In English, the word laureate has come to signify eminence or association with literary awards or military glory. It is used for winners of the Nobel Prize, Gandhi Peace Award and the Student Peace Prize. In ancient Greece, the laurel was sacred to Apollo and as such sprigs of it were fashioned into a crown or wreath of honor for poets and heroes; this symbolism has been widespread since. "Laureate letters" in old times meant the dispatches announcing a victory. The name of "bacca-laureate" for a bachelor's degree shows a confusion with a supposed etymology from Latin bacca lauri, though incorrect, involves the same idea. From the more general use of the term "poet laureate" arose its restriction in England to the office of the poet attached to the royal household, first held by Ben Jonson, for whom the position was, in its essentials, created by Charles I of England in 1617. Jonson's appointment does not seem to have been formally made as poet laureate, but his position was equivalent to that.
The office was a development of the practice of earlier times, when minstrels and versifiers were part of the retinue of the King. Moreover, the crown had shown its patronage in various ways. Sir William Davenant succeeded Jonson in 1638, the title of poet laureate was conferred by letters patent on John Dryden in 1670 two years after Davenant's death, coupled with a pension of £300 and a butt of Canary Islands wine; the post became a regular institution, though the emoluments varied, Dryden's successors being T. Shadwell, who originated annual birthday and New Year odes; the office took on a new luster from the personal distinction of Southey and Tennyson. However, the undesirability of breaking with tradition for temporary reasons, thus severing the one official link between literature and the state, prevailed over the protests against following Tennyson by any one of inferior genius. Abolition was advocated when Thomas Warton and William Wordsworth died; the poet laureate, being a court official, was considered responsible for producing formal and appropriate verses on birthdays and state occasions.
Wordsworth stipulated, before accepting the honor, that no formal effusions from him should be considered a necessity. The emoluments of the post have varied. To Pye an allowance of £27 was made instead of the wine. Tennyson drew £72 a year from the Lord Chamberlain's department, £27 from the Lord Steward's in lieu of the "butt of sack." Glory
Zoe Leonard is an American artist who works with photography and sculpture. She has exhibited since the late 1980s and her work has been included in a number of seminal exhibitions including Documenta IX and Documenta XII, the 1993, 1997 and 2014 Whitney biennials. Leonard was born in 1961 in New York. At 16, she started taking photographs, she has spent most of her adult life living in New York City, whose built environment has been the subject matter of much of her work Leonard became well-known internationally following her installation at Documenta IX in 1992. From her earliest aerial photographs to her images of museum displays, anatomical models, fashion shows, much of Leonard's work reflects on the framing and ordering of vision, she explains in a recent interview: "Rather than any one subject or genre, I was, remain, interested in engaging a simultaneous questioning of both subject and vantage point, the relation between viewer and world — in short and how it informs our experience of the world."Leonard was active in AIDS advocacy and queer politics in New York in the 1980s and 1990s.
In 1992 she wrote "I want a president," a poem inspired by Eileen Myles's run for president. In 1995 she staged an exhibition at her studio on the Lower East Side of Manhattan which featured the work Strange Fruit, an installation of various fruit skins that Leonard saved and sewed together by hand with wire and thread. Strange Fruit grew out of a personal response to the losses of the AIDS epidemic and as a meditation on mourning, it became a seminal work of the 1990s. Strange Fruit was exhibited in 1998 at the Philadelphia Museum of Art, where it resides. During the mid-1990s Leonard spent two years living in a remote part of Alaska, an experience that influenced much of her artwork, which foregrounds relationships between humans and the natural world. Trees are a motif in Leonard's work: examples include a "reconstructed" tree that she installed in Vienna's Secession in 1997 as well as numerous photographs of urban trees mangled in chain-link and razor wire fences. Between 1998 and 2009 Leonard worked on Analogue, a monumental project consisting of an installation of 412 C-prints and gelatin silver prints and a portfolio of 40 dye-transfer prints.
