Kinetic art is art from any medium that contains movement perceivable by the viewer or depends on motion for its effect. Canvas paintings that extend the viewer's perspective of the artwork and incorporate multidimensional movement are the earliest examples of kinetic art. More pertinently speaking, kinetic art is a term that today most refers to three-dimensional sculptures and figures such as mobiles that move or are machine operated; the moving parts are powered by wind, a motor or the observer. Kinetic art encompasses a wide variety of styles. There is a portion of kinetic art that includes virtual movement, or rather movement perceived from only certain angles or sections of the work; this term clashes with the term "apparent movement", which many people use when referring to an artwork whose movement is created by motors, machines, or electrically powered systems. Both apparent and virtual movement are styles of kinetic art that only have been argued as styles of op art; the amount of overlap between kinetic and op art is not significant enough for artists and art historians to consider merging the two styles under one umbrella term, but there are distinctions that have yet to be made.
"Kinetic art" as a moniker developed from a number of sources. Kinetic art has its origins in the late 19th century impressionist artists such as Claude Monet, Edgar Degas, Édouard Manet who experimented with accentuating the movement of human figures on canvas; this triumvirate of impressionist painters all sought to create art, more lifelike than their contemporaries. Degas’ dancer and racehorse portraits are examples of what he believed to be "photographic realism". By the early 1900s, certain artists grew closer to ascribing their art to dynamic motion. Naum Gabo, one of the two artists attributed to naming this style, wrote about his work as examples of "kinetic rhythm", he felt that his moving sculpture Kinetic Construction was the first of its kind in the 20th century. From the 1920s until the 1960s, the style of kinetic art was reshaped by a number of other artists who experimented with mobiles and new forms of sculpture; the strides made by artists to "lift the figures and scenery off the page and prove undeniably that art is not rigid" took significant innovations and changes in compositional style.
Édouard Manet, Edgar Degas, Claude Monet were the three artists of the 19th century that initiated those changes in the Impressionist movement. Though they each took unique approaches to incorporating movement in their works, they did so with the intention of being a realist. In the same period, Auguste Rodin was an artist whose early works spoke in support of the developing kinetic movement in art. However, Auguste Rodin's criticisms of the movement indirectly challenged the abilities of Manet and Monet, claiming that it is impossible to capture a moment in time and give it the vitality, seen in real life, it is impossible to ascribe Manet's work to any one era or style of art. One of his works, on the brink of a new style is Le Ballet Espagnol; the figures' contours coincide with their gestures as a way to suggest depth in relation to one another and in relation to the setting. Manet accentuates the lack of equilibrium in this work to project to the viewer that he or she is on the edge of a moment, seconds away from passing.
The blurred, hazy sense of color and shadow in this work place the viewer in a fleeting moment. In 1863, Manet extended his study of movement on flat canvas with Le déjeuner sur l'herbe; the light and composition are the same, but he adds a new structure to the background figures. The woman bending in the background is not scaled as if she were far away from the figures in the foreground; the lack of spacing is Manet's method of creating snapshot, near-invasive movement similar to his blurring of the foreground objects in Le Ballet Espagnol. Edgar Degas is believed to be the intellectual extension of Manet, but more radical for the impressionist community. Degas' subjects are the epitome of the impressionist era, his "modern subjects" never obscured his objective of creating moving art. In his 1860 piece Jeunes Spartiates s'exerçant à la lutte, he capitalizes on the classic impressionist nudes but expands on the overall concept, he places them in a flat landscape and gives them dramatic gestures, for him this pointed to a new theme of "youth in movement".
