Popular Science is an American quarterly magazine carrying popular science content, which refers to articles for the general reader on science and technology subjects. Popular Science has won over 58 awards, including the American Society of Magazine Editors awards for its journalistic excellence in both 2003 and 2004. With roots beginning in 1872, Popular Science has been translated into over 30 languages and is distributed to at least 45 countries; the Popular Science Monthly, as the publication was called, was founded in May 1872 by Edward L. Youmans to disseminate scientific knowledge to the educated layman. Youmans had worked as an editor for the weekly Appleton's Journal and persuaded them to publish his new journal. Early issues were reprints of English periodicals; the journal became an outlet for writings and ideas of Charles Darwin, Thomas Henry Huxley, Louis Pasteur, Henry Ward Beecher, Charles Sanders Peirce, William James, Thomas Edison, John Dewey and James McKeen Cattell. William Jay Youmans, Edward's brother, helped found Popular Science Monthly in 1872 and was an editor as well.
He became editor-in-chief on Edward's death in 1887. The publisher, D. Appleton & Company, was forced for economic reasons to sell the journal in 1900. James McKeen Cattell became the editor in 1900 and the publisher in 1901. Cattell continued publishing articles for educated readers. By 1915 the readership was publishing a science journal was a financial challenge. In a September 1915 editorial, Cattell related these difficulties to his readers and announced that the Popular Science Monthly name had been "transferred" to a group that wanted the name for a general audience magazine, a publication which fit the name better; the existing journal would continue the academic tradition as Scientific Monthly. Existing subscribers would remain subscribed under the new name. Scientific Monthly was published until 1958; the Modern Publishing Company acquired the Popular Science Monthly name. This company had purchased Electrician and Mechanic magazine in 1914 and over the next two years merged several magazines together into a science magazine for a general audience.
The magazine had a series of name changes: Modern Electrics and Mechanics, Popular Electricity and Modern Mechanics, Modern Mechanics and World's Advance, before the publishers purchased the name Popular Science Monthly. The October 1915 issue was titled World's Advance; the volume number was that of Popular Science but the content was that of World's Advance. The new editor was a former editor of Scientific American; the change in Popular Science Monthly was dramatic. The old version was a scholarly journal. There would be ten to illustrations; the new version had hundreds of short, easy to read articles with hundreds of illustrations. Editor Kaempffert was writing for "the home craftsman and hobbyist who wanted to know something about the world of science." The circulation doubled in the first year. From the mid-1930s to the 1960s, the magazine featured fictional stories of Gus Wilson's Model Garage, centered on car problems. An annual review of changes to the new model year cars ran in 1940 and'41, but did not return after the war until 1954.
It continued until the mid-1970s when the magazine reverted to publishing the new models over multiple issues as information became available. From 1935 to 1949, the magazine sponsored a series of short films, produced by Jerry Fairbanks and released by Paramount Pictures. From July 1952 to December 1989, Popular Science carried Roy Doty's Wordless Workshop as a regular feature. From July 1969 to May 1989, the cover and table of contents carried the subtitle, "The What's New Magazine." The cover removed the subtitle the following month and the contents page removed it in February 1990. In 1983, the magazine introduced a new logo using the ITC Avant Garde font, which it used until late 1995. Within the next 11 years, its font changed 4 times. In 2009, the magazine used a new font for its logo, used until the January 2014 issue. In 2014, Popular Science sported a new look and introduced a new logo for the first time in 8 years, complete with a major overhaul of its articles; the Popular Science Publishing Company, which the magazine bears its name, was acquired in 1967 by the Los Angeles-based Times Mirror Company.
