Denim is a sturdy cotton warp-faced textile in which the weft passes under two or more warp threads. This twill weaving produces a diagonal ribbing. While a denim predecessor known as dungaree has been produced in India for hundreds of years, denim itself was first produced in the French city of Nîmes under the name “serge de Nîmes”; the most common denim is indigo denim, in which the warp thread is dyed, while the weft thread is left white. As a result of the warp-faced twill weaving, one side of the textile is dominated by the blue warp threads and the other side is dominated by the white weft threads; this causes blue jeans to be white on the inside. The indigo dyeing process, in which the core of the warp threads remains white, creates denim's signature fading characteristics; the name "denim" derives from French serge de Nîmes, meaning'serge from Nîmes'. Denim was traditionally colored blue with indigo dye to make blue jeans, although "jean" denoted a different, cotton fabric; the contemporary use of the word "jeans" comes from the French word for Italy: Gênes.
Denim has been used in the United States since the mid-19th century. Denim gained popularity in 1873 when Jacob W. Davis, a tailor from Nevada, manufactured the first pair of rivet-reinforced denim pants. At this time, clothes for Western labourers, such as teamsters and miners, were not durable, his concept for making reinforced jeans was inspired when a female customer requested a pair of durable and strong pants for her husband to chop wood. When Davis was about to finish making the denim jeans, he saw some copper rivets lying on a table and used the rivets to fasten the pockets. Soon, the popularity of denim jeans began to spread and Davis was overwhelmed with requests, he soon sold 200 pairs to workers in need of heavy work clothing. Because of the production capacity in his small shop, Davis was struggling to keep up with the demand, he wrote a proposal to dry goods wholesaler Levi Strauss & Co., supplying Davis with bolts of denim fabric. Davis's proposal was to patent the design of the rivet-reinforced denim pant, with Davis listed as inventor, in exchange for certain rights of manufacture.
Levi Strauss & Co. was so impressed by the possibilities for profit in the manufacture of the garment that they hired Davis to be in charge of the mass production in San Francisco. Throughout the 20th century denim was used for cheap durable uniforms like those issued to staff of the French national railways. In the postwar years, Royal Air Force overalls for dirty work were named "denims." These were a one-piece garment, with long legs and sleeves, buttoned from throat to crotch, in an olive drab denim fabric. All denim goes through the same process to creation. Cotton is harvested by machine. A cotton gin separates the cotton fiber from the seeds; the fiber is put into bales. A bale can make around 400 pairs of jeans; the cotton fiber is spun into yarn. The yarn is dyed giving it color such as the classic denim blue; the yarn is woven in a shuttle loom or projectile loom into denim. The denim is sent to manufacturer for use. Dry or raw denim is denim, not washed after having been dyed during production.
Over time dry denim will fade, considered fashionable in some circumstances. During the process of wear, fading will occur on those parts of the article that receive the most stress. On a pair of jeans, this includes the upper thighs, the ankles, the areas behind the knees. After being made into an article of clothing, most denim articles are washed to make them softer and to reduce or eliminate shrinkage; this process is known as sanforization. In addition to being sanforized, "washed denim" is sometimes artificially distressed to produce a "worn" look. Much of the appeal of artificially distressed denim is. In jeans made from dry denim, such fading is affected by the body of the person who wears them and by the activities of their daily life; this process creates what many enthusiasts feel to be a look more "natural" than artificially distressed denim. To facilitate the natural distressing process, some wearers of dry denim will abstain from washing their jeans for more than six months. Most dry denim comes from several different countries.
In particular, the United States and Japan are popular sources of cotton for making raw denim. Dry denim varies in weight measured by the weight of a yard of denim in ounces. 12 oz. or less is considered light denim, 12 oz. to 16 oz. is considered mid-weight, over 16 oz. is considered heavyweight. Heavier denim is much more rigid and resistant to wear, but can take a larger number of wears to break in and feel comfortable. Patterns of fading in jeans caused by prolonged periods of wearing them without washing are a way of "personalizing" the garment; these patterns have specific names: combs or honeycombs – meshes of faded line-segments that form behind the knees whiskers – faded streaks that form radially from the crotch area stacks – irregular bands of fading above the ankle caused by according of the fabric due to contact with the foot or shoe train tracks – fading along the out-seams due to abrasion Selvedge is the edge of a fabric as it comes from the loom. Selvedges are woven or knit so that they will not ravel, or curl.