One of his most revolutionary works, L’Orchestre de l’Opéra interprets forms of definite movement and gives them multidimensional movement beyond the flatness of the canvas. He positions the orchestra directly in the viewer’s space, while the dancers fill the background. Degas is alluding to the Impressionist style of combining movement, but redefines it in a way, seen in the late 1800s. In the 1870s, Degas continues this trend through his love of one shot motion horseraces in such works as Voiture aux Courses, it wasn’t until 1884 with Chevaux de Course that his attempt at creating dynamic art came to fruition. This work is part of a series of horse races and polo matches wherein the figures are well integrated into the landscape; the horses and their owners are depicted as if caught in a moment of intense deliberation, trotting away casually in other frames. The impressi
New Zealand is a sovereign island country in the southwestern Pacific Ocean. The country geographically comprises two main landmasses—the North Island, the South Island —and around 600 smaller islands. New Zealand is situated some 2,000 kilometres east of Australia across the Tasman Sea and 1,000 kilometres south of the Pacific island areas of New Caledonia and Tonga; because of its remoteness, it was one of the last lands to be settled by humans. During its long period of isolation, New Zealand developed a distinct biodiversity of animal and plant life; the country's varied topography and its sharp mountain peaks, such as the Southern Alps, owe much to the tectonic uplift of land and volcanic eruptions. New Zealand's capital city is Wellington. Sometime between 1250 and 1300, Polynesians settled in the islands that were named New Zealand and developed a distinctive Māori culture. In 1642, Dutch explorer Abel Tasman became the first European to sight New Zealand. In 1840, representatives of the United Kingdom and Māori chiefs signed the Treaty of Waitangi, which declared British sovereignty over the islands.
In 1841, New Zealand became a colony within the British Empire and in 1907 it became a dominion. Today, the majority of New Zealand's population of 4.9 million is of European descent. Reflecting this, New Zealand's culture is derived from Māori and early British settlers, with recent broadening arising from increased immigration; the official languages are English, Māori, NZ Sign Language, with English being dominant. A developed country, New Zealand ranks in international comparisons of national performance, such as quality of life, education, protection of civil liberties, economic freedom. New Zealand underwent major economic changes during the 1980s, which transformed it from a protectionist to a liberalised free-trade economy; the service sector dominates the national economy, followed by the industrial sector, agriculture. Nationally, legislative authority is vested in an elected, unicameral Parliament, while executive political power is exercised by the Cabinet, led by the prime minister Jacinda Ardern.
Queen Elizabeth II is the country's monarch and is represented by a governor-general Dame Patsy Reddy. In addition, New Zealand is organised into 11 regional councils and 67 territorial authorities for local government purposes; the Realm of New Zealand includes Tokelau. New Zealand is a member of the United Nations, Commonwealth of Nations, ANZUS, Organisation for Economic Co-operation and Development, ASEAN Plus Six, Asia-Pacific Economic Cooperation, the Pacific Community and the Pacific Islands Forum. Dutch explorer Abel Tasman sighted New Zealand in 1642 and named it Staten Land "in honour of the States General", he wrote, "it is possible that this land joins to the Staten Land but it is uncertain", referring to a landmass of the same name at the southern tip of South America, discovered by Jacob Le Maire in 1616. In 1645, Dutch cartographers renamed the land Nova Zeelandia after the Dutch province of Zeeland. British explorer James Cook subsequently anglicised the name to New Zealand. Aotearoa is the current Māori name for New Zealand.
It is unknown whether Māori had a name for the whole country before the arrival of Europeans, with Aotearoa referring to just the North Island. Māori had several traditional names for the two main islands, including Te Ika-a-Māui for the North Island and Te Waipounamu or Te Waka o Aoraki for the South Island. Early European maps labelled the islands North and South. In 1830, maps began to use North and South to distinguish the two largest islands and by 1907 this was the accepted norm; the New Zealand Geographic Board discovered in 2009 that the names of the North Island and South Island had never been formalised, names and alternative names were formalised in 2013. This set the names as North Island or Te Ika-a-Māui, South Island or Te Waipounamu. For each island, either its English or Māori name can be used. New Zealand was one of the last major landmasses settled by humans. Radiocarbon dating, evidence of deforestation and mitochondrial DNA variability within Māori populations suggest New Zealand was first settled by Eastern Polynesians between 1250 and 1300, concluding a long series of voyages through the southern Pacific islands.