In 2000, Times Mirror merged with the Chicago-based Tribune Company, which sold the Times Mirror magazines to Time Inc. the following year. On January 25, 2007, Time Warner sold this magazine, along with 17 other special interest magazines, to Bonnier Magazine Group. On September 24, 2008, Australian publishing company Australian Media Properties launched a local version of Popular Science, it is a monthly magazine, like its American counterpart, uses content from the American version of the magazine as well as local material. Australian Media Properties launched www.popsci.com.au at the same time, a localised version of the Popular Science website. In January 2016, Popular Science switched to bi-monthly publication after 144 years of monthly publication. In April 2016 it was announced, it was announced that he would remain on staff as an editor-at-large. In September 2018, Popular Science switched to quarterly publication indicating future subscription prices will be increased. Popular Science is headquartered in New York.
Popular Science Radio is a partnership
Amtrak paint schemes
Amtrak has used a variety of liveries on its rolling stock since taking over intercity passenger rail service in the United States in 1971. A series of six schemes termed. Phases use geometric arrangements of red and blue—the national colors of the United States—part of Amtrak's patriotic visual identity. Amtrak began operations in May 1971 with a mixture of equipment still painted in the distinct liveries of the freight railroads that relinquished their passenger service to Amtrak. Amtrak picked and chose equipment that it determined to be in the best condition, elected not to keep the same rolling stock on the same routes. Since one never found rolling stock from anywhere in the country on any train, let alone rolling stock from competing railroads mixed together on the same train, that period was known as the Rainbow Era. To build the brand of Amtrak as a unified passenger railroad, the rolling stock was repainted into system-wide Phases starting around 1972 with Phase I; the Phases are sequentially numbered using Roman numerals.
Phases were painted on all rolling stock, with locomotives and passenger cars painted in different styles of the same Phase. Most current locomotives use the 2000-introduced Phase V, while passenger cars use the 2002-introduced Phase VI. A modified Phase III scheme was introduced for some equipment in 2013. Non-revenue equipment uses bright lime green or a variation of Phase V; the three routes under the Amtrak California branch—the Capitol Corridor, Pacific Surfliner, San Joaquin—use equipment painted in several custom schemes, as do the Cascades and Piedmont. Amtrak has repainted equipment in unique livery for special uses, including its 40th anniversary in 2011 and to promote the Operation Lifesaver safety campaign. Equipment has been wrapped for advertising promotions; when testing equipment from other railroads, Amtrak has kept existing livery, though some longer-term tests used Phase schemes. When Amtrak took over intercity passenger rail service on May 1, 1971, it inherited a collection of rolling stock from twenty different railroads, each with its own distinct colors and logos.
Needing only to operate 184 of the 366 trains, run nationwide by the private railroads, Amtrak was able to pick the 1,200 best passenger cars to lease from the 3,000 that the private railroads had owned. This equipment was haphazardly mixed to form consists, resulting in trains with the mismatched colors of several predecessor railroads; this "Rainbow Era" was short-lived. Introduced in 1972, Phase I was the first paint scheme to be implemented system-wide on Amtrak's trains. Except for a small number of locomotives, painted into experimental and promotional paint schemes, it was the first new paint for most equipment under Amtrak; the scheme was part of Amtrak's larger move to a visual identity featuring the national colors of red and blue. Locomotives were painted a light gray with a black roof, the Amtrak "Pointless Arrow" chevron logo on the side, a red nose. Passenger cars were silver, with a red and bright blue stripe at window level and the chevron logo at one or both ends. A number of variants were made for non-revenue locomotives, GG1 locomotives and Turboliner trainsets, self-propelled RDC and Metroliner railcars.
The Phase II paint scheme was introduced in late 1974 with the arrival of the new GE E60 locomotives. The red nose and chevron logo on locomotives were replaced with stripes similar to passenger cars. Most passenger cars were unchanged from Phase I, except for the removal of the chevron logo. Phase III, introduced in 1976, is still used on some equipment. On both passenger cars and locomotives, the outer white pinstripes were removed while the inner stripe was widened, resulting in red and blue stripes of equal width. Turboliners and the LRC test train were painted in white, with the stripes at the bottom of the train; this scheme was introduced "for safety, graphic aid and saving money", as the white band was reflective and provided a place for car information, the standard widths made better use of raw material. Several types of locomotives that were acquired were given variations on Phase III. AEM-7 locomotives had the blue stripe expanded to cover the entire lower part of the body. On Dash 8-32BWH locomotives, a deeper blue and red was used.