Selvedge denim refers to a unique type of selvedge, made by passing one continuous cross-yarn back and forth through the vertical warp beams. This is traditionally finished at both edges with a contrasting war
Oxford English Dictionary
The Oxford English Dictionary is the principal historical dictionary of the English language, published by Oxford University Press. It traces the historical development of the English language, providing a comprehensive resource to scholars and academic researchers, as well as describing usage in its many variations throughout the world; the second edition, comprising 21,728 pages in 20 volumes, was published in 1989. Work began on the dictionary in 1857, but it was only in 1884 that it began to be published in unbound fascicles as work continued on the project, under the name of A New English Dictionary on Historical Principles. In 1895, the title The Oxford English Dictionary was first used unofficially on the covers of the series, in 1928 the full dictionary was republished in ten bound volumes. In 1933, the title The Oxford English Dictionary replaced the former name in all occurrences in its reprinting as twelve volumes with a one-volume supplement. More supplements came over the years until 1989.
Since 2000, compilation of a third edition of the dictionary has been underway half of, complete. The first electronic version of the dictionary was made available in 1988; the online version has been available since 2000, as of April 2014 was receiving over two million hits per month. The third edition of the dictionary will most only appear in electronic form: the Chief Executive of Oxford University Press has stated that it is unlikely that it will be printed; as a historical dictionary, the Oxford English Dictionary explains words by showing their development rather than their present-day usages. Therefore, it shows definitions in the order that the sense of the word began being used, including word meanings which are no longer used; each definition is shown with numerous short usage quotations. This allows the reader to get an approximate sense of the time period in which a particular word has been in use, additional quotations help the reader to ascertain information about how the word is used in context, beyond any explanation that the dictionary editors can provide.
The format of the OED's entries has influenced numerous other historical lexicography projects. The forerunners to the OED, such as the early volumes of the Deutsches Wörterbuch, had provided few quotations from a limited number of sources, whereas the OED editors preferred larger groups of quite short quotations from a wide selection of authors and publications; this influenced volumes of this and other lexicographical works. According to the publishers, it would take a single person 120 years to "key in" the 59 million words of the OED second edition, 60 years to proofread them, 540 megabytes to store them electronically; as of 30 November 2005, the Oxford English Dictionary contained 301,100 main entries. Supplementing the entry headwords, there are 157,000 bold-type derivatives; the dictionary's latest, complete print edition was printed in 20 volumes, comprising 291,500 entries in 21,730 pages. The longest entry in the OED2 was for the verb set, which required 60,000 words to describe some 430 senses.
As entries began to be revised for the OED3 in sequence starting from M, the longest entry became make in 2000 put in 2007 run in 2011. Despite its considerable size, the OED is neither the world's largest nor the earliest exhaustive dictionary of a language. Another earlier large dictionary is the Grimm brothers' dictionary of the German language, begun in 1838 and completed in 1961; the first edition of the Vocabolario degli Accademici della Crusca is the first great dictionary devoted to a modern European language and was published in 1612. The official dictionary of Spanish is the Diccionario de la lengua española, its first edition was published in 1780; the Kangxi dictionary of Chinese was published in 1716. The dictionary began as a Philological Society project of a small group of intellectuals in London: Richard Chenevix Trench, Herbert Coleridge, Frederick Furnivall, who were dissatisfied with the existing English dictionaries; the Society expressed interest in compiling a new dictionary as early as 1844, but it was not until June 1857 that they began by forming an "Unregistered Words Committee" to search for words that were unlisted or poorly defined in current dictionaries.
In November, Trench's report was not a list of unregistered words. The Society realized that the number of unlisted words would be far more than the number of words in the English dictionaries of the 19th century, shifted their idea from covering only words that were not in English diction
A textile is a flexible material consisting of a network of natural or artificial fibers. Yarn is produced by spinning raw fibres of wool, cotton, hemp, or other materials to produce long strands. Textiles are formed by weaving, crocheting, knotting or tatting, felting, or braiding; the related words "fabric" and "cloth" and "material" are used in textile assembly trades as synonyms for textile. However, there are subtle differences in these terms in specialized usage. A textile is any material made of interlacing fibres, including carpeting and geotextiles. A fabric is a material made through weaving, spreading, crocheting, or bonding that may be used in production of further goods. Cloth may be used synonymously with fabric but is a piece of fabric, processed; the word'textile' is from Latin, from the adjective textilis, meaning'woven', from textus, the past participle of the verb texere,'to weave'. The word'fabric' derives from Latin, most from the Middle French fabrique, or'building, thing made', earlier as the Latin fabrica'workshop.