Over the centuries that followed, these settlers developed a distinct culture now known as Māori. The population was divided into iwi and hapū who would sometimes cooperate, sometimes compete and sometimes fight against each other. At some point a group of Māori migrated to Rēkohu, now known as the Chatham Islands, where they developed their distinct Moriori culture; the Moriori population was all but wiped out between 1835 and 1862 because of Taranaki Māori invasion and enslavement in the 1830s, although European diseases contributed. In 1862 only 101 survived, the last known full-blooded Moriori died in 1933; the first Europeans known to have reached New Zeala
Wellington is the capital city and second most populous urban area of New Zealand, with 418,500 residents. It is located at the south-western tip of the North Island, between Cook Strait and the Remutaka Range. Wellington is the major population centre of the southern North Island, is the administrative centre of the Wellington Region, which includes the Kapiti Coast and Wairarapa, its latitude is 41°17′S, making it the world's southernmost capital of a sovereign state. Wellington features a temperate maritime climate, is the world's windiest city by average wind speed; the Wellington urban area comprises four local authorities: Wellington City, on the peninsula between Cook Strait and Wellington Harbour, contains the central business district and about half the population. As the nation's capital since 1865, the New Zealand Government and Parliament, Supreme Court and most of the public service are based in the city. Architectural sights include the Government Building—one of the largest wooden buildings in the world—as well as the iconic Beehive.
Wellington is home to several of the largest and oldest cultural institutions in the nation such the National Archives, the National Library, the Museum of New Zealand Te Papa Tongarewa, numerous theatres. It plays host to many artistic and cultural organisations, including the New Zealand Symphony Orchestra and Royal New Zealand Ballet. One of the world's most liveable cities, the 2016 Mercer Quality of Living Survey ranked Wellington 12th in the world. Wellington's economy is service-based, with an emphasis on finance, business services, government, it is the centre of New Zealand's film and special effects industries, a hub for information technology and innovation, with two public research universities. Wellington is one of New Zealand's chief seaports and serves both domestic and international shipping; the city is served by the third busiest airport in the country. Wellington's transport network includes train and bus lines which reach as far as the Kapiti Coast and Wairarapa, ferries connect the city to the South Island.
Wellington takes its name from Arthur Wellesley, the first Duke of Wellington and victor of the Battle of Waterloo: his title comes from the town of Wellington in the English county of Somerset. It was named in November 1840 by the original settlers of the New Zealand Company on the suggestion of the directors of the same, in recognition of the Duke's strong support for the company's principles of colonisation and his "strenuous and successful defence against its enemies of the measure for colonising South Australia". One of the founders of the settlement, Edward Jerningham Wakefield, reported that the settlers "took up the views of the directors with great cordiality and the new name was at once adopted". In the Māori language, Wellington has three names. Te Whanga-nui-a-Tara refers to Wellington Harbour and means "the great harbour of Tara". In New Zealand Sign Language, the name is signed by raising the index and ring fingers of one hand, palm forward, to form a "W", shaking it from side to side twice.
The city's location close to the mouth of the narrow Cook Strait leads to its vulnerability to strong gales, leading to the city's nickname of "Windy Wellington". Legends recount that Kupe explored the district in about the 10th century; the earliest date with hard evidence for Maori living in New Zealand is about 1280. Situated near the geographic centre of the country, Wellington was well placed for trade. In 1839 it was chosen as the first major planned settlement for British immigrants coming to New Zealand; the settlement was named in honour of Arthur Wellesley, the first Duke of Wellington and victor of the Battle of Waterloo. European settlement began with the arrival of an advance party of the New Zealand Company on the ship Tory on 20 September 1839, followed by 150 settlers on the Aurora on 22 January 1840. Food processing plants, engineering industries, vehicle assembly and oil refineries were located in the NE which caused the main industrial growth in Hutt valley; the settlers constructed their first homes at Petone on the flat area at the mouth of the Hutt River.
When that proved swampy and flood-prone they transplanted the plans, drawn without regard for the hilly terrain. In 1865, Wellington became the capital city in place of Auckland, which William Hobson had made the capital in 1841; the New Zealand Parliament had first met in Wellington on 7 July 1862, on a temporary basis. There had been some concerns that the more populous South Island would choose to form a separate colony in the British Empire. Several Commissioners invited from Australia, chosen for their neutral status, declared that Wellington was a suitable location because of
The Lord of the Rings (film series)
The Lord of the Rings is a film series of three epic fantasy adventure films directed by Peter Jackson, based on the novel The Lord of the Rings by J. R. R. Tolkien; the films are subtitled The Fellowship of The Two Towers and The Return of the King. They are a New Zealand-American venture, produced by WingNut Films and The Saul Zaentz Company and distributed by New Line Cinema; the trilogy was one of the biggest and most ambitious film projects undertaken, with a reported budget of $281–330 million. The three films were shot and in Jackson's native New Zealand. One in every 160 New Zealanders participated in the production. A special extended edition of each film was released on DVD a year after its theatrical release. While the films follow the book's general storyline, they omit some plot elements and include additions to and deviations from the source material. Set in the fictional world of Middle-earth, the films follow the hobbit Frodo Baggins as he and the Fellowship embark on a quest to destroy the One Ring, to ensure the destruction of its maker, the Dark Lord Sauron.
