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Budderoo National Park

The Budderoo National Park is a 7,219-hectare national park, located in the Illawarra region of New South Wales, Australia. The National Parks & Wildlife Service–managed park is best known for the timber boardwalk through the Minnamurra rainforest; the park features waterfalls and barbecue areas, a visitors centre. Budderoo is part of the 7,334-hectare Budderoo and Barren Grounds Important Bird Area which contains large numbers of endangered eastern bristlebirds, as well as smaller numbers of pilotbirds and rockwarblers, in a mosaic of sandstone heath and eucalypt woodland habitats. Barren Grounds Nature Reserve is adjacent to the eastern border of the park. Protected areas of New South Wales Carrington Falls Belmore Falls "Budderoo National Park". Office of Environment and Heritage. Government of New South Wales. "Budderoo National Park". National Parks & Wildlife Service. Government of New South Wales. Archived from the original on 19 April 2015. Retrieved 17 May 2014

Geometric median

The geometric median of a discrete set of sample points in a Euclidean space is the point minimizing the sum of distances to the sample points. This generalizes the median, which has the property of minimizing the sum of distances for one-dimensional data, provides a central tendency in higher dimensions, it is known as the 1-median, spatial median, Euclidean minisum point, or Torricelli point. The geometric median is an important estimator of location in statistics, where it is known as the L1 estimator, it is a standard problem in facility location, where it models the problem of locating a facility to minimize the cost of transportation. The special case of the problem for three points in the plane is sometimes known as Fermat's problem, its solution is now known as the Fermat point of the triangle formed by the three sample points. The geometric median may in turn be generalized to the problem of minimizing the sum of weighted distances, known as the Weber problem after Alfred Weber's discussion of the problem in his 1909 book on facility location.

Some sources instead call Weber's problem the Fermat–Weber problem, but others use this name for the unweighted geometric median problem. Wesolowsky provides a survey of the geometric median problem. See Fekete, Mitchell & Beurer for generalizations of the problem to non-discrete point sets. Formally, for a given set of m points x 1, x 2, …, x m with each x i ∈ R n, the geometric median is defined as a r g m i n y ∈ R n ∑ i = 1 m ‖ x i − y ‖ 2 Here, arg min means the value of the argument y which minimizes the sum. In this case, it is the point y from where the sum of all Euclidean distances to the x i's is minimum. For the 1-dimensional case, the geometric median coincides with the median; this is because the univariate median minimizes the sum of distances from the points. The geometric median is unique; the geometric median is equivariant for Euclidean similarity transformations, including translation and rotation. This means that one would get the same result either by transforming the geometric median, or by applying the same transformation to the sample data and finding the geometric median of the transformed data.

This property follows from the fact that the geometric median is defined only from pairwise distances, doesn't depend on the system of orthogonal Cartesian coordinates by which the sample data is represented. In contrast, the component-wise median for a multivariate data set is not in general rotation invariant, nor is it independent of the choice of coordinates; the geometric median has a breakdown point of 0.5. That is, up to half of the sample data may be arbitrarily corrupted, the median of the samples will still provide a robust estimator for the location of the uncorrupted data. For 3 points, if any angle of the triangle formed by those points is 120° or more the geometric median is the point at the vertex of that angle. If all the angles are less than 120°, the geometric median is the point inside the triangle which subtends an angle of 120° to each three pairs of triangle vertices; this is known as the Fermat point of the triangle formed by the three vertices. For 4 coplanar points, if one of the four points is inside the triangle formed by the other three points the geometric median is that point.