The word'cloth' derives from the Old English clað, meaning a cloth, woven or felted material to wrap around one, from Proto-Germanic kalithaz. The first clothes, worn at least 70,000 years ago and much earlier, were made of animal skins and helped protect early humans from the ice ages. At some point people learned to weave plant fibers into textiles; the discovery of dyed flax fibres in a cave in the Republic of Georgia dated to 34,000 BCE suggests textile-like materials were made in prehistoric times. The production of textiles is a craft whose speed and scale of production has been altered beyond recognition by industrialization and the introduction of modern manufacturing techniques. However, for the main types of textiles, plain weave, twill, or satin weave, there is little difference between the ancient and modern methods. Textiles have an assortment of uses, the most common of which are for clothing and for containers such as bags and baskets. In the household they are used in carpeting, upholstered furnishings, window shades, coverings for tables and other flat surfaces, in art.
In the workplace they are used in scientific processes such as filtering. Miscellaneous uses include flags, tents, handkerchiefs, cleaning rags, transportation devices such as balloons, kites and parachutes. Textiles are used in many traditional crafts such as sewing and embroidery. Textiles for industrial purposes, chosen for characteristics other than their appearance, are referred to as technical textiles. Technical textiles include textile structures for automotive applications, medical textiles, agrotextiles, protective clothing. In all these applications stringent performance requirements must be met. Woven of threads coated with zinc oxide nanowires, laboratory fabric has been shown capable of "self-powering nanosystems" using vibrations created by everyday actions like wind or body movements. Textiles are made from many materials, with four main sources: animal, plant and synthetic; the first three are natural. In the 20th century, they were supplemented by artificial fibres made from petroleum.
Textiles are made in various strengths and degrees of durability, from the finest microfibre made of strands thinner than one denier to the sturdiest canvas. Textile manufacturing terminology has a wealth of descriptive terms, from light gauze-like gossamer to heavy grosgrain cloth and beyond. Animal textiles are made from hair, skin or silk. Wool refers to the hair of the domestic sheep or goat, distinguished from other types of animal hair in that the individual strands are coated with scales and crimped, the wool as a whole is coated with a wax mixture known as lanolin, waterproof and dirtproof. Woollen refers to a bulkier yarn produced from carded, non-parallel fibre, while worsted refers to a finer yarn spun from longer fibres which have been combed to be parallel. Wool is used for warm clothing. Cashmere, the hair of the Indian cashmere goat, mohair, the hair of the North African angora goat, are types of wool known for their softness. Other animal textiles which are made from hair or fur are alpaca wool, vicuña wool, llama wool, camel hair used in the production of coats, ponchos and other warm coverings.
Angora refers to the long, soft hair of the angora rabbit. Qiviut is the fine inner wool of the muskox. Wadmal is a coarse cloth made of wool, produced in Scandinavia 1000~1500 CE. Sea silk is an fine and valuable fabric, made from the silky filaments or byssus secreted by a gland in the foot of pen shells. Silk is an animal textile made from the fibres of the cocoon of the Chinese silkworm, spun into a smooth fabric prized for its softness. There are two main ty
Donegal tweed is a woven tweed manufactured in County Donegal, Ireland. All handwoven, it is now machine woven, has been since the introduction of mechanised looms in the 1950's/1960's. Donegal has for centuries been producing tweed from local materials in the making of caps and vests. Towards the end of the eighteenth century The Royal Linen Manufacturers of Ulster distributed six thousand flax spinning wheels and sixty looms for weaving to various Donegal homesteads; these machines helped establish the homespun tweed industry in nineteenth-century Donegal. Although Donegal tweed has been manufactured for centuries it took on its modern form in the 1880s due to the pioneering work of English philanthropist Alice Rowland Hart. While the weavers in County Donegal produce a number of different tweed fabrics, including herringbone and check patterns, the area is best known for a plain-weave cloth of differently-coloured warp and weft, with small pieces of yarn in various colours woven in at irregular intervals to produce a heathered effect.
Such fabric is labelled as "donegal" regardless of its provenance. Along with Harris Tweed manufactured in the Scottish Highlands, Donegal is the most famous tweed in the world, it was used in several of the fashion designer Sybil Connolly's pieces. The firm of Magee dates back to 1866, it was established by John Magee who established a retail shop in Donegal Town. He bought tweed from Ardara and Carrick from part-time weavers who worked as farmers and fishermen. In 1887, John Magee's cousin Robert Temple came to work in the shop as an apprentice. On the death of John Magee in 1901, Temple took over the business, he continued using the outworkers to make tweed but in order to improve quality he established a system of sending out patterns and materials to these workers. He established a small factory in Donegal Town where some of the outworkers worked full-time under his supervision. Robert Temple expanded the business until his death in 1958. Robert's son Howard Temple began working with his father in 1931.