The Fellowship splits up and Frodo continues the quest with his loyal companion Sam and the treacherous Gollum. Meanwhile, heir in exile to the throne of Gondor, along with Legolas, Merry and the wizard Gandalf, unite to rally the Free Peoples of Middle-earth in the War of the Ring in order to aid Frodo by weakening Sauron's forces; the series was met with overwhelming praise. It was a major financial success, is among the highest-grossing film series of all time; each film was critically acclaimed and awarded, winning 17 out of their 30 Academy Award nominations. The series's final film, The Return of the King, won all 11 of its Academy Award nominations including Best Picture, tying with Ben-Hur and Titanic for the record of most Academy Awards won by a single film; the series received wide praise for its innovative visual effects. Director Peter Jackson first came into contact with The Lord of the Rings when he saw Ralph Bakshi's 1978 animated film The Lord of the Rings. Jackson "enjoyed the film and wanted to know more."
Afterwards, he read a tie-in edition of the book during a twelve-hour train journey from Wellington to Auckland when he was seventeen. In 1995, Jackson was finishing The Frighteners and considered The Lord of the Rings as a new project, wondering "why nobody else seemed to be doing anything about it". With the new developments in computer-generated imagery following Jurassic Park, Jackson set about planning a fantasy film that would be serious and feel real. By October, he and his partner Fran Walsh teamed up with Miramax Films boss Harvey Weinstein to negotiate with Saul Zaentz who had held the rights to the book since the early 1970s, pitching an adaptation of The Hobbit and two films based on The Lord of the Rings. Negotiations stalled when Universal Studios offered Jackson a remake of King Kong. Weinstein was furious, further problems arose when it turned out Zaentz did not have distribution rights to The Hobbit. By April 1996, the rights question was still not resolved. Jackson decided to move ahead with King Kong before filming The Lord of the Rings, prompting Universal to enter a deal with Miramax to receive foreign earnings from The Lord of the Rings while Miramax received foreign earnings from King Kong.
It was revealed that Jackson wanted to finish King Kong before The Lord of the Rings began. But due to location problems, he decided to start with The Lord of the Rings franchise instead; when Universal cancelled King Kong in 1997, Jackson and Walsh received support from Weinstein and began a six-week process of sorting out the rights. Jackson and Walsh asked Costa Botes to write a synopsis of the book and they began to re-read the book. Two to three months they had written their treatment; the first film would have dealt with what would become The Fellowship of the Ring, The Two Towers, the beginning of The Return of the King, ending with Saruman's death, Gandalf and Pippin going to Minas Tirith. In this treatment and Gandalf visit Edoras after escaping Saruman, Gollum attacks Frodo when the Fellowship is still united, Farmer Maggot, Radagast and Elrohir are present. Bilbo attends the Council of Elrond, Sam looks into Galadriel's mirror, Saruman is redeemed before he dies and the Nazgûl just make it into Mount Doom before they fall.
They presented their treatment to Harvey and Bob Weinstein, the latter of whom they focused on impressing with their screenwriting as he had not read the book. They agreed upon a total budget of $75 million. During mid-1997, Jackson and Walsh began writing with Stephen Sinclair. Sinclair's partner, Philippa Boyens, was a major fan of the book and joined the writing team after reading their treatment, it took 13 -- 14 months to write the two film scripts, which were 144 pages respectively. Sinclair left the project due to theatrical obligations. Amongst their revisions, Sam is caught eavesdropping and forced to go along with Frodo, as occurs in the original novel. In the final treatment Sam and Pippin infer the existence of One Ring and voluntarily go along after confronting Frodo about it. Gandalf's account of his time at Orthanc was pulled out of flashback and Lothlórien was cut, with Galadriel doing what she does in the story at Rivendell. Denethor attends the Council with his son. Other changes included having Arwen rescue Frodo, the action sequence involving the cave troll.
