "mouth"; the largest species, called the nurse shark Ginglymostoma cirratum, may reach a length of 4.3 m. The first of the three species may reach a weight of 110 kg. Yellowish to dark brown in colour, nurse sharks have muscular pectoral fins, two spineless dorsal fins in line with the pelvic and anal fins, a tail exceeding one quarter the shark's body length; the mouth of nurse sharks is most distinctive. Present on the lower jaw are two fleshy barbels, chemosensory organs which help the nurse sharks find prey hidden in the sediments.
Behind each eye is a small, circular opening called a spiracle, part of the shark's respiratory system. The serrated teeth are independent. Nurse sharks are nocturnal animals, spending the day in large inactive groups of up to 40 individuals. Hidden under submerged ledges or in crevices within the reef, the nurse sharks seem to prefer specific haunts and will return to them every day. By night, the sharks are solitary, their diet consists of crustaceans, molluscs and other fish stingrays. Nurse sharks are thought to take advantage of dormant fish which would otherwise be too fast for the sharks to catch. In this way, nurse sharks are able to suck in their prey. Nurse sharks are known to graze algae and coral; the mating season runs from late June to the end of July. All nurse sharks are aplacental viviparous, meaning the eggs develop and hatch within the body of the female, where the hatchlings develop further until live birth occurs; the gestation period is six months, with a typical litter of 30–40 pups.
The mating cycle is biennial, as it takes 18 months for the female's ovaries to produce another batch of eggs. The young nurse sharks are born developed at about 30 cm long in Ginglymostoma cirratum, they possess a spotted coloration. Genus Ginglymostoma J. P. Müller & Henle, 1837 Ginglymostoma cirratum Bonnaterre, 1788 Ginglymostoma unami Del-Moral-Flores, Ramírez-Antonio, Angulo & Pérez-Ponce de León, 2015 Genus Nebrius Rüppell, 1837 Nebrius ferrugineus Lesson, 1831 Genus Pseudoginglymostoma Dingerkus, 1986 Pseudoginglymostoma brevicaudatum Günther, 1867 List of sharks FishBase entry on Ginglymostomatidae Nurse Shark Facts & Pictures MarineBio: Nurse shark, Ginglymostoma cirratum
Saint Croix is an island in the Caribbean Sea, a county and constituent district of the United States Virgin Islands, an unincorporated territory of the United States. St. Croix is the largest of the islands in the territory. However, the territory's capital, Charlotte Amalie, is located on Saint Thomas; as of the 2010 United States Census, St. Croix's population was 50,601, its highest point is Mount Eagle, at 355 metres. St. Croix's nickname is "Twin City", for its two towns, Frederiksted on the western end and Christiansted on the north-east part of the island. Igneri pottery indicate their presence on the island from 1–700, followed by the Taino from 700–1425, before the encroachment by the Caribs in 1425. However, by 1590, the island was devoid of habitation; the island was inhabited by various indigenous groups during its prehistory. Christopher Columbus landed on Santa Cruz, as he called it, on 14 November 1493, was attacked by the Kalinago, who lived at Salt River on the north shore; this is the first recorded fight between the Spanish and a New World native population, Columbus gave the battle site the name Cabo de la Flecha.
The Spanish never colonized the Islands, but most or all of the native population was dispersed or killed. By the end of the 16th century, the islands were said to be uninhabited. Dutch and English settlers landed Saint Croix in 1625, joined by some French refugees from St. Kitts. However, the English expelled the settlers, before they themselves were evicted by a Spanish invasion in August 1650; the Spanish occupation was short lived, since a French force of 166 men attacked, in the following year 1651 had established a colony of 300 on the island. From 1651 until 1664, the Knights of Malta ruled the island in the name of Louis XIV; the island passed to the French West India Company. The colony was evacuated to San Domingo in 1695, when France battled the English and Dutch in the War of the Grand Alliance; the island lay uninhabited and abandoned for another 38 years. In 1725, St. Thomas Governor Frederick Moth encouraged the Danish West Indies Company's directors to consider purchasing Santa Cruz.