One of the most significant figures in the history of Donegal tweed, Howard Temple carried Magee to new heights. The number of weavers were increased and he began the process of making Donegal tweed an international brand. To this end he collaborated closely with the Irish fashion designers Sybil Connolly and Irene Gilbert. In 1966 he established a large factory in Donegal Town manufacturing ready-to-wear men's clothes which at its peak employed 300 people; the current proprietors of Magee are Howard Temple's son Lynn and Lynn's children Charlotte and Patrick. Magee continues to be the largest and most famous producers of Donegal tweed. Magee clothing is worn by the 9th President of Ireland Michael D Higgins. Based in Kilcar, Co Donegal, Studio Donegal was founded in 1979 to preserve the tradition of hand weaving. Established by the now defunct Connemara Fabrics under the leadership of Kevin Donaghy. Kevin and his wife Wendy bought the operation from Connemara Fabrics, it continues today under the management of their son, Tristan Donaghy.
Remaining true to it's original objective, all the tweed produced in Studio Donegal is genuinely hand woven. "History | Studio Donegal | Woollen Mill | Handweaving | Buy Handwoven Garments". Www.studiodonegal.ie. Retrieved 2018-05-19.</ref> Eddie Doherty continues to hand weave in his shop/weaving room in Ardara Co Donegal. "Home". Eddie Doherty Hand woven Tweed. Retrieved 2018-10-27.</ref> "The Donegal Weaver was, indeed still is, a singular type of man. He has a long Celtic face with good long-fingered hands, a sensitive touch, an inherent feeling for colour, amazingly dexterous feet and an inbuilt sense of rhythm; this freedom of movement is vigorously displayed in the skillful dancing of jigs and reels at the weaver's parties held each year in Donegal Town."
Nitrocellulose is a flammable compound formed by nitrating cellulose through exposure to nitric acid or another powerful nitrating agent. When used as a propellant or low-order explosive, it was known as guncotton. Nitrated cellulose has found uses as a plastic film and in inks and wood coatings. In 1862, the first man-made plastic, was created by Alexander Parkes from cellulose treated with nitric acid and a solvent. In 1868, American inventor John Wesley Hyatt developed a plastic material he named Celluloid, improving on Parkes' invention by plasticizing the nitrocellulose with camphor so it could be processed into finished form and used as a photographic film. Celluloid was used by Kodak, other suppliers, from the late 1880s as a film base in photography, X-ray films, motion-picture films, was known as nitrate film. After numerous fires caused by unstable nitrate films, "safety film" started to be used from the 1930s in the case of X-ray stock and from 1948 for motion-picture film. Henri Braconnot discovered in 1832 that nitric acid, when combined with starch or wood fibers, would produce a lightweight combustible explosive material, which he named xyloïdine.
A few years in 1838, another French chemist, Théophile-Jules Pelouze, treated paper and cardboard in the same way. Jean-Baptiste Dumas obtained a similar material; these substances were unstable and were not practical explosives. However, around 1846 Christian Friedrich Schönbein, a German-Swiss chemist, discovered a more practical solution; as he was working in the kitchen of his home in Basel, he spilled a mixture of nitric acid and sulfuric acid on the kitchen table. He reached for the nearest cloth, a cotton apron, wiped it up, he hung the apron on the stove door to dry, as soon as it was dry, a flash occurred as the apron ignited. His preparation method was the first to be imitated—one part of fine cotton wool to be immersed in 15 parts of an equal blend of sulfuric and nitric acids. After two minutes, the cotton was removed and washed in cold water to set the esterification level and remove all acid residue, it was slowly dried at a temperature below 40 °C. Schönbein collaborated with the Frankfurt professor Rudolf Christian Böttger, who had discovered the process independently in the same year.