Otherwise, the four points form a convex quadrilateral and the geometric median is the crossing point of the diagonals of the quadrilateral. The geometric median of four coplanar points is the same as the unique Radon point of the four points. Despite the geometric median's being an easy-to-understand concept, computing it poses a challenge; the centroid or center of mass, defined to the geometric median as minimizing the sum of the squares of the distances to each point, can be found by a simple formula — its coordinates are the averages of the coordinates of the points — but it has been shown that no explicit formula, nor an exact algorithm involving only arithmetic operations and kth roots, can exist in general for the geometric median. Therefore, only numerical or symbolic approximations to the solution of this problem are possible under this model of computation. However, it is straightforward to calculate an approximation to the geometric median using an iterative procedure in which each step produces a more accurate approximation.

Procedures of this type can be derived from the fact that the sum of distances to the sample points is a convex function, since the distance to each sample point is convex and the sum of convex functions remains convex. Therefore, procedures that decrease the sum of distances at each step cannot get trapped in a local optim

St Mary's College, Oxford

St Mary's College was a former college in Oxford, England. It is not to be confused with the two other colleges named "St. Mary's", more known as Oriel College and New College. In the 15th Century, the canons of Oseney Abbey attended. Sometimes other Augustinian canons were allowed to stay at Oseney for the same purpose. However, this was by favour rather than by right. Therefore, in 1421, at a meeting of the Augustinian order in Leicester, a petition was sent to King Henry V to found a college for the order in Oxford. A site was found at the eastern end of. However, this scheme was abandoned because the King died in 1422. In 1435, Thomas Holden and his wife Elizabeth founded St Mary's College, donating land in the parishes of St Michael's North, St Peter le Bailey, building a chapel. Rules were created by the Abbot of Oseney in 1448. Secular clerks could be admitted, but had to pay for their accommodation; the college was headed by the prior studentium. The College was located on the east side of New Inn Hall Street and a gateway still remains.

The rebuilt buildings are known as Frewin Hall, named after Richard Frewin, a scholar at Christ Church, Oxford and a Professor of Chemistry. On 1 October 1789, Brasenose College let the house and for many years the house was the official residence of the Regius Professor of Medicine at Oxford University. In 1860, Prince of Wales King Edward VII, was in residence at Frewin Hall with his tutors; the surviving buildings of the medieval college and the Norman town house that preceded it, have been studied by Professor John Blair, who has reconstructed the plan of the site. The Tudor hammer-beam roof of the lost chapel was re-used in the 17th-century chapel of Brasenose College, where it now remains above a plaster ceiling. St Mary Hall, Oxford Oriel College New College Brasenose College


Vendryně is a municipality and village in Frýdek-Místek District, Moravian-Silesian Region, Czech Republic, on the banks of the Olza River. It has a population of around 4,500 35% of the population are Poles; the village lies in the historical region of Cieszyn Silesia. The name of the village is of topographic origins derived from the toponymic base *vądr- tentatively connected with water; the settlement was first mentioned in a Latin document of Diocese of Wrocław called Liber fundationis episcopatus Vratislaviensis from around 1305 as item in Wandrina. It meant; the creation of the village was a part of a larger settlement campaign taking place in the late 13th century on the territory of what will be known as Upper Silesia. Politically the village belonged to the Duchy of Teschen, formed in 1290 in the process of feudal fragmentation of Poland and was ruled by a local branch of Piast dynasty. In 1327 the duchy became a fee of the Kingdom of Bohemia, which after 1526 became part of the Habsburg Monarchy.

The village became a seat of a Catholic parish, mentioned in the register of Peter's Pence payment from 1447 among 50 parishes of Teschen deanery as Vandrzina. After 1540s Protestant Reformation prevailed in the Duchy of Teschen and a local Catholic church was taken over by Lutherans, it was taken from them by a special commission and given back to the Roman Catholic Church on 21 March 1654. In the 19th century an iron ore was mined in the village for the iron works in Ustroń and the Třinec Iron and Steel Works in Třinec. Limestone was mined until 1965. After Revolutions of 1848 in the Austrian Empire a modern municipal division was introduced in the re-established Austrian Silesia; the village as a municipality was subscribed to the political district of Teschen and the legal district of Jablunkau. According to the censuses conducted in 1880, 1890, 1900 and 1910 the population of the municipality grew from 1,989 in 1880 to 2,587 in 1910 with a majority being native Polish-speakers accompanied by German-speaking and Czech-speaking people.

