Simplified Chinese characters
Simplified Chinese characters are standardized Chinese characters prescribed in the Table of General Standard Chinese Characters for use in mainland China. Along with traditional Chinese characters, they are one of the two standard character sets of the contemporary Chinese written language; the government of the People's Republic of China in mainland China has promoted them for use in printing since the 1950s and 1960s to encourage literacy. They are used in the People's Republic of China and Singapore. Traditional Chinese characters are used in Hong Kong and the Republic of China. While traditional characters can still be read and understood by many mainland Chinese and the Chinese community in Malaysia and Singapore, these groups retain their use of simplified characters. Overseas Chinese communities tend to use traditional characters. Simplified Chinese characters may be referred to by their official name colloquially; the latter refers to simplifications of character "structure" or "body", character forms that have existed for thousands of years alongside regular, more complicated forms.
On the other hand, the official name refers to the modern systematically simplified character set, which includes not only structural simplification but substantial reduction in the total number of standardized Chinese characters. Simplified character forms were created by reducing the number of strokes and simplifying the forms of a sizable proportion of Chinese characters; some simplifications were based on popular cursive forms embodying graphic or phonetic simplifications of the traditional forms. Some characters were simplified by applying regular rules, for example, by replacing all occurrences of a certain component with a simplified version of the component. Variant characters with the same pronunciation and identical meaning were reduced to a single standardized character the simplest amongst all variants in form. Many characters were left untouched by simplification, are thus identical between the traditional and simplified Chinese orthographies; some simplified characters are dissimilar to and unpredictably different from traditional characters in those where a component is replaced by a simple symbol.
This has led some opponents of simplification to complain that the'overall process' of character simplification is arbitrary. Proponents counter that the system of simplification is internally consistent. Proponents have emphasized a some particular simplified characters as innovative and useful improvements, although many of these have existed for centuries as longstanding and widespread variants. A second round of simplifications was promulgated in 1977, but was retracted in 1986 for a variety of reasons due to the confusion caused and the unpopularity of the second round simplifications. However, the Chinese government never dropped its goal of further simplification in the future. In August 2009, the PRC began collecting public comments for a modified list of simplified characters; the new Table of General Standard Chinese Characters consisting of 8,105 characters was implemented for use by the State Council of the People's Republic of China on June 5, 2013. Although most of the simplified Chinese characters in use today are the result of the works moderated by the government of the People's Republic of China in the 1950s and 60s, character simplification predates the PRC's formation in 1949.
Cursive written text always includes character simplification. Simplified forms used in print are attested as early as the Qin dynasty. One of the earliest proponents of character simplification was Lufei Kui, who proposed in 1909 that simplified characters should be used in education. In the years following the May Fourth Movement in 1919, many anti-imperialist Chinese intellectuals sought ways to modernise China. Traditional culture and values such as Confucianism were challenged. Soon, people in the Movement started to cite the traditional Chinese writing system as an obstacle in modernising China and therefore proposed that a reform be initiated, it was suggested that the Chinese writing system should be either simplified or abolished. Lu Xun, a renowned Chinese author in the 20th century, stated that, "If Chinese characters are not destroyed China will die". Recent commentators have claimed that Chinese characters were blamed for the economic problems in China during that time. In the 1930s and 1940s, discussions on character simplification took place within the Kuomintang government, a large number of Chinese intellectuals and writers maintained that character simplification would help boost literacy in China.
In 1935, 324 simplified characters collected by Qian Xuantong were introduced as the table of first batch of simplified characters, but they were suspended in 1936. The PRC issued its first round of official character simplifications in two documents, the first in 1956 and the second in 1964. Within the PRC, further character simplification became associated with the leftists of the Cultural Revolution, culminating with the second-round simplified characters, which were promulgated in 1977. In part due to the shock and unease felt in the wake of the Cultural Revolution and Mao's death, the second-round of simplifications was poorly received. In 1986 the authorities retracted the second round completely. In the same year, the authorities promulgated a final list of simplifications, identical to the 1964 list except for six changes (including the restoration of three characters, simplified in the First Round: 叠, 覆, 像.