The writers considered having Arw
Cuba Street, Wellington
Cuba Street is one of the most prominent streets in Wellington, New Zealand. The section between Dixon Street and Ghuznee Street is a pedestrian mall. Despite the number of older buildings in the street, there was little building damage from the 2016 Kaikoura earthquake. Named after an early settler ship to New Zealand, the Cuba, it is to the south of the CBD, but still in the inner city. Cuba Street was once the route of the Wellington trams. Following the removal of the rails, the middle section of the street was closed to traffic in 1969, is now a pedestrian mall and is one of the busiest areas of pedestrian activity in Wellington. Since 1995, Cuba Street has been a registered Historic Area under the Historic Places Act 1993, with numerous buildings being of historic significance, the Bank of New Zealand building being one of those. Mary Taylor, lifelong friend and correspondent of author Charlotte Brontë owned and ran a small Cuba Street general store, circa 1840-1860; the shop no longer exists but a heritage storyboard at the intersection of Cuba and Dixon streets commemorates her.
It is one of the more bohemian areas of Wellington, is the home to an eclectic collection of cafes, op-shops, small fashion stores, art galleries, music shops. It is the centre of one of the four'quarters' of downtown Wellington, the Cuba Quarter; the Bucket Fountain is a prominent sculpture in the pedestrianised "Mall" part of the street. Cuba Street has been popular with many members of Wellington's homeless community, including the Wellington icon Blanket Man; some retailers have moved into the adjacent Ghuznee Street. The northern end is more commercial, with an abundance of retail stores and restaurants. While the southern end is more sparsely occupied but has seen a revival in recent years. In the mid 70s to early 80s, "Mid Cuba" or Vivian Street was Wellington's notorious Red light district, where prostitutes would loiter, strip clubs, peep shows and gay bars sat side by side. In recent years, remnants of the red light district are still sparse; the street is regarded by most New Zealanders as a nexus of creativity and artistic production, featuring buskers, exhibition spaces, stone carving, other forms of expression.
In 2005, the new Wellington Arts Centre was established in Abel Smith Street, a half block from upper Cuba Street. Within a few blocks are Enjoy Gallery, Peter McLeavey Gallery, the Moko Museum, Thistle Hall, Victoria University of Wellington Faculty of Architecture and Design, Access Radio. Cuba Dupa is an annual street party celebrating Cuba Street. Fat Freddy's Drop's first album, Live at the Matterhorn was recorded at the bar. Other venues in the area include Hotel Bristol, San Francisco Bathhouse, Bar Bodega, J. J. Murphy's, Southern Cross, S&M Bar, Midnight Espresso, Olive, K Bar, Hope Brothers, Havana Bar, Good Luck, The Duke, Logan Brown; the lower end of Cuba Street ends at Wellington Town Hall, Civic Square, Michael Fowler Centre, Wakefield Street. Cuba Street Online
Sir Peter Robert Jackson is a New Zealand film director and film producer. He is best known as the director and producer of the Lord of the Rings trilogy and the Hobbit trilogy, both of which are adapted from the novels of the same name by J. R. R. Tolkien. Other films include the critically lauded drama Heavenly Creatures, the mockumentary film Forgotten Silver, the horror comedy The Frighteners, the epic monster remake film King Kong, the supernatural drama film The Lovely Bones, the World War I documentary film They Shall Not Grow Old, he produced District 9, The Adventures of Tintin: The Secret of the Unicorn, West of Memphis, Mortal Engines. Jackson began his career with the "splatstick" horror comedy Bad Taste and the black comedy Meet the Feebles before filming the zombie comedy Braindead, he shared a nomination for Academy Award for Best Original Screenplay with his partner Fran Walsh for Heavenly Creatures, which brought him to mainstream prominence in the film industry. Jackson has been awarded three Academy Awards for The Lord of the Rings: The Return of the King, including the award for Best Director.