The similarity to the Pepsi logo led to the units being nicknamed "Pepsi Cans". Genesis locomotives had narrower white stripe; that variant was created by industrial designer Cesar Vergara, who designed the angular bodies of the locomotives. In October 2013, Amtrak introduced a new variant of Phase III with the production of the new Viewliner II cars, the first of which entered service in 2015; the Viewliner cars have some changes from previous Phase III passenger cars, including a red reflective stripe at the bottom and a newer logo. In January 2016, Amtrak revealed a P32AC-DM, repainted into Phase III, similar to that of the heritage units Nos. 145 and 822, but featuring modern logos and "Empire Service" emblems on the sides. All P32AC-DMs will be repainted into this scheme, with costs shared between Amtrak and the state of New Yor
Long Beach, California
Long Beach is a city on the Pacific Coast of the United States, within the Los Angeles metropolitan area of Southern California. As of 2010, its population was 462,257, it is the 7th most populous in California. Long Beach is the second-largest city in the Los Angeles metropolitan area and the third largest in Southern California behind Los Angeles and San Diego. Long Beach is a charter city; the Port of Long Beach is the second busiest container port in the United States and is among the world's largest shipping ports. The city maintains a progressively declining oil industry with minor wells located both directly beneath the city as well as offshore. Manufacturing sectors include those in aircraft, automotive parts, electronic equipment, audiovisual equipment, precision metals and home furnishings. Long Beach lies in the southeastern corner of borders Orange County. Downtown Long Beach is 22 miles south of downtown Los Angeles, though the two cities share an official border for several miles.
Indigenous people have lived in coastal Southern California for over 10,000 years, several successive cultures have inhabited the present-day area of Long Beach. By the 16th-century arrival of Spanish explorers, the dominant group was the Tongva people, they had at least three major settlements within the present-day city. Tevaaxa'anga was an inland settlement near the Los Angeles River, while Ahwaanga and Povuu'nga were coastal villages. Along with other Tongva villages, they were forced to relocate in the mid-19th century due to missionization, political change, a drastic drop in population from exposure to European diseases. In 1784 the Spanish Empire's King Carlos III granted Rancho Los Nietos to Spanish soldier Manuel Nieto; the Rancho Los Cerritos and Rancho Los Alamitos were divided from this territory. The boundary between the two ranchos ran through the center of Signal Hill on a southwest to northeast diagonal. A portion of western Long Beach was part of the Rancho San Pedro, its boundaries were in dispute for years, due to flooding changing the Los Angeles River boundary, between the ranchos of Juan Jose Dominguez and Manuel Nieto.
In 1843 Jonathan Temple bought Rancho Los Cerritos, having arrived in California in 1827 from New England. He built what is now known as the "Los Cerritos Ranch House", a still-standing adobe, a National Historic Landmark. Temple created a thriving cattle ranch and prospered, becoming the wealthiest man in Los Angeles County. Both Temple and his ranch house played important local roles in the Mexican–American War. On an island in the San Pedro Bay, Mormon pioneers made an abortive attempt to establish a colony. In 1866 Temple sold Rancho Los Cerritos for $20,000 to the Northern California sheep-raising firm of Flint, Bixby & Co, which consisted of brothers Thomas and Benjamin Flint and their cousin Lewellyn Bixby. Two years previous Flint, Bixby & Co had purchased along with Northern California associate James Irvine, three ranchos which would become the city that bears Irvine's name. To manage Rancho Los Cerritos, the company selected Lewellyn's brother Jotham Bixby, the "Father of Long Beach".