Miracles of Gautama Buddha
According to Buddhist texts, Gautama Buddha possessed several superhuman powers and abilities. I dislike and despise them," and refused to comply, it is said that after his birth, he stood up, took seven steps north, uttered: "I am chief of the world, Eldest am I in the world, Foremost am I in the world. This is the last birth. There is now no more coming to be." Furthermore, every place the baby Buddha placed his foot, a lotus flower bloomed. There is a claim; this does not mean that the Buddha had a virgin birth like the Christian gospels of the birth of Jesus Christ. Buddha's mother was not a virgin, but Buddha was the product of a miraculous conception and a miraculous birth; the Mahāvastu and Lalitavistara explicitly state that no carnal act took place for Buddha's conception. Buddha did have a miraculous birth, he was born out of the side of his mother. In the Mahapadana-sutra, Digha ii. 12, is the description of the incarnation of the Vipassī Buddha. "Now Vipassi, when, as Bodhisat, he ceased to belong to the hosts of the heaven of Delight, descended into his mother’s womb mindful and self-possessed."
Other miracles and powers that Gautama Buddha was said to have possessed and exercised include the six higher knowledges: Iddhi, super-hearing, divine seeing, seeing past lives. These are described in other suttas in the Pali canon; the Twin Miracle at Sravasti is considered as the Buddhist miracle par excellence. Iddhi Levitation Miracles of Jesus Miracles of Muhammad Siddhi Vibhuti Analayo. Levitation in Early Buddhist Discourse, Journal of the Oxford Centre for Buddhist Studies 10, 11-26 Analayo; the Buddha’s Fire Miracles, Journal of the Oxford Centre for Buddhist Studies 9, 9-42 parami.org palikanon.com buddhanet.net ukonline.co.uk ignca.nic.in bartleby.com seasite.niu.edu suttacentral.net
Noble Eightfold Path
The Noble Eightfold Path is an early summary of the path of Buddhist practices leading to liberation from samsara, the painful cycle of rebirth. The Eightfold Path consists of eight practices: right view, right resolve, right speech, right conduct, right livelihood, right effort, right mindfulness, right samadhi. In early Buddhism, these practices started with understanding that the body-mind works in a corrupted way, followed by entering the Buddhist path of self-observance, self-restraint, cultivating kindness and compassion. In Buddhism, insight became the central soteriological instrument, leading to a different concept and structure of the path, in which the "goal" of the Buddhist path came to be specified as ending ignorance and rebirth; the Noble Eightfold Path is one of the principal teachings of Theravada Buddhism, taught to lead to Arhatship. In the Theravada tradition, this path is summarized as sila and prajna. In Mahayana Buddhism, this path is contrasted with the Bodhisattva path, believed to go beyond Arahatship to full Buddhahood.
In Buddhist symbolism, the Noble Eightfold Path is represented by means of the dharma wheel, in which its eight spokes represent the eight elements of the path. The Pali term ariya aṭṭhaṅgika magga is translated in English as "Noble Eightfold Path"; this translation is a convention started by the early translators of Buddhist texts into English, just like ariya sacca is translated as Four Noble Truths. However, the phrase does not mean; the term magga means "path", while aṭṭhaṅgika means "eightfold". Thus, an alternate rendering of ariya aṭṭhaṅgika magga is "eightfold path of the noble ones", or "eightfold Aryan Path". All eight elements of the Path begin with the word samyañc or sammā which means "right, proper, as it ought to be, best"; the Buddhist texts contrast samma with its opposite miccha. According to Indologist Tilmann Vetter, the description of the Buddhist path may have been as simple as the term the middle way. In time, this short description was elaborated. Tilmann Vetter and historian Rod Bucknell both note that longer descriptions of "the path" can be found in the early texts, which can be condensed into the eightfold path.
The eight Buddhist practices in the Noble Eightfold Path are: Right View: our actions have consequences, death is not the end, our actions and beliefs have consequences after death. The Buddha taught a successful path out of this world and the other world. On, right view came to explicitly include karma and rebirth, the importance of the Four Noble Truths, when "insight" became central to Buddhist soteriology. Right Resolve or Intention: the giving up home and adopting the life of a religious mendicant in order to follow the path; such an environment aids contemplation of impermanence and non-Self. Right Speech: no lying, no rude speech, no telling one person what another says about him. Right Conduct or Action: no killing or injuring, no taking what is not given, no sexual acts, no material desires. Right Livelihood: beg to feed, only possessing what is essential to sustain life; this includes indriya-samvara, "guarding the sense-doors," restraint of the sense faculties. Right Mindfulness: "retention," being mindful of the dhammas that are beneficial to the Buddhist path.