Influenced by Eugène Atget and Walker Evans but born out of a 21st-century re-consideration of the role of photography, Analogue explores transformations in global labor and social relationships in parallel with the shift from analogue to digital image-making. Holland Cotter described the experience of the work in The New York Times in 2009: "In her straight-ahead photographs of storefronts, an arrangement of shoes or shrink-wrapped furniture becomes a vanitas still life. A hand-painted shop sign becomes a relic. Over several photographs, we sense that an unnamed neighborhood — Ms. Leonard expanded her field work to include East Harlem, Bedford-Stuyvesant and Crown Heights — is packing up to leave. A city's material culture is doing a vanishing act, and where is the material going? Back to a version of the world it came from. Many of the cut-rate goods sold in the Lower East Side shops originated in urban sweatshops in China and Pakistan and are passed on as surplus to other poor cities in Africa and Central America.
In the wraparound grid of pictures in Analogue we follow recycled clothes from Brooklyn to the city of Kampala in Uganda, where they are sold as new in stores like the Money Is Life House of Garments."Analogue was first exhibited in 2007 at the Wexner Center for the Arts in Columbus, at Documenta XII in Kassel, followed by presentations at Villa Arson in Nice, Dia at the Hispanic Society and the Museum of Modern Art in New York and was included in a touring retrospective of Leonard's work which originated in 2007 at the Fotomuseum Winterthur, traveled to the Museo Nacional Centro de Arte Reina Sofia, Madrid. Analogue is in the collection of The Museum of New York and the Reina Sofia, Madrid. More recent exhibitions have included Serialities at Hauser & Wirth, You See I Am Here After All at Dia: Beacon, Observation Point, Camden Arts Centre, London, an installation at the Chinati Foundation, Marfa and the 2014 Whitney Biennial, for which Leonard won the Bucksbaum Award with her work "945 Madison Avenue."
In 2018, the Whitney Museum of American Art mounted Leonard's first career retrospective in the United States, an exhibition organized by the Museum of Contemporary Art, Los Angeles, where the show traveled in late 2018. An insightful writer and a pre-eminent thinker on the discipline of photography, texts by Leonard have appeared in LTTR, Texte zur Kunst, in recent monographs on Agnes Martin, James Castle and Josiah McElheny. - Information: Zoe Leonard, Galerie Gisela Capitain, Cologne | ASIN B005MJ5M9I - Strange Fruit, Paula Cooper Gallery, NY | ASIN B0006PFWNY - Zoe Leonard, Kunsthalle Basel, Basel - Zoe Leonard, Vienna - Zoe Leonard, Centre national de la photographie, France - Analogue, Wexner Center for the Arts, Columbus, OH, MIT Press | ISBN 978-0262122955 - Zoe Leonard: Photographs, Fotomuseum Winterthur
The United States of America known as the United States or America, is a country composed of 50 states, a federal district, five major self-governing territories, various possessions. At 3.8 million square miles, the United States is the world's third or fourth largest country by total area and is smaller than the entire continent of Europe's 3.9 million square miles. With a population of over 327 million people, the U. S. is the third most populous country. The capital is Washington, D. C. and the largest city by population is New York City. Forty-eight states and the capital's federal district are contiguous in North America between Canada and Mexico; the State of Alaska is in the northwest corner of North America, bordered by Canada to the east and across the Bering Strait from Russia to the west. The State of Hawaii is an archipelago in the mid-Pacific Ocean; the U. S. territories are scattered about the Pacific Ocean and the Caribbean Sea, stretching across nine official time zones. The diverse geography and wildlife of the United States make it one of the world's 17 megadiverse countries.
Paleo-Indians migrated from Siberia to the North American mainland at least 12,000 years ago. European colonization began in the 16th century; the United States emerged from the thirteen British colonies established along the East Coast. Numerous disputes between Great Britain and the colonies following the French and Indian War led to the American Revolution, which began in 1775, the subsequent Declaration of Independence in 1776; the war ended in 1783 with the United States becoming the first country to gain independence from a European power. The current constitution was adopted in 1788, with the first ten amendments, collectively named the Bill of Rights, being ratified in 1791 to guarantee many fundamental civil liberties; the United States embarked on a vigorous expansion across North America throughout the 19th century, acquiring new territories, displacing Native American tribes, admitting new states until it spanned the continent by 1848. During the second half of the 19th century, the Civil War led to the abolition of slavery.