Three years Bixby bought into the property and would form the Bixby Land Company. In the 1870s as many as 30,000 sheep were kept at the ranch and sheared twice yearly to provide wool for trade. In 1880, Bixby sold 4,000 acres of the Rancho Los Cerritos to William E. Willmore, who subdivided it in hopes of creating a farm community, Willmore City, he failed and was bought out by a Los Angeles syndicate that called itself the "Long Beach Land and Water Company." They changed the name of the community at that time. The City of Long Beach was incorporated in 1897. Another Bixby cousin, John W. Bixby, was influential in the city. After first working for his cousins at Los Cerritos, J. W. Bixby leased land at Rancho Los Alamitos, he put together a group: banker I. W. Hellman and Jotham Bixby, him, to purchase the rancho. In addition to bringing innovative farming methods to the Alamitos, J. W. Bixby began the development of the oceanfront property near the city's picturesque bluffs. Under the name Alamitos Land Company, J.
W. Bixby laid out the parks of his new city; this area would include Belmont Shore and Naples. J. W. Bixby died in 1888 of apparent appendicitis; the Rancho Los Alamitos property was split up, with Hellman getting the southern third and Lewellyn, the northern third, J. W. Bixby's widow and heirs keeping the central third; the Alamitos townsite was kept as a separate entity, but at first, it was run by Lewellyn and Jotham Bixby, although I. W, Hellman had a significant veto power, an influence made stronger as the J. W. Bixby heirs began to side with Hellman more; when Jotham Bixby died in 1916, the remaining 3,500 acres of Rancho Los Cerritos was subdivided into the neighborhoods of Bixby Knolls, California Heights, North Long Beach and part of the city of Signal Hill. The town grew as a seaside resort with light agricultural uses; the Pike was the most famous beachside amusement zone on the West Coast from 1902 until 1969. The oil industry, Navy shipyard and facilities and port became the mainstays of the city.
In the 1950s it was referred to as "Iowa
Monterrey is the capital and largest city of the northeastern state of Nuevo León, Mexico. The city is anchor to the Monterrey metropolitan area, the second most productive in Mexico with a GDP of US$123 billion and the third largest with an estimated population of 4,689,601 people as of 2015. Monterrey serves as a commercial center of northern Mexico and is the base of many significant international corporations, its purchasing power parity-adjusted GDP per capita is higher than the rest of the country's at around US$35,500 to the country's US$18,800, it is considered a Beta World City and competitive. Rich in history and culture, it is one of the most developed cities in Mexico and is regarded as its most "Americanized"; as an important industrial and business center, the city is home to many Mexican companies, including Grupo Avante, Lanix Electronics, Ocresa, CEMEX, Vitro, OXXO, FEMSA, DINA S. A. Cuauhtémoc Moctezuma Brewery, Grupo ALFA. Monterrey is home to international companies such as Siemens, Ternium, Toshiba, Whirlpool, Toyota, Babcock & Wilcox, British American Tobacco, Dell, Boeing, HTC, General Electric, Johnson Controls, Gamesa, LG, SAS Institute, Danfoss and Teleperformance, among others.
Monterrey is at the foothills of the Sierra Madre Oriental. The uninterrupted settlement of Monterrey was founded by Diego de Montemayor in 1596. In the years after the Mexican War of Independence, Monterrey became an important business center. With the establishment of Fundidora Monterrey, the city has experienced great industrial growth. Before the European foundation of the city, there was no established nation-state, the population consisted of some indigenous semi-nomadic groups. Carved stone and cave painting in surrounding mountains and caves have allowed historians to identify four major groups in present-day Monterrey: Azalapas, Huachichiles and Borrados. In the 16th century, the valley in which Monterrey sits was known as the Extremadura Valley, an area unexplored by the Spanish colonizers; the first expeditions and colonization attempts were led by conquistador Alberto del Canto, who named the city Santa Lucia, but they were unsuccessful because the Spanish were attacked by the natives and fled.