In the vipassana movement, sati is interpreted as "bare attention": never be absent minded, being conscious of what one is doing. Right samadhi: practicing four stages of dhyāna, which includes samadhi proper in the second stage, reinforces the development of the bojjhagā, culminating into upekkha and mindfulness.. In the Theravada tradition and the Vipassana movement, this is interpreted as ekaggata, concentration or one-pointedness of the mind, supplemented with Vipassana-meditation, which aims at insight. Following the Noble Eightfold Path leads to liberation in the form of nirvana: Just this noble eightfold path: right view, right aspiration, right speech, right action, right livelihood, right effort, right mindfulness, right concentration; that is the ancient path, the ancient road, traveled by the Rightly Self-awakened Ones of former times. I followed that path. Following it, I came to direct knowledge of aging & death, direct knowledge of the origination of aging & death, direct knowledge of the cessation of aging & death, direct knowledge of the path leading to the cessation of aging & death.
I followed that path. Following it, I came to direct knowledge of birth... becoming... clinging... craving... feeling... contact... the six sense media... name-&-form... consciousness, direct knowledge of the origination of consciousness, direct knowledge of the cessati
Hanyu Pinyin abbreviated to pinyin, is the official romanization system for Standard Chinese in mainland China and to some extent in Taiwan. It is used to teach Standard Mandarin Chinese, written using Chinese characters; the system includes four diacritics denoting tones. Pinyin without tone marks is used to spell Chinese names and words in languages written with the Latin alphabet, in certain computer input methods to enter Chinese characters; the pinyin system was developed in the 1950s by many linguists, including Zhou Youguang, based on earlier forms of romanizations of Chinese. It was published by revised several times; the International Organization for Standardization adopted pinyin as an international standard in 1982, was followed by the United Nations in 1986. The system was adopted as the official standard in Taiwan in 2009, where it is used for international events rather than for educational or computer-input purposes, but "some cities and organizations, notably in the south of Taiwan, did not accept this", so it remains one of several rival romanization systems in use.
The word Hànyǔ means'the spoken language of the Han people', while Pīnyīn means'spelled sounds'. In 1605, the Jesuit missionary Matteo Ricci published Xizi Qiji in Beijing; this was the first book to use the Roman alphabet to write the Chinese language. Twenty years another Jesuit in China, Nicolas Trigault, issued his Xi Ru Ermu Zi at Hangzhou. Neither book had much immediate impact on the way in which Chinese thought about their writing system, the romanizations they described were intended more for Westerners than for the Chinese. One of the earliest Chinese thinkers to relate Western alphabets to Chinese was late Ming to early Qing dynasty scholar-official, Fang Yizhi; the first late Qing reformer to propose that China adopt a system of spelling was Song Shu. A student of the great scholars Yu Yue and Zhang Taiyan, Song had been to Japan and observed the stunning effect of the kana syllabaries and Western learning there; this galvanized him into activity on a number of fronts, one of the most important being reform of the script.
While Song did not himself create a system for spelling Sinitic languages, his discussion proved fertile and led to a proliferation of schemes for phonetic scripts. The Wade–Giles system was produced by Thomas Wade in 1859, further improved by Herbert Giles in the Chinese–English Dictionary of 1892, it was popular and used in English-language publications outside China until 1979. In the early 1930s, Communist Party of China leaders trained in Moscow introduced a phonetic alphabet using Roman letters, developed in the Soviet Oriental Institute of Leningrad and was intended to improve literacy in the Russian Far East; this Sin Wenz or "New Writing" was much more linguistically sophisticated than earlier alphabets, but with the major exception that it did not indicate tones of Chinese. In 1940, several thousand members attended a Border Region Sin Wenz Society convention. Mao Zedong and Zhu De, head of the army, both contributed their calligraphy for the masthead of the Sin Wenz Society's new journal.