By the end of the century, the United States had extended into the Pacific Ocean, its economy, driven in large part by the Industrial Revolution, began to soar. The Spanish–American War and World War I confirmed the country's status as a global military power; the United States emerged from World War II as a global superpower, the first country to develop nuclear weapons, the only country to use them in warfare, a permanent member of the United Nations Security Council. Sweeping civil rights legislation, notably the Civil Rights Act of 1964, the Voting Rights Act of 1965 and the Fair Housing Act of 1968, outlawed discrimination based on race or color. During the Cold War, the United States and the Soviet Union competed in the Space Race, culminating with the 1969 U. S. Moon landing; the end of the Cold War and the collapse of the Soviet Union in 1991 left the United States as the world's sole superpower. The United States is the world's oldest surviving federation, it is a representative democracy.
The United States is a founding member of the United Nations, World Bank, International Monetary Fund, Organization of American States, other international organizations. The United States is a developed country, with the world's largest economy by nominal GDP and second-largest economy by PPP, accounting for a quarter of global GDP; the U. S. economy is post-industrial, characterized by the dominance of services and knowledge-based activities, although the manufacturing sector remains the second-largest in the world. The United States is the world's largest importer and the second largest exporter of goods, by value. Although its population is only 4.3% of the world total, the U. S. holds 31% of the total wealth in the world, the largest share of global wealth concentrated in a single country. Despite wide income and wealth disparities, the United States continues to rank high in measures of socioeconomic performance, including average wage, human development, per capita GDP, worker productivity.
The United States is the foremost military power in the world, making up a third of global military spending, is a leading political and scientific force internationally. In 1507, the German cartographer Martin Waldseemüller produced a world map on which he named the lands of the Western Hemisphere America in honor of the Italian explorer and cartographer Amerigo Vespucci; the first documentary evidence of the phrase "United States of America" is from a letter dated January 2, 1776, written by Stephen Moylan, Esq. to George Washington's aide-de-camp and Muster-Master General of the Continental Army, Lt. Col. Joseph Reed. Moylan expressed his wish to go "with full and ample powers from the United States of America to Spain" to seek assistance in the revolutionary war effort; the first known publication of the phrase "United States of America" was in an anonymous essay in The Virginia Gazette newspaper in Williamsburg, Virginia, on April 6, 1776. The second draft of the Articles of Confederation, prepared by John Dickinson and completed by June 17, 1776, at the latest, declared "The name of this Confederation shall be the'United States of America'".
The final version of the Articles sent to the states for ratification in late 1777 contains the sentence "The Stile of this Confederacy shall be'The United States of America'". In June 1776, Thomas Jefferson wrote the phrase "UNITED STATES OF AMERICA" in all capitalized letters in the headline of his "original Rough draught" of the Declaration of Independence; this draft of the document did not surface unti
An artist is a person engaged in an activity related to creating art, practicing the arts, or demonstrating an art. The common usage in both everyday speech and academic discourse is a practitioner in the visual arts only; the term is used in the entertainment business in a business context, for musicians and other performers. "Artiste" is a variant used in English only in this context. Use of the term to describe writers, for example, is valid, but less common, restricted to contexts like criticism. Wiktionary defines the noun ` artist'. A person who makes and creates art as an occupation. A person, skilled at some activity. A person whose trade or profession requires a knowledge of design, painting, etc; the Oxford English Dictionary defines the older broad meanings of the term "artist": A learned person or Master of Arts One who pursues a practical science, traditionally medicine, alchemy, chemistry A follower of a pursuit in which skill comes by study or practice A follower of a manual art, such as a mechanic One who makes their craft a fine art One who cultivates one of the fine arts – traditionally the arts presided over by the muses The Greek word "techně" translated as "art," implies mastery of any sort of craft.