His other awards include four Saturn Awards and three BAFTAs amongst others. His production company is Wingnut Films, his most regular collaborators are co-writers and producers Walsh and Philippa Boyens. Jackson was made a Companion of the New Zealand Order of Merit in 2002, he was knighted by Anand Satyanand, the Governor-General of New Zealand, at a ceremony in Wellington in April 2010. In December 2014, Jackson was awarded a star on the Hollywood Walk of Fame. Jackson was born on 31 October 1961 in Wellington and was raised at the nearby coastal town of Pukerua Bay, his parents—Joan, a factory worker and housewife, William "Bill" Jackson, a wages clerk—were emigrants from England. As a child, Jackson was a keen film fan, growing up on Ray Harryhausen films, as well as finding inspiration in the television series Thunderbirds and Monty Python's Flying Circus. After a family friend gave the Jacksons a Super 8 cine-camera with Peter in mind, he began making short films with his friends. Jackson has long cited King Kong as his favourite film, around the age of nine he attempted to remake it using his own stop-motion models.
As a child Jackson made a WWII epic called "The Dwarf Patrol" seen on the Bad Taste bonus disc which featured his first special effect of poking pinholes in the film for gun shots, a James Bond spoof named Coldfinger. Most notable though was a 20-minute short called The Valley, which won him a special prize because of the shots he used. In school, Jackson expressed no interest in sports, his classmates remember him wearing a duffle coat with "an obsession verging on religious". He had no formal training in film-making, but learned about editing, special effects and make-up through his own trial and error; as a young adult, Jackson discovered the work of author J. R. R. Tolkien after watching The Lord of the Rings, an animated film by Ralph Bakshi, a part-adaptation of Tolkien's fantasy trilogy; when he was 16 years old, Jackson left school and began working full-time as a photo-engraver for a Wellington newspaper, The Evening Post. For the seven years he worked there, Jackson lived at home with his parents so he could save as much money as possible to spend on film equipment.
After two years of work Jackson bought a 16 mm camera, began shooting a film that became Bad Taste. Jackson has long cited several films as influences, it is well known that Jackson has a passion for King Kong citing it as his favourite film and as the film that inspired him early in his life. Jackson recalls attempting to remake King Kong when he was 12. At the 2009 San Diego Comic-Con International, while being interviewed alongside Avatar and Titanic director James Cameron, Jackson said certain films gave him a "kick", he mentioned Martin Scorsese's crime films Goodfellas and Casino, remarking on "something about those particular movies and the way Martin Scorsese just fearlessly rockets his camera around and has shot those films that I can watch those movies and feel inspired." Jackson said. Other influences include Sam Raimi. Jackson's first feature was Bad Taste, a haphazard fashion splatter comedy, which included many of Jackson's friends acting and working on it for free. Shooting was done in the weekends since Jackson was working full-time.
Bad Taste is about aliens. Jackson had two acting roles including a famous scene; the film was completed thanks to a late injection of finance from the New Zealand Film Commission, after Jim Booth, the body's executive director, became convinced of Jackson's talent. In May 1987, Bad Taste was unveiled at the Cannes Film Festival, where rights to the film sold to twelve countries. Around this time, Jackson began working on writing a number of film scripts, in varied collaborative groupings with playwright Stephen Sinclair, writer Fran Walsh and writer/actor Danny Mulheron. Walsh would become his life partner; some of the scripts from this period, including a sequel to A Nightmare on Elm Street, have never been made into movies. Jackson's next film to see release was Meet the Feebles, co-written with Sinclair and Mulheron. An ensemble musical comedy starring Muppet-styl
Elijah Jordan Wood is an American actor, film producer, DJ. He is known for portraying Frodo Baggins in the Lord of the Rings film trilogy. Wood made his film debut in 1989 with a small part in Back to the Future Part II, he went on to achieve recognition as a child actor with roles in Avalon, Radio Flyer, Forever Young, The Adventures of Huck Finn and The Good Son. As a teenager, he starred in films such as North, The War, The Ice Storm, Deep Impact and The Faculty. Following the success of Lord of the Rings, Wood has appeared in a wide range of films, including Eternal Sunshine of the Spotless Mind, Sin City, Green Street, Everything Is Illuminated, Paris, je t'aime, Bobby and Jesse Forever, Grand Piano, The Last Witch Hunter, The Trust, I Don't Feel at Home in This World Anymore. Wood's voice work includes the role of Mumble in Happy Feet and its sequel. In addition, he provided the voice of Beck on Disney XD's Tron: Uprising, Wirt in the Cartoon Network miniseries Over the Garden Wall. From 2011–2014, Wood played the role of Ryan Newman on the FX television series Wilfred, for which he received a Satellite Award nomination for Best Actor.