Outside the CCP, other prominent supporters included Sun Fo. Over thirty journals soon appeared written in Sin Wenz, plus large numbers of translations, some contemporary Chinese literature, a spectrum of textbooks. In 1940, the movement reached an apex when Mao's Border Region Government declared that the Sin Wenz had the same legal status as traditional characters in government and public documents. Many educators and political leaders looked forward to the day when they would be universally accepted and replace Chinese characters. Opposition arose, because the system was less well adapted to writing regional languages, therefore would require learning Mandarin. Sin Wenz fell into relative disuse during the following years. In 1943, the U. S. military engaged Yale University to develop a romanization of Mandarin Chinese for its pilots flying over China. The resulting system is close to pinyin, but does not use English letters in unfamiliar ways. Medial semivowels are written with y and w, apical vowels with r or z.
Accent marks are used to indicate tone. Pinyin was created by Chinese linguists, including Zhou Youguang, as part of a Chinese government project in the 1950s. Zhou is called "the father of pinyin," Zhou worked as a banker in New York when he decided to return to China to help rebuild the country after the establishment of the People's Republic of China in 1949, he became an economics professor in Shanghai, in 1955, when China's Ministry of Education created a Committee for the Reform of the Chinese Written Language, Premier Zhou Enlai assigned Zhou Youguang the task of developing a new romanization system, despite the fact that he was not a professional linguist. Hanyu Pinyin was based on several existing systems: Gwoyeu Romatzyh of 1928, Latinxua Sin Wenz of 1931, the diacritic markings from zhuyin. "I'm not the father of pinyin," Zhou said years later. It's a lo
Cinnabar and cinnabarite deriving from the Ancient Greek: κιννάβαρι, refer to the common bright scarlet to brick-red form of mercury sulfide, the most common source ore for refining elemental mercury, is the historic source for the brilliant red or scarlet pigment termed vermilion and associated red mercury pigments. Cinnabar occurs as a vein-filling mineral associated with recent volcanic activity and alkaline hot springs; the mineral resembles quartz in its exhibiting birefringence. The color and properties derive from a structure, a hexagonal crystalline lattice belonging to the trigonal crystal system, crystals that sometimes exhibit twinning. Cinnabar has been used for its color since antiquity in the Near East, including as a rouge-type cosmetic, in the New World since the Olmec culture, in China since as early as the Yangshao culture, where it was used in coloring stoneware. Associated modern precautions for use and handling of cinnabar arise from the toxicity of the mercury component, recognized as early as ancient Rome.
The name comes from Ancient Greek: κιννάβαρι, a Greek word most applied by Theophrastus to several distinct substances. Other sources say the word comes from the Persian: a word of uncertain origin. In Latin, it was sometimes known as minium, meaning "red cinnamon", though both of these terms now refer to lead tetroxide. Cinnabar is found in a massive, granular or earthy form and is bright scarlet to brick-red in color, though it occurs in crystals with a nonmetallic adamantine luster, it resembles quartz in its symmetry. It exhibits birefringence, it has the highest refractive index of any mineral, its mean refractive index is 3.08, versus the indices for diamond and the non-mineral gallium arsenide, which are 2.42 and 3.93, respectively. The hardness of cinnabar is 2.0–2.5 on the Mohs scale, its specific gravity 8.1. Structurally, cinnabar belongs to the trigonal crystal system, it occurs as granular to massive incrustations. Crystal twinning occurs as simple contact twins. Note, mercury sulfide, HgS, adopts the cinnabar structure described, one additional structure, i.e. it is dimorphous.
Cinnabar is the more stable form, is a structure akin to that of HgO: each Hg center has two short Hg−S bonds, four longer Hg···S contacts. In addition, HgS is found in a non-cinnabar polymorph that has the zincblende structure. Cinnabar occurs as a vein-filling mineral associated with recent volcanic activity and alkaline hot springs. Cinnabar is deposited by epithermal ascending aqueous solutions far removed from their igneous source, it is associated with native mercury, realgar, marcasite, quartz, dolomite and barite. Cinnabar is found in all mineral extraction localities that yield mercury, notably Almadén; this mine was exploited from Roman times until 1991, being for centuries the most important cinnabar deposit in the world. Good cinnabar crystals have been found there.. Appear in Puerto Princesa, it was mined near Red Devil, Alaska on the middle Kuskokwim River. Red Devil was named after a primary source of mercury, it has been found in Dominica near its sulfur springs at the southern end of the island along the west coast.