The adjectival Latin form of the word, "technicus", became the source of the English words technique, technical. In Greek culture each of the nine Muses oversaw a different field of human creation: Calliope: chief of the muses and muse of epic or heroic poetry Clio: muse of history Erato: muse of love or erotic poetry and marriage songs Euterpe: muse of music and lyric poetry Melpomene: muse of tragedy Polyhymnia or Polymnia: muse of sacred song, lyric and rhetoric Terpsichore: muse of choral song and dance Thalia: muse of comedy and bucolic poetry Urania: muse of astronomyNo muse was identified with the visual arts of painting and sculpture. In ancient Greece sculptors and painters were held in low regard, somewhere between freemen and slaves, their work regarded as mere manual labour; the word art derives from the Latin "ars", although defined means "skill method" or "technique" conveys a connotation of beauty. During the Middle Ages the word artist existed in some countries such as Italy, but the meaning was something resembling craftsman, while the word artesan was still unknown.
An artist was someone able to do a work better than others, so the skilled excellency was underlined, rather than the activity field. In this period some "artisanal" products were much more precious and expensive than paintings or sculptures; the first division into major and minor arts dates back at least to the works of Leon Battista Alberti: De re aedificatoria, De statua, De pictura, which focused on the importance of the intellectual skills of the artist rather than the manual skills. With the Academies in Europe the gap between fine and applied arts was set. Many contemporary definitions of "artist" and "art" are contingent on culture, resisting aesthetic prescription, in much the same way that the features constituting beauty and the beautiful cannot be standardized without corruption into kitsch. Artist is a descriptive term applied to a person. An artist may be defined unofficially as "a person who expresses him- or herself through a medium"; the word is used in a qualitative sense of, a person creative in, innovative in, or adept at, an artistic practice.
Most the term describes those who create within a context of the fine arts or'high culture', activities such as drawing, sculpture, dancing, filmmaking, new media and music—people who use imagination, talent, or skill to create works that may be judged to have an aesthetic value. Art historians and critics define artists as those who produce art within a recognized or recognizable discipline. Contrasting terms for skilled workers in media in the applied arts or decorative arts include artisan and specialized terms such as potter, goldsmith or glassblower. Fine arts artists such as painters succeeded in the Renaissance in raising their status similar to these workers, to a decisively higher level; the term may be used loosely or metaphorically to denote skilled people in any non-"art" activities, as well— law, mechanics, or mathematics, for example. Discussions on the subject focus on the differences among "artist" and "technician", "entertainer" and "artisan", "fine art" and "applied art", or what constitutes art and what does not.
The French word artiste has been imported into the English language. Use of the word "artiste" can be a pejorative term; the English word'artiste' has thus a narrower range of meaning than the word'artiste' in French. In Living with Art, Mark Getlein proposes six activities, services or functions of contemporary artists: Create places for some human purpose. Create extraordinary versions of ordinary objects. Record and commemorate. Give tangible form to the unknown. Give tangible form to feelings. Refresh our vision and help see the world in new ways. After looking at years of data on
Whitney Museum of American Art
The Whitney Museum of American Art, known informally as the "Whitney", is an art museum in Manhattan. It was founded in 1930 by Gertrude Vanderbilt Whitney, a wealthy and prominent American socialite and art patron after whom it is named; the Whitney focuses on 20th- and 21st-century American art. Its permanent collection comprises more than 23,000 paintings, drawings, photographs, films and artifacts of new media by more than 3,400 artists, it places particular emphasis on exhibiting the work of living artists as well as maintaining an extensive permanent collection of important pieces from the first half of the last century. The museum's Annual and Biennial exhibitions have long been a venue for younger and lesser-known artists whose work is showcased there. From 1966 to 2014, the Whitney was at 945 Madison Avenue on Manhattan's Upper East Side; the museum closed in October 2014 to relocate to a new building designed by Renzo Piano at 99 Gansevoort Street in the West Village/Meatpacking District neighborhoods of Lower Manhattan.
Gertrude Vanderbilt Whitney, the museum's namesake and founder, was a well-regarded sculptor as well as a serious art collector. As a patron of the arts, she had achieved some success with the Whitney Studio Club, a New York–based exhibition space she created in 1918 to promote the works of avant-garde and unrecognized American artists. Whitney favored the radical art of the American artists of the Ashcan School such as John French Sloan, George Luks and Everett Shinn, as well as others such as Edward Hopper, Stuart Davis, Charles Demuth, Charles Sheeler, Max Weber. With the aid of her assistant, Juliana R. Force, Whitney collected nearly 700 works of American art. In 1929, she offered to donate over 500 to the Metropolitan Museum of Art, but the museum declined the gift. This, along with the apparent preference for European modernism at the opened Museum of Modern Art, led Whitney to start her own museum for American art, in 1929. Whitney Library archives from 1928 reveal that during this time the Studio Club used the gallery space of Wilhelmina Weber Furlong of the Art Students League to exhibit traveling shows featuring modernist work.