On 15 June 1733, France and Denmark-Norway concluded a treaty by which the Danish West India Company bought Saint Croix for 750,000 livres. Louis XV ratified the treaty on 28 June, received half the payment in French coins, with the remaining half paid in 18 months. On 16 November 1733, Moth was named the first Danish governor of Saint Croix; the 1742 census lists 120 sugar plantations, 122 cotton plantations, 1906 slaves, with about 300 Englishmen and 60 Danes on the island. By 1754, the number of slaves had grown to 7,566; that year, King Frederick took direct control of Saint Croix from the company. For nearly 200 years, Saint Croix, St. Thomas and St. John were known as the Danish West Indies. By the mid to late 18th century, "at the peak of the plantation economy, the enslaved population of Saint Croix numbered between 18,000 and 20,000, the white population ranging between 1,500 and 2,000". Alexander Hamilton and his brother lived with their mother Rachel Faucette on Saint Croix, after she returned to the island in 1765.
Their residence was in the upper floor of a house at 34 Company Street, while Rachel used the lower floor as a shop selling food items. Within two years, Hamilton lost his father, James Hamilton, by abandonment, his mother to death. Official documents from the island, a 1768 probate court testimony from his uncle, established Alexander's age at 13. By 1769, Hamilton's cousin, aunt and grandmother had died, his brother James became an apprentice carpenter, Alexander Hamilton became the ward of Thomas Stevens, a merchant on King Street. Hamilton was soon clerking in the export-import business of Beekman and Cruger, at the intersection of King and King's Cross Streets. In 1772, local businessmen funded Hamilton's further education in New York; the British invasion and occupation of the Danish West Indies took place at the end of March 1801, with the arrival of a British fleet at St Thomas. Denmark-Norway accepted the Articles of Capitulation and the Britain occupied the islands without a shot being fired.
Their occupation lasted only until April 1802. A second British invasion of the Danish West Indies took place in December 1807, when a British fleet captured St Thomas on 22 December, Saint Croix on 25 December. Denmark-Norway did not resist and the invasion again was bloodless; this occupation lasted until 20 November 1815. Both invasions were due to Denmark's alliance with France during the Napoleonic Wars. On the conclusion of a peace with France, the islands were returned to Denmark. In 1916, Denmark sold Saint Croix, St. Thomas, St. John to the United States, formalizing the transfer in the Treaty of the Danish West Indies, in exchange for a sum of US$25 million in gold. In a national referendum on the issue, 64.2% of Danish voters approved the sale. An unofficial referendum held in the islands resulted in 99.83% vote in favor of the purchase. Formal transfer of the islands to the U. S. took place on 1 April 1917. The island's inhabitants were granted United States citizenship in 1927. Industrialization of the island and its move away from an agrarian society took place in the 1960s.
The 2012 shutdown of the Hovensa refinery resulted in the loss of many jobs. Agriculture has seen a slow resurgence, due to an increase in demand for local produce and agricultural products. Saint Croix lies at 17°45′N 64°45′W: the easternmost point in the United States of America is Saint Croix's Point Udall
National monument (United States)
In the United States, a national monument is a protected area, similar to a national park, but can be created from any land owned or controlled by the federal government by proclamation of the President of the United States. National monuments can be managed by one of several federal agencies: the National Park Service, United States Forest Service, United States Fish and Wildlife Service, the Bureau of Land Management, or the National Oceanic and Atmospheric Administration; some national monuments were managed by the War Department. National monuments can be so designated through the power of the Antiquities Act of 1906. President Theodore Roosevelt used the act to declare Devils Tower in Wyoming as the first U. S. national monument. The Antiquities Act of 1906 resulted from concerns about protecting prehistoric Native American ruins and artifacts on federal lands in the American West; the Act authorized permits for legitimate archaeological investigations and penalties for taking or destroying antiquities without permission.