Cinnabar is still being deposited at the present day, such as from the hot waters of Sulphur Bank Mine in California and Steamboat Springs, Nevada. As the most common source of mercury in nature, cinnabar has been mined for thousands of years as far back as the Neolithic Age. During the Roman Empire it was mined both as a pigment, for its mercury content. To produce liquid mercury, crushed cinnabar ore is roasted in rotary furnaces. Pure mercury separates from sulfur in this process and evaporates. A condensing column is used to collect the liquid metal, most shipped in iron flasks. Associated modern precautions for use and handling of cinnabar arise from the toxicity of the mercury component, recognized as early as in ancient Rome; because of its mercury content, cinnabar can be toxic to human beings. Though people in ancient South America used cinnabar for art, or processed it into refined mercury "the toxic properties of mercury were well known, it was dangerous to those who mined and processed cinnabar, it caused shaking, loss of sense, death.
Data suggest that mercury was retorted from cinnabar and the workers were exposed to the toxic mercury fumes." Overexposure to mercury, was seen as an occupational disease to the ancient Romans: "Mining in the Spanish cinnabar mines of Almadén, 225 km southwest of Madrid, was regarded as being akin to a death sentence due to the shortened life expectancy of the miners, who were slave
Śuddhodana, meaning "he who grows pure rice," was a leader of the Shakya, who lived in an oligarchic republic on the Indian subcontinent, with their capital at Kapilavastu. He was the father of Siddhartha Gautama, who became known as Buddha. In renditions of the life of the Buddha, Śuddhodana was referred to as a king, though that status cannot be established with confidence and is in fact disputed by modern scholarship. Śuddhodana's father was Sihahanu and his mother was Kaccanā. Suddhodana's chief consort was Maha Maya. Maya died shortly. Suddhodana next elevated to chief consort Maya's sister Mahapajapati Gotami, with whom he had a second son Nanda and a daughter Sundarī Nandā. Both children became Buddhist monastics. At the age of 16, Siddhartha married the niece of Maha Maya and Mahapajapati. Yasodhara's father was traditionally said to be Suppabuddha. Though depicted and referenced as a king, most recent scholarship on the matter refutes the notion that Śuddhodana was a monarch. Many notable scholars state that the Shakya republic was not a monarchy but rather an oligarchy, ruled by an elite council of the warrior and ministerial class that chose its leader or rājā.
While the rājā may have held considerable authority in the Shakya homeland, he did not rule autocratically. Questions of consequence were debated in the governing council and decisions were made by consensus. Furthermore, by the time of Siddharta's birth, the Shakya republic had become a vassal state of the larger Kingdom of Kosala; the head of Shakya's oligarchic council, the rājā, would only assume and stay in office with the approval of the King of Kosala. Therefore, however influential Śuddhodana may have been as a leader, he was not a king in any traditional sense of the word; the earliest Buddhist texts available to us do not identify his family as royals. In texts, there may have been a misinterpretation of the Pali word rājā, which can mean alternatively a king, ruler, or governor. Or as noted in the related article on Buddhism, "Some of the stories about Buddha, his life, his teachings, claims about the society he grew up in may have been invented and interpolated at a time into the Buddhist texts."
Siddhartha Gautama was raised in the Shakya capital of Kapilavastu. According to legend, Śuddhodana went to great lengths to prevent Siddhartha from becoming a śramaṇa, but at the age of 29, after experiencing the Four Sights, Siddhartha left his home in search of spiritual answers to the unsatisfactory nature of life, leaving behind his wife Yasodharā and infant son Rāhula. The story of Siddhartha's departure is traditionally called The Great Renunciation. Śuddhodana spent considerable effort attempting to locate him. Seven years after word of his enlightenment reached Suddhodana, he sent nine emissaries to invite Siddhartha back to the Shakya land; the Buddha preached to their entourage, who joined the Sangha. Śuddhodana sent a close friend of Siddhartha, Kaludayi, to invite him to return. Kaludayi chose to become a monk, but kept his word to invite the Buddha back to his home; the Buddha returned to visit his home. During this visit, he preached the dharma to Suddhodana. Four years when the Buddha heard of Suddhodana's impending death, he once again returned to his home and preached further to Śuddhodana at his deathbed.