In terms of religion in 1910 the majority were Protestants, followed by Jews. The village was traditionally inhabited by Cieszyn Vlachs, speaking Cieszyn Silesian dialect. After World War I, fall of Austria-Hungary, Polish–Czechoslovak War and the division of Cieszyn Silesia in 1920, it became a part of Czechoslovakia. Following the Munich Agreement, in October 1938 together with the Zaolzie region it was annexed by Poland, administratively adjoined to Cieszyn County of Silesian Voivodeship, it was annexed by Nazi Germany at the beginning of World War II. After the war it was restored to Czechoslovakia. From 1980 to 1995 it was administratively a part of the town of Třinec. Ewa Farna, singer Vendryně is twinned with: Goleszów Cicha, Irena. Olza od pramene po ujście. Český Těšín: Region Silesia. ISBN 80-238-6081-X. Official website

1911 Goodall Cup Finals

The 1911 Goodall Cup Final marks the third Inter-State Series ice hockey championship in Australia and the first of these championships won by New South Wales. As the second elected president of the Victorian Amateur Ice Hockey Sports Association, Philip John Rupert Steele Sr.presented a cup, gifted by John Edwin Goodall to the Captain of the winning New South Wales Team, Jim Kendall. Game one13 September 1911 was the first game of the series and saw the domination of Jim Kendall, who arrived from Canada 2 years before, in the game by scoring all 5 goals for New South Wales in the 5–3 win over Victoria. Mistakes in the early parts of the game by the Victorian team were used by the team to let Jim Kendall curve and twist around the opposition. Hal Reid contributed 2 goals and Keith Walker had one of his own but Victoria couldn't make it past the dominating efforts of Kendall. Game two14 September 1911 The match was fought but the dominance of Jim Kendall again proved to be too much for the Victorians as he scored 6 of the 7 goals for New South Wales sweeping from end to end like the puck was attached to his stick by a magnet.

Dunbar Poole scored the 7th goal for New South Wales as they clinched the series with a 7–5 win over Victoria. In this game, Jim Kendall suffered an injury as a hockey stick split his shin bone during play, rendering him unable to compete in the final game of the 3-game championship. Game threeSeptember 18, 1911 Due to his injury from the second game, where the New South Wales team would clinch the series and win the Goodall Cup, Jim Kendall was on crutches due to splitting his shinbone from a blow to the leg with a hockey stick and was unable to play. Dunbar Poole was unable to stay and had left, leaving the New South Wales team short 2 players. A decision was made to complete the final game of the series with a composite team of Dark Blue and Light Blue teams made up of the Victoria and New South Wales teams and emergency back up players for the Victorian team; the first half of the game saw 2 goals by Leslie Reid and one by Keith Walker place the Light Blue team in front by a score of 3–1, C. Smith scoring the goal for the Dark blue team.

The second half of the game saw a comeback by the dark blue side with 3 goals by Jack Pike and a goal to Reid and Smith. The final score was 6–3 in favor of the Dark Blue team; the newly appointed second president of the VAIHSA, Philip John Rupert Steele Sr, presented a cup gifted by John Edwin Goodall to the injured New South Wales captain Jim Kendall on the evening after the final game of this series. The Victoria team was made from the following players Henry "Hal" Newman Reid Jr. Leslie Reid Dudley Woods Keith Walker J. Blair Charles Watt The New South Wales team was made from the following players Jim Kendall Dunbar Poole Les Turnbull Jack Pike C. Rowe F. Fowler Dudley Woods John Goodall Henry "Hal" Newman Reid Jr. C. Smith Jack Pike F. Fowler Keith Walker Leslie Reid J. Blair Les Turnbull C. Rowe Charlie Watt The following players led the interstate championship for points; the following goaltenders led the interstate championship for goals against average. Goodall Cup Ice Hockey Australia Australian Ice Hockey League