Additionally, it authorized the president to proclaim "historic landmarks and prehistoric structures, other objects of historic or scientific interest" on federal lands as national monuments, "the limits of which in all cases shall be confined to the smallest area compatible with the proper care and management of the objects to be protected."The reference in the act to "objects of...scientific interest" enabled President Theodore Roosevelt to make a natural geological feature, Devils Tower in Wyoming, the first national monument three months later. Among the next three monuments he proclaimed in 1906 was Petrified Forest in Arizona, another natural feature. In 1908, Roosevelt used the act to proclaim more than 800,000 acres of the Grand Canyon as a national monument. In 1918, President Woodrow Wilson proclaimed Katmai National Monument in Alaska, comprising more than 1,000,000 acres. Katmai was enlarged to nearly 2,800,000 acres by subsequent Antiquities Act proclamations and for many years was the largest national park system unit.
Petrified Forest, Grand Canyon, Great Sand Dunes were originally proclaimed as national monuments and designated as national parks by Congress. In response to Roosevelt's declaration of the Grand Canyon monument, a putative mining claimant sued in federal court, claiming that Roosevelt had overstepped the Antiquities Act authority by protecting an entire canyon. In 1920, the United States Supreme Court ruled unanimously that the Grand Canyon was indeed "an object of historic or scientific interest" and could be protected by proclamation, setting a precedent for the use of the Antiquities Act to preserve large areas. Federal courts have since rejected every challenge to the president's use of Antiquities Act preservation authority, ruling that the law gives the president exclusive discretion over the determination of the size and nature of the objects protected. Substantial opposition did not materialize until 1943, when President Franklin D. Roosevelt proclaimed Jackson Hole National Monument in Wyoming.
He did this to accept a donation of lands acquired by John D. Rockefeller, Jr. for addition to Grand Teton National Park after Congress had declined to authorize this park expansion. Roosevelt's proclamation unleashed a storm of criticism about use of the Antiquities Act to circumvent Congress. A bill abolishing Jackson Hole National Monument passed Congress but was vetoed by Roosevelt, Congressional and court challenges to the proclamation authority were mounted. In 1950, Congress incorporated most of the monument into Grand Teton National Park, but the act doing so barred further use of the proclamation authority in Wyoming except for areas of 5,000 acres or less; the most substantial use of the proclamation authority came in 1978, when President Jimmy Carter proclaimed 15 new national monuments in Alaska after Congress had adjourned without passing a major Alaska lands bill opposed in that state. Congress passed a revised version of the bill in 1980 incorporating most of these national monuments into national parks and preserves, but the act curtailed further use of the proclamation authority in Alaska.
The proclamation authority was not used again anywhere until 1996, when President Bill Clinton proclaimed the Grand Staircase-Escalante National Monument in Utah. This action was unpopular in Utah, bills were introduced to further restrict the president's authority. None of which have been enacted. Most of the 16 national monuments created by President Clinton are managed not by the National Park Service, but by the Bureau of Land Management as part of the National Landscape Conservation System. Presidents have used the Antiquities Act's proclamation authority not only to create new national monuments but to enlarge existing ones. For example, Franklin D. Roosevelt enlarged Dinosaur National Monument in 1938. Lyndon B. Johnson added Ellis Island to Statue of Liberty National Monument in 1965, Jimmy Carter made major additions to Glacier Bay and Katmai National Monuments in 1978. On June 24, 2016, President Barack Obama designated the Stonewall Inn and surrounding areas in Greenwich Village, New York as the Stonewall National Monument, the first national monument commemorating the struggle for LGBT rights in the United States.
List of U. S. National Forests List of areas in the United States National Park System List of U. S. wilderness areas Protected areas of the United States List of proposed national monuments of the United States National monument proclamations under the Antiquities Act Congressional Research Service reports regar