The Spanish expeditionary Luis Carvajal y de la Cueva negotiated with King Philip II of Spain to establish a territory in northern New Spain that would be called Nuevo León, the "New Kingdom of León". In 1580 he arrived in the newly granted lands but it was not until 1582 that he established a settlement called San Luis Rey de Francia within present-day Monterrey; the New Kingdom of León extended westward from the port of Tampico to the limits of Nueva Vizcaya, around 1,000 kilometers northward. For eight years Nuevo León was abandoned and uninhabited, until a third expedition of 13 families led by conquistador Diego de Montemayor founded Ciudad Metropolitana de Nuestra Señora de Monterrey on September 20, 1596, next to a water spring called Ojos de Agua de Santa Lucia, where the Museum of Mexican History and Santa Lucía riverwalk are now; the new city's name was chosen to honor the wife of Gaspar de Zúñiga, 5th Count of Monterrey, ninth Viceroy of New Spain. Monterrey's Coat of Arms shows an Indian throwing an arrow to the sun in front of Cerro de la Silla mountain.
This represents a native ceremony performed at sunrise. During the years of Spanish rule, Monterrey remained a small city, its population varied from a few hundred to only dozens; the city facilitated trade between San Antonio and from Saltillo to the center of the country. Tampico's port brought many products from Europe, while Saltillo concentrated the Northern Territories' trade with the capital, Mexico City. San Antonio was the key trade point with the northern foreign colonies. In the 19th century, after the Mexican Independence War, Monterrey rose as a key economic center for the newly formed nation due to its balanced ties between Europe, the United States, the capital. In 1824, the "New Kingdom of León" became the State of Nuevo León, Monterrey was selected as its capital, but the political instability that followed the first 50 years of the new country allowed two American invasions and an internal secession war, during which the governor of the state annexed Coahuila and Tamaulipas states, designating Monterrey as the capital of the Republic of the Sierra Madre as it did before in 1840 for the Republic of the Rio Grande.
In 1846, the earliest large-scale engagement of the Mexican–American War took place in the city, known as the Battle of Monterrey. Mexican forces were forced to surrender but only after repelling U. S. forces' first few advances on the city. The battle inflicted high casualties on both sides, much of them resulting from hand-to-hand combat within the walls of the city center. Many of the generals in the Mexican War against France were natives of the city, including Mariano Escobedo, Juan Zuazua and Jerónimo Treviño. During the last decade of the 19th century, Monterrey was linked by railroad, which benefitted industry, it was during this period that José Eleuterio González founded the University Hospital, now one of northeast Mexico's best public hospitals, affiliated with the School of Medicine of the Autonomous University of Nuevo León. Antonio Basagoiti and other citizens founded the Fundidora de Fierro y Acero de Monterrey; the brewery Cervecería Cuaut
A toilet is a piece of hardware used for the collection or disposal of human urine and feces. In other words: "Toilets are sanitation facilities at the user interface that allow the safe and convenient urination and defecation". Toilets can be without flushing water, they can be set up for a squatting posture. Flush toilets are connected to a sewer system in urban areas and to septic tanks in less built-up areas. Dry toilets are connected to a pit, removable container, composting chamber, or other storage and treatment device. Toilets are made of ceramic, plastic, or wood. In private homes, the toilet, bath, or shower may be in the same room. Another option is to have one room for body washing and a separate room for the toilet and handwashing sink. Public toilets consist of one or more toilets. Portable toilets or chemical toilets may be brought in for temporary gatherings. Many poor households in developing countries use basic, unhygienic toilets, for example simple pit latrines and bucket toilets which are placed in outhouses.