In 1931, architect Noel L. Miller converted three row houses on West 8th Street in Greenwich Village—one of which, 8 West 8th Street had been the location of the Studio Club—to be the museum's home as well as a residence for Whitney. Force became the museum's first director, under her guidance it concentrated on displaying the works of new and contemporary American artists. In 1954, the museum left its original location and moved to a small structure on 54th Street connected to and behind the Museum of Modern Art on 53rd Street. On April 15, 1958, a fire on MOMA's second floor that killed one person forced the evacuation of paintings and staff on MOMA's upper floors to the Whitney. Among the paintings evacuated was A Sunday Afternoon on the Island of La Grande Jatte, on loan from the Art Institute of Chicago. In 1961, the Whitney began seeking a site for a larger building. In 1966 it settled at the southeast corner of Madison Avenue and 75th Street on Manhattan's Upper East Side; the building and built 1963–1966 by Marcel Breuer and Hamilton P. Smith in a distinctively modern style, is distinguished from the neighboring townhouses by its staircase façade made of granite stones and its external upside-down windows.
In 1967, Mauricio Lasansky showed The Nazi Drawings. The exhibition traveled to the Whitney Museum of American Art in New York, where it appeared with shows by Louise Nevelson and Andrew Wyeth as the first exhibits in the new museum; the institution grappled with space problems for decades. From 1973 to 1983 the Whitney operated its first branch at 55 Water Street, a building owned by Harold Uris, who gave the museum a lease for $1 a year. In 1983 Philip Morris International installed a Whitney branch in the lobby of its Park Avenue headquarters. In 1981 the museum opened an exhibition space in Stamford, housed at Champion International. In the late 1980s, the Whitney entered into arrangements with Park Tower Realty, I. B. M. and The Equitable Life Assurance Society of the United States, setting up satellite museums with rotating exhibitions in their buildings' lobbies. Each museum had its own director, with all plans approved by a Whitney committee; the institution attempted to expand its landmark building in 1978, commissioning UK architects Derek Walker and Norman Foster to design a tall tower alongside it, the first of several proposals from leading architects.
But each time the effort was abandoned, because of either both. To secure additional space for the museum's collections, then-director Thomas N. Armstrong III developed plans for a 10-story, $37.5 million addition to the main building. The proposed addition, designed by Michael Graves and announced in 1985, drew immediate opposition. Graves had proposed demolishing the flanking brownstones down to the East 74th Street corner for a complementary addition; the project lost the support of the museum's trustees, the plans were dropped in 1989. Between 1995 and 1998, the building underwent a expansion by Richard Gluckman. In 2001, Rem Koolhaas was commissioned to submit two designs for a $200 million expansion; those plans were dropped in 2003. New York restaurateur Danny Meyer opened Untitled, a restaurant in the museum, in March 2011; the space was designed by the Rockwell Group. The Whitney developed a new main building, designed by Renzo Piano, in the West Village and Meatpacking District in lower Manhattan.
The new museum, at the intersection of Gansevoort and Washington Streets, was bu
Mark Bradford is an American artist living and working in Los Angeles. Bradford was raised in South Los Angeles, his mother Janice Banks rented a beauty salon in Leimert Park. Bradford moved with his family to a white neighborhood in Santa Monica when he was 11, but his mother still maintained her business in the old neighborhood. Bradford worked in her shop at times; when Bradford graduated high school, he obtained his hairdresser's license and went to work at his mother's salon. Bradford began his studies at the California Institute of the Arts in 1991 at the age of 30, he earned a BFA in 1995 and an MFA in 1997. Bradford is known for grid-like abstract paintings combining collage with paint. In 2015, Mark Bradford created Pull Painting 1, a site-specific wall drawing inspired by Sol LeWitt along a 60-foot wall in the Wadsworth Atheneum as part of the museum's MATRIX 172 program. For this, Bradford applied dense layers of vibrantly coloured paper and rope, he sanded, peeled and cut away from the wall to create a vivid and textured composition.