From 2016–17, he starred as Todd Brotzman on the BBC America series Dirk Gently's Holistic Detective Agency. Wood has his own record label, Simian Records, which he founded in 2005. In 2010, he founded the production company SpectreVision, which specializes in producing horror films. Wood was born on January 28, 1981, in Cedar Rapids, the second of three children, his parents and Warren Wood, operated a delicatessen. He was raised Roman Catholic and has an older brother named Zachariah as well as a younger sister, Hannah. At age seven, Wood began modeling in his hometown and took piano lessons. In elementary school, he appeared in The Sound of Music and played the title character in The Wonderful Wizard of Oz, he served as choir boy in a Marion Creative Council production of See How They Run. In 1989, his parents sold their delicatessen and the family–without his father–moved to Los Angeles for Wood to pursue an acting career, his parents divorced when he was 15. Wood modeled and appeared in local commercials.
He got his first break in the music video for Paula Abdul's "Forever Your Girl", directed by David Fincher. This was followed by a pivotal role in the made-for-TV film, Child in the Night, a minor role in Back to the Future Part II. Nine-year-old Wood auditioned for a role in Kindergarten Cop, but was told by director Ivan Reitman that his performance was not believable, which Wood said was "a harsh thing to say to a nine-year-old". Playing Aidan Quinn's son in Avalon garnered professional attention for Wood. A small part in Richard Gere's Internal Affairs was followed by the role of a boy who brings estranged couple Melanie Griffith and Don Johnson back together in Paradise. In 1992, Wood co-starred with Mel Gibson and Jamie Lee Curtis in Forever Young, with Joseph Mazzello in Radio Flyer. In 1993, Wood played the title character in Disney's adaptation of Mark Twain's novel, The Adventures of Huck Finn, co-starred with Macaulay Culkin in the psychological thriller The Good Son; the following year, he starred in The War, alongside Kevin Costner.
Roger Ebert's review of the film praised Wood stating that Wood "has emerged, I believe, as the most talented actor, in his age group, in Hollywood history". Wood's title role–opposite Bruce Willis–in the Robert Reiner film North was followed by a Super Bowl commercial for Lay's "Wavy" potato chips. In 1995, Wood appeared in the music video for The Cranberries' "Ridiculous Thoughts", played the lead role in Flipper, co-starred in Ang Lee's critically acclaimed The Ice Storm. In 1997, Wood played Jack "The Artful Dodger" Dawkins in a made-for-TV adaptation of Oliver Twist, alongside Richard Dreyfuss; the following year, he had a leading role in the sci-fi disaster film Deep Impact, a starring role in The Faculty, directed by Robert Rodriguez. In 1999, Wood played a suburban white teenager who affects hip-hop lingo in James Toback's Black and White, a junior hitman in Chain of Fools. Wood was cast as Frodo Baggins in The Lord of the Rings: The Fellowship of the Ring, the first installment of director Peter Jackson's adaptation of J. R. R. Tolkien's multi-volume novel.
This gave Wood top billing as Baggins, alongside a cast that included Ian McKellen, Liv Tyler, Orlando Bloom, Cate Blanchett, Christopher Lee, Sean Bean, Sean Astin, Billy Boyd, Dominic Monaghan, Viggo Mortensen, John Rhys-Davies. The Lord of the Rings trilogy was filmed in New Zealand, in a process taking more than one year for principal photography alone, with pick-up shots occurring annually for the next four years. Before the cast left the country, Jackson gave Wood two gifts: one of the One Ring props used on the set and Sting, Frodo's sword, he was given a pair of prosthetic "hobbit feet" of the type worn during filming. Fellowship was released in 2001 and went on to gross more than $870 million at the worldwide box office. In 2002, Wood lent his voice to the DTV release of The Adventures of Tom Thumb and Thumbelina; that year, the second part of Peter Jackson's trilogy was released, titled The Lord of the Rings: The Two Towers. The film grossed $926 million at the worldwide box office.
In 2003, Wood starred in the DTV film All I Want and camoed as'The Guy' in Spy Kids 3-D: Game O