By coincidence, a third chemist, the Brunswick professor F. J. Otto had produced guncotton in 1846 and was the first to publish the process, much to the disappointment of Schönbein and Böttger; the process uses nitric acid to convert cellulose into cellulose nitrate and water: 3 HNO3+ C6H10O5 H2SO4→ C6H73O5 + 3 H2OThe sulfuric acid is present as a catalyst to produce the nitronium ion, NO+2. The reaction is first order and proceeds by electrophilic substitution at the C−OH centers of the cellulose. Guncotton is made by treating cotton with concentrated sulfuric acid and 70% nitric acid cooled to 0 °C to produce cellulose trinitrate. While guncotton is dangerous to store, the hazards it presents can be reduced by storing it dampened with various liquids, such as alcohol. For this reason, accounts of guncotton usage dating from the early 20th century refer to "wet guncotton"; the power of guncotton made it suitable for blasting. As a projectile driver, it had around six times the gas generation of an equal volume of black powder and produced less smoke and less heating.
The patent rights for the manufacture of guncotton were obtained by John Hall & Son in 1846, industrial manufacture of the explosive began at a purpose-built factory at Marsh Works in Faversham, Kent, a year later. However, the manufacturing process was not properly understood and few safety measures were put in place. A serious explosion in July of that year killed two dozen workers, resulting in the immediate closure of the plant. Guncotton manufacture ceased for over 15 years. Further research indicated the importance of careful washing of the acidified cotton. Unwashed nitrocellulose may spontaneously ignite and explode at room temperature, as the evaporation of water results in the concentration of unreacted acid; the British chemist Frederick Augustus Abel developed the first safe process for guncotton manufacture, which he patented in 1865. The washing and drying times of the nitrocellulose were both extended to 48 hours and repeated eight times over; the acid mixture was changed to two parts sulfuric acid to one part nitric.
Nitration can be controlled by adjusting reaction temperature. Nitrocellulose is soluble in a mixture of alcohol and ether until nitrogen concentration exceeds 12%. Soluble nitrocellulose, or a solution thereof, is sometimes called collodion. Guncotton containing more than 13% nitrogen was prepared by prolonged exposure to hot, concentrated acids for limited use as a blasting explosive or for warheads of underwater weapons such as naval mines and torpedoes. Safe and sustained production of guncotton began at the Waltham Abbey Royal Gunpowder Mills in the 1860s, the material became the dominant explosive, becoming the standard for military warheads, although it remained too potent to be used as a propellant. More-stable and slower-burning collodion mixtures were prepared using less-concentrated acids at lower temperatures for smokeless powder in firearms; the first practical smokeless powder made from nitrocellulose, for firearms and artillery ammunition, was invented by French chemist Paul Vieille in 1884.
Cotton is a soft, fluffy staple fiber that grows in a boll, or protective case, around the seeds of the cotton plants of the genus Gossypium in the mallow family Malvaceae. The fiber is pure cellulose. Under natural conditions, the cotton bolls will increase the dispersal of the seeds; the plant is a shrub native to tropical and subtropical regions around the world, including the Americas, Africa and India. The greatest diversity of wild cotton species is found followed by Australia and Africa. Cotton was independently domesticated in the New Worlds; the fiber is most spun into yarn or thread and used to make a soft, breathable textile. The use of cotton for fabric is known to date to prehistoric times. Although cultivated since antiquity, it was the invention of the cotton gin that lowered the cost of production that led to its widespread use, it is the most used natural fiber cloth in clothing today. Current estimates for world production are about 25 million tonnes or 110 million bales annually, accounting for 2.5% of the world's arable land.
China is the world's largest producer of cotton. The United States has been the largest exporter for many years. In the United States, cotton is measured in bales, which measure 0.48 cubic meters and weigh 226.8 kilograms. There are four commercially grown species of cotton, all domesticated in antiquity: Gossypium hirsutum – upland cotton, native to Central America, the Caribbean and southern Florida Gossypium barbadense – known as extra-long staple cotton, native to tropical South America Gossypium arboreum – tree cotton, native to India and Pakistan Gossypium herbaceum – Levant cotton, native to southern Africa and the Arabian Peninsula The two New World cotton species account for the vast majority of modern cotton production, but the two Old World species were used before the 1900s. While cotton fibers occur in colors of white, brown and green, fears of contaminating the genetics of white cotton have led many cotton-growing locations to ban the growing of colored cotton varieties; the word "cotton" has Arabic origins, derived from the Arabic word قطن.