The same year, Bradford created Waterfall for his exhibition titled Be Strong Boquan at Hauser & Wirth, 18th Street, New York. Waterfall is composed of remnants of paper and rope that were peeled away from a pull painting, whose surface was built up by layering canvas with alternating sheets of billboard paper and rope. Through the process of pulling string across the canvas, Bradford created long fibrous ribbons of coloured paper that revealed the archaeology of its host. In 2012, Bradford narrated the soundtrack to the 30-minute, site-specific dance duet Framework by choreographer Benjamin Millepied in conjunction with the show The Painting Factory: Abstraction after Warhol at the Museum of Contemporary Art, Los Angeles. Bradford's practice encompasses video and installation, his installation Mithra is a 70 x 20 x 25 ft ark constructed from salvaged plywood barricade fencing. He shipped it to New Orleans for Prospect New Orleans, an exhibition of contemporary art commemorating Hurricane Katrina.
That same year, he created an installation inspired by Hurricane Katrina on the roof of the Steve Turner Contemporary Gallery, across the street from the Los Angeles County Museum of Art. Bradford's A Truly Rich Man is One Whose Children Run into His Arms Even When His Hands Are Empty is nearly 9 feet wide and 9 feet tall. According to Maxwell Heller in The Brooklyn Rail, it calls to mind the charred and shattered windshields of cars burned in riots—black, webbed with streaks of light, sleek. If studied section by section, it offers traces of the artist's sensual, tactile process, revealing delicate layers of found material sliced and sanded and pasted until transformed. Bradford's collage Orbit, contains a magazine image of a basketball placed at the heart of a dense lattice of Los Angeles streets. Created by the cumulative and subtractive processes of collage and décollage, layered with paint, Orbit appears as an aerial view of a contorting and decaying city whose tiny, intricate street grids can no longer maintain its structural integrity.
Bradford's improvisational command of these large areas suggests the formidable energy of mass consumption and more its counterpart, the mass generation of detritus. The image recalls Basquiat's iconographies of black sports heroes, but Bradford's treatment is far more ambivalent. Of the process, Bradford says, "I decided to make a three-dimensional painting that doesn't have a frame around it. It's the same fragments of paper, just less formal. It's part sculpture, part painting—an in-between thing." In advance of the inaugural Los Angeles edition of the Frieze Art Fair, in January 2019, it was announced that Bradford had created a unique image of a police body camera, entitled "Life Size." Proceeds from sales of his limited-edition print series will go directly to Agnes Gund's Art for Justice Fund, to help support greater career opportunities for people who are transitioning back home from prison. Bradford was the first artist since the Fund’s establishment to directly support the organization with proceeds from the sale of his artwork.
In December 2018, a monumental new commission by Bradford was unveiled at the University of California, San Diego Stuart Collection. Entitled "WHAT HATH GOD WROUGHT," the 195-foot-tall work is the tallest structure on the campus, takes as its point of departure the powerful influence of technology on communication. In October 2018, an image of Here, a mixed media on canvas work by Bradford was featured on the Order of Service for Princess Eugenie of York's wedding to Jack Brooksbank; the artwork was displayed on the colorful sashes worn by the bridesmaids and pageboys in the wedding party. In 2009, the Getty Museum invited Bradford to do a project of his choice with its education department, he chose teachers rather than students as his primary audience, bringing 10 other artists – including Michael Joo, Catherine Opie, Amy Sillman, Kara Walker – to collaborate in developing a set of free lesson plans for K-12 teachers. In 2013, Mark Bradford, the philanthropist Eileen Harris Norton, neighbourhood activist Allan Dicastro established Art + Practice, an organization based in Leimert Park that encourages engagement with the arts.
Additionally, via a collaborator it supports local 18- to 24-year-olds who are transitioning out of foster care. Bradford, DiCastro and Norton are long-term residents of South Los Angeles and have witnessed first-hand how a lack of educational and social resources can affect the community; the pair created Art + Practice as a developmental platform f