Globally, nearly one billion people have no access to a toilet at all, are forced to do open defecation. Diseases transmitted via the fecal-oral route or via water, such as cholera and diarrhea, can be spread by open defecation, they can be spread by unsafe toilets which cause pollution of surface water or groundwater. Sanitation has been a concern from the earliest stages of human settlements; the Sustainable Development Goal Number 6 calls for "adequate and equitable sanitation and hygiene for all and end open defecation by 2030". The number of different types of toilets used on a worldwide level is large. Toilet types can be grouped by: Having a water seal or not Being used in a sitting or squatting position Being located at a household level or in public People use different toilet types based on the country that they are in. In developing countries, access to toilets is related to people's socio-economic status. Poor people in low-income countries have no toilets at all and resort to open defecation instead.
This is part of the sanitation crisis which international initiatives such as World Toilet Day draw attention to. A typical flush toilet is a ceramic bowl connected on the "up" side to a cistern that enables rapid filling with water, on the "down" side to a drain pipe that removes the effluent; when a toilet is flushed, the sewage should flow into a septic tank or into a system connected to a sewage treatment plant. However, in many developing countries, this treatment step does not take place; the water in the toilet bowl is connected to a pipe shaped like an upside-down U. One side of the U channel is arranged as a siphon tube longer; the siphon tube connects to the drain. The bottom of the drain pipe limits the height of the water in the bowl before it flows down the drain; the water in the bowl acts as a barrier to sewer gas entering the building. Sewer gas escapes through a vent pipe attached to the sewer line; the amount of water used by conventional flush toilets makes up a significant portion of personal daily water usage.
However, modern low flush toilet designs allow the use of much less water per flush. Dual flush toilets allow the user to select between a flush for urine or feces, saving a significant amount of water over conventional units; the flush handle on these toilets is pushed up for one kind of flush and down for the other. Another design is to have one for urination and the other for defecation. In some places, users are encouraged not to flush after urination. Flushing toilets can be plumbed to use greywater rather than potable water; some modern toilets pressurize the water in the tank, which initiates flushing action with less water usage. Another variant is the pour-flush toilet; this type of flush toilet has no cistern but is flushed manually with a few liters of a small bucket. The flushing can use as little as 2–3 litres; this type of toilet is common in many Asian countries. The toilet can be connected to one or two pits, in which case it is called a "pour flush pit latrine" or a "twin pit pour flush to pit latrine".
It can be connected to a septic tank. Flush toilets on ships are flushed with seawater. "High-tech" toilets, which can be found in countries like Japan, include features such as automatic-flushing mechanisms. Others include medical monitoring features such as urine and stool analysis and the checking of blood pressure and blood sugar; some toilets have automatic lid operation, heated seats, deodorizing fans, or automated replacement of paper toilet-seat-covers. Interactive urinals have been developed in several countries; the "Toylet", produced by Sega, uses pressure sensors to detect the flow of urine and translates that into on-screen action. Astronauts on the International Space Station use a space toilet with urine diversion which can recover potable water. A vacuum toilet is a flush toilet that requires little flushing water and is connected to a vacuum sewer system. For example, they are used on trains. Many types of toilets without a water seal (also
Massachusetts Bay Transportation Authority
The Massachusetts Bay Transportation Authority is the public agency responsible for operating most public transportation services in Greater Boston, Massachusetts. Earlier modes of public transportation in Boston were independently operated; the MTA was replaced in 1964 with the present-day MBTA, established as an individual department within the Commonwealth of Massachusetts before becoming a division of the Massachusetts Department of Transportation in 2009. The MBTA and Philadelphia's Southeastern Pennsylvania Transportation Authority are the only U. S. transit agencies that operate all five major types of terrestrial mass transit vehicles: light rail vehicles. In 2016, the system averaged 1,277,200 passengers per weekday, of which heavy rail averaged 552,500 and the light-rail lines 226,500, making it the fourth-busiest subway system and the busiest light rail system in the United States; the MBTA is the largest consumer of electricity in Massachusetts, the second-largest land owner. In 2007, its CNG bus fleet was the largest consumer of alternative fuels in the state.