This was the usual word for cotton in medieval Arabic. The word entered the Romance languages in the mid-12th century, English a century later. Cotton fabric was known to the ancient Romans as an import but cotton was rare in the Romance-speaking lands until imports from the Arabic-speaking lands in the medieval era at transformatively lower prices; the earliest evidence of cotton use in the Indian subcontinent has been found at the site of Mehrgarh and Rakhigarhi where cotton threads have been found preserved in copper beads. Cotton cultivation in the region is dated to the Indus Valley Civilization, which covered parts of modern eastern Pakistan and northwestern India between 3300 and 1300 BC; the Indus cotton industry was well-developed and some methods used in cotton spinning and fabrication continued to be used until the industrialization of India. Between 2000 and 1000 BC cotton became widespread across much of India. For example, it has been found at the site of Hallus in Karnataka dating from around 1000 BC.
Cotton bolls discovered in a cave near Tehuacán, have been dated to as early as 5500 BC, but this date has been challenged. More securely dated is the domestication of Gossypium hirsutum in Mexico between around 3400 and 2300 BC. In Peru, cultivation of the indigenous cotton species Gossypium barbadense has been dated, from a find in Ancon, to c. 4200 BC, was the backbone of the development of coastal cultures such as the Norte Chico and Nazca. Cotton was grown upriver, made into nets, traded with fishing villages along the coast for large supplies of fish; the Spanish who came to Mexico and Peru in the early 16th century found the people growing cotton and wearing clothing made of it. The Greeks and the Arabs were not familiar with cotton until the Wars of Alexander the Great, as his contemporary Megasthenes told Seleucus I Nicator of "there being trees on which wool grows" in "Indica"; this may be a reference to "tree cotton", Gossypium arboreum, a native of the Indian subcontinent. According to the Columbia Encyclopedia: Cotton has been spun and dyed since prehistoric times.
It clothed the people of ancient India and China. Hundreds of years before the Christian era, cotton textiles were woven in India with matchless skill, their use spread to the Mediterranean countries. In Iran, the history of cotton dates back to the Achaemenid era; the planting of cotton was common in Merv and Pars of Iran. In Persian poets' poems Ferdowsi's Shahname, there are references to cotton. Marco Polo refers to the major products including cotton. John Chardin, a French traveler of the 17th century who visited Safavid Persia, spoke approvingly of the vast cotton farms of Persia. During the Han dynasty, cotton was grown by Chinese peoples in the southern Chinese province of Yunnan. Egyptians spun cotton in the first seven centuries of the Christian era. Handheld roller cotton gins had been used in India since the 6th century, was introduced to other countries from there. Between the 12th and 14th centuries, dual-roller gins appeared in China; the Indian version of the dual-roller gin was preval
Barkcloth or bark cloth is a versatile material, once common in Asia and the Pacific. Barkcloth comes from trees of the Moraceae family, including Broussonetia papyrifera, Artocarpus altilis, Ficus natalensis, it is made by beating sodden strips of the fibrous inner bark of these trees into sheets, which are finished into a variety of items. Many texts that mention "paper" clothing are referring to barkcloth; some modern cotton-based fabrics are named "barkcloth" for their resemblance to these traditional fabrics. Barkcloth has been manufactured in Uganda for centuries and is Uganda's sole representative on the UNESCO Intangible Cultural Heritage Lists. Tapa cloth was used traditionally used for clothing throughout the Pacific, in many places remains important culturally; some communities are reviving this practice. At Monbang traditional village on Alor Island, tourists can see members of the Kabola ethnic group wear barkcloth and dance traditional dances. Today, what is called barkcloth is a soft, thick textured fabric, so named because it has a rough surface like that of tree bark.
This barkcloth is made of densely woven cotton fibers. The fabric has been used in home furnishings, such as curtains, drapery and slipcovers, it is associated with 1940s through 1960s home fashions in tropical, abstract, "atomic" and "boomerang" prints, the last two themes being expressed by images of atoms with electrons whirling, by the boomerang shape, popular in mid-century cocktail tables and fabrics and influenced by the Las Vegas "Atomic City" era. Waverly, a famed design house for textiles and wall coverings between 1923 and 2007, called their version of this fabric rhino cloth for the rough, nubbly surface. American barkcloth shot through with gold Lurex threads was called Las Vegas cloth, contained as much as 65% rayon as well, making it a softer, more flowing fabric than the stiffer all-cotton rhino cloth or standard barkcloth. Cedar bark textile Lacebark Osnaburg Tapa cloth Bark Cloth − Then and Now: Amazing Discoveries, Patricia L. Quilters' Muse Virtual Museum Tapa: Situating Pacific Barkcloth in Time and Place A three-year AHRC funded research project at the Centre for Textile Conservation that aims to transform our understanding of Pacific barkcloth manufacture using a multidisciplinary approach