Fernando González Gortázar

Fernando González Gortázar is a Mexican architect and writer, considered to be one of the most influential Mexican architects of the 20th century. Fernando González Gortázar grew up and spent his youth in Guadalajara and has lived in Mexico City, where he was born, since 1990, he studied architecture at the University of Guadalajara and received his BA in 1966, presenting as his thesis the project for a National Monument to Independence. As a student, he participated in several sculpture workshops with Professor Olivier Seguin at the School of Fine Arts of the same university, he studied Esthetics with Pierre Francastel at the Superior School of Art and Archeology, the Sociology of Art with Jean Cassou at the Collège de France, both in Paris. An architect, landscape artist, scholar of Mexican folklore, he has fought for the preservation of the historical-cultural and ecological-natural heritage of Mexico. Among his most important works, we find The Great Gate, the Fountain of Sister Water, the entrance to González Gallo Park and The Tower of Cubes, the Plaza-Fountain, the González Silva House, the Elf’s Walkway, the Maya People’s Museum, the Public Safety Center, the Los Altos University Center of the University of Guadalajara, the Chiapas Museum of Science and Technology, the Emblem of San Pedro, The Three Hairs of the Devil, all in various cities in Mexico, as well as the Fountain of Stairs and The Escorial Tree in Spain, the Disjointed Column at the Hakone Open-Air Museum, in Japan.

In 2000, he held the Federico Mariscal Professorship of the Department of Architecture of the National Autonomous University of Mexico. In 2009, he hosted Cancioncitas, 26 radio programs on Mexican popular music in the twentieth century, for Radio UNAM, which were rebroadcast by several stations in Mexico and Colombia. Fernando González Gortázar has an honorary doctorate from the University of Guadalajara, he was awarded the National Prize for Arts and Sciences in 2012. In 2014, a personal exhibition of González Gortázar was held at the Museo de Arte Moderno. La Gran Puerta, Guadalajara La Columna Dislocada in the Hakone Open-Air Museum, Japan Museo del Pueblo Maya, Mérida Museo Chiapas de Ciencia y Tecnología, Tuxtla Gutiérrez Fuente de las Escaleras, Spain Ignacio Díaz Morales habla de Luis Barragán, 1990. Mathias Goeritz en Guadalajara, 1991. La arquitectura mexicana del siglo XX, 1994, which he coordinated, for which wrote the introduction and part of the text. La fundación de un sueño: la Escuela de Arquitectura de Guadalajara, 1995.

Escritos reunidos, 2004. Konstrukciók Struktúrak: a Magyar Épiszetben és Képzomuvészetben, coauthored with Fábián László, 2006. Arquitectura: pensamiento y creación, 2014. Las Torres de Ciudad Satélite, 2014. Fernando González Gortázar by Raquel Tibol, 1977. Fernando González Gortázar by Manuel Larrosa, 1998. Fernando González Gortázar: Años de Sueños, texts by Fernando Huici and Teresa del Conde, among others. Fernando González Gortázar: sí, aún by Carlos Ashida, 2000. Fernando González Gortázar: Arquitectura y Escultura 1965-2001, texts by Fernando Huici and György Kévés, among others, 2001. Fernando González Gortázar by Antonio Riggen Martínez, 2005. Fernando González Gortázar: Centro Universitario de Los Altos, by Miquel Adriá and Jaime Moreno Villareal, 2006. Fernando González Gortázar by Jaime Moreno Villarreal, 2008. Fernando González Gortázar: Series Dispersas by Lelia Driben, 2009. Fernando González Gortázar: Resumen del Fuego, texts by Carlos Mijares Bracho, José Luis Merino and Daniel Garza Usabiaga, among others, 2013