The MBTA operates an independent law enforcement agency, the Massachusetts Bay Transportation Authority Police. Mass transportation in Boston was provided by private companies granted charters by the state legislature for limited monopolies, with powers of eminent domain to establish a right-of-way, until the creation of the MTA in 1947. Development of mass transportation both shaped economic and population patterns. Shortly after the steam locomotive became practical for mass transportation, the private Boston and Lowell Railroad was chartered in 1830, connecting Boston to Lowell, a major northerly mill town in northeast Massachusetts' Merrimack Valley, via one of the oldest railroads in North America; this marked the beginning of the development of American intercity railroads, which in Massachusetts would become the MBTA Commuter Rail system and the Green Line "D" Branch. Starting with the opening of the Cambridge Railroad on March 26, 1856, a profusion of streetcar lines appeared in Boston under chartered companies.
Despite the change of companies, Boston is the city with the oldest continuously working streetcar system in the world. Many of these companies consolidated, animal-drawn vehicles were converted to electric propulsion. Streetcar congestion in downtown Boston led to the subways in 1897 and elevated rail in 1901; the Tremont Street subway was the first rapid transit tunnel in the United States. Grade-separation avoided delays caused by cross streets; the first elevated railway and the first rapid transit line in Boston were built three years before the first underground line of the New York City Subway, but 34 years after the first London Underground lines, long after the first elevated railway in New York City, its Ninth Avenue El started operations on July 1, 1868 in Manhattan as an elevated cable car line. Various extensions and branches were added at both ends; as grade-separated lines were extended, street-running lines were cut back for faster downtown service. The last elevated heavy rail or "El" segments in Boston were at the extremities of the Orange Line: its northern end was relocated in 1975 from Everett to Malden, MA, its southern end was relocated into the Southwest Corridor in 1987.
However, the Green Line's Causeway Street Elevated remained in service until 2004, when it was relocated into a tunnel with an incline to reconnect to the Lechmere Viaduct. The Lechmere Viaduct and a short section of steel-framed elevated at its northern end remain in service, though the elevated section will be cut back and connected to a northwards viaduct extension in 2017 as part of the Green Line Extension; the old elevated railways proved to be an eyesore and required several sharp curves in Boston's twisty streets. The Atlantic Avenue Elevated was closed in 1938 amidst declining ridership and was demolished in 1942; as rail passenger service became unprofitable due to rising automobile ownership, government takeover prevented abandonment and dismantlement. The MTA purchased and took over subway, elevated and bus operations from the Boston Elevated Railway in 1947. In the 1950s, the MTA ran new subway extensions, while the last two streetcar lines running into the Pleasant Street Portal of the Tremont Street Subway were substituted with buses in 1953 and 1962.
In 1958 the MTA purchased the Highland Branch from the Boston and Albany Railroad, reopening a year as rapid transit line. While the operations of the MTA were stable by the early 1960s, the operated commuter rail lines were in freefall; the New Haven Railroad, New York Central Railroad, Boston and Maine Railroad were all financially struggling. The 1945 Coolidge Commission plan assumed that most of the commuter rail lines would be replaced by shorter rapid transit extensions, or feed into them at reduced service levels. Passenger service on the entire Old Colony Railroad system serving the southeastern part of the state was abandoned by the New Haven Railroad in 1959, triggering calls for state intervention. Between January 1963 and March 1964, the Mass Transportation Commission tested differe
Federal Railroad Administration
The Federal Railroad Administration is an agency in the United States Department of Transportation. The agency was created by the Department of Transportation Act of 1966; the purpose of FRA is to promulgate and enforce rail safety regulations, administer railroad assistance programs, conduct research and development in support of improved railroad safety and national rail transportation policy, provide for the rehabilitation of Northeast Corridor rail passenger service, consolidate government support of rail transportation activities. The FRA is one of 10 agencies within DOT concerned with intermodal transportation, it operates through seven divisions under the offices of the Deputy Administrator. These divisions are: Financial Management and Administration, Chief Counsel, Civil Rights, Public Affairs, Public Engagement, Railroad Policy and Development, Safety, it has a staff of about 850. All passenger and freight rail travel in the United States on the national interconnected rail infrastructure is subject to regulation by the FRA.
FRA regulates public and intercity rail services, but does not regulate "closed" railways that operate on private property, such as a rail system between buildings at a steel mill, nor does it regulate subways, light rail or elevated intra-city passenger rail systems that do not connect to any public rail networks. Most notably, the FRA enforces safety regulations, such as speed limits and requirements for safety features such as positive train control. Non-legislative recommendations for FRA policy come from the Rail Safety Advisory Committee, established in 1996, though much of FRA policy is created via congressional legislation; these regulations include enforcement of positive train control and enforcement of more stringent conductor certification requirements. In 2011, the FRA began the process of updating its electronic device policy for active train operators. In June 2015, the FRA announced a railway safety initiative with Google that would include the FRAs GIS data into its mapping services.
The data pinpoints the location of over 250,000 rail crossings in the United States. The FRA believes that providing the location of rail crossings in maps will enhance crossing safety by people who are using navigation systems while driving. Sarah Feinberg was the Administrator of the FRA from 2015 to 2017. Feinberg was the second woman to lead the agency, her appointment was announced by United States Secretary of Transportation Anthony Foxx on January 12, 2015 and confirmed on October 28, 2015. Feinberg had served as Foxx's Chief of Staff, managing DOT's ten modal organizations, spearheading its legislative and communications efforts. Feinberg's tenure as Administrator featured a greater emphasis on the enforcement of safety rules and regulations relative to her predecessors. Joe Szabo was the first FRA Administrator to be chosen from the ranks of railroad employment.. Patrick T. Warren, Executive Director of the FRA, was an acting Administrator pending the appointment and confirmation of a new Administrator.
On 10 February 2018, Heath Hall, the acting Federal Railroad Administration chief since June 2017, resigned "effective immediately" over a Politico report that he has a second job as a public relations consultant for a local sheriff’s department in Madison County, Mississippi. Head counsel Juan Reyes, named acting deputy administrator in January 2018, is now the acting chief. Presidential nominee Ronald Batory is awaiting confirmation for the position; the FRA’s Northeast Corridor Future is a long-term plan aimed at improving the nation’s Northeast Corridor. The NEC Future plan consists of four components known as the Selective Alternative, which are: Improve rail service, Modernize NEC infrastructure, Expand rail capacity, Study New Haven to Providence capacity; these four components all aim to improve the reliability and performance of the NEC system, whether it be through intercity or regional means. The Selective Alternative looks to do four major things: Improve rail service by increasing frequency of trains, decreasing travel time, making better passenger convenience.
The NEC Future ROD was issued in July 2017, which marked the completion of the Tier 1 environmental review process. The ROD lays out everything involved with the project, including the plan itself and feedback from individuals and stakeholders. There is no listed completion date for the NEC Selective Alternative; the need for an NRP was brought up in the Passenger Rail Investment and Improvement Act of 2008. However, before the official plan could be drafted, the Passenger Rail Investment and Improvement Act required a Preliminary National Rail Plan to be made first, submitted to congress on October 15, 2009. On December 16, 2009 the Consolidated Appropriations Act of 2010 was enacted into law and established the delivery date for the NRP; the delivery date for the NRP was September 15, 2010. With the nation’s infrastructure growing, the transportation used in the nation needs to grow. With that in mind, the NRP’s main goal is to increase the size of the nation’s railway capacity to include 70 million more people and 2.8 billion tons more of freight within the next 25 years, 100 million more people and 4 billion tons more of freight within the next 40 years.