He gained Arahantship Immediate family of Shuddhodana Why was the Sakyan Republic Destroyed? by S. N. Goenka
Buddhism is the world's fourth-largest religion with over 520 million followers, or over 7% of the global population, known as Buddhists. Buddhism encompasses a variety of traditions and spiritual practices based on original teachings attributed to the Buddha and resulting interpreted philosophies. Buddhism originated in ancient India as a Sramana tradition sometime between the 6th and 4th centuries BCE, spreading through much of Asia. Two major extant branches of Buddhism are recognized by scholars: Theravada and Mahayana. Most Buddhist traditions share the goal of overcoming suffering and the cycle of death and rebirth, either by the attainment of Nirvana or through the path of Buddhahood. Buddhist schools vary in their interpretation of the path to liberation, the relative importance and canonicity assigned to the various Buddhist texts, their specific teachings and practices. Observed practices include taking refuge in the Buddha, the Dharma and the Sangha, observance of moral precepts, monasticism and the cultivation of the Paramitas.
Theravada Buddhism has a widespread following in Sri Lanka and Southeast Asia such as Myanmar and Thailand. Mahayana, which includes the traditions of Pure Land, Nichiren Buddhism and Tiantai, is found throughout East Asia. Vajrayana, a body of teachings attributed to Indian adepts, may be viewed as a separate branch or as an aspect of Mahayana Buddhism. Tibetan Buddhism, which preserves the Vajrayana teachings of eighth-century India, is practiced in the countries of the Himalayan region and Kalmykia. Buddhism is an Indian religion attributed to the teachings of the Buddha born Siddhārtha Gautama, known as the Tathāgata and Sakyamuni. Early texts have his personal name as "Gautama" or "Gotama" without any mention of "Siddhārtha," which appears to have been a kind of honorific title when it does appear; the details of Buddha's life are mentioned in many Early Buddhist Texts but are inconsistent, his social background and life details are difficult to prove, the precise dates uncertain. The evidence of the early texts suggests that he was born as Siddhārtha Gautama in Lumbini and grew up in Kapilavasthu, a town in the plains region of the modern Nepal-India border, that he spent his life in what is now modern Bihar and Uttar Pradesh.
Some hagiographic legends state that his father was a king named Suddhodana, his mother was Queen Maya, he was born in Lumbini gardens. However, scholars such as Richard Gombrich consider this a dubious claim because a combination of evidence suggests he was born in the Shakyas community – one that gave him the title Shakyamuni, the Shakya community was governed by a small oligarchy or republic-like council where there were no ranks but where seniority mattered instead; some of the stories about Buddha, his life, his teachings, claims about the society he grew up in may have been invented and interpolated at a time into the Buddhist texts. According to the Buddhist sutras, Gautama was moved by the innate suffering of humanity and its endless repetition due to rebirth, he set out on a quest to end this repeated suffering. Early Buddhist canonical texts and early biographies of Gautama state that Gautama first studied under Vedic teachers, namely Alara Kalama and Uddaka Ramaputta, learning meditation and ancient philosophies the concept of "nothingness, emptiness" from the former, "what is neither seen nor unseen" from the latter.
Finding these teachings to be insufficient to attain his goal, he turned to the practice of asceticism. This too fell short of attaining his goal, he turned to the practice of dhyana, which he had discovered in his youth, he famously sat in meditation under a Ficus religiosa tree now called the Bodhi Tree in the town of Bodh Gaya in the Gangetic plains region of South Asia. He gained insight into the workings of karma and his former lives, attained enlightenment, certainty about the Middle Way as the right path of spiritual practice to end suffering from rebirths in Saṃsāra; as a enlightened Buddha, he attracted followers and founded a Sangha. Now, as the Buddha, he spent the rest of his life teaching the Dharma he had discovered, died at the age of 80 in Kushinagar, India. Buddha's teachings were propagated by his followers, which in the last centuries of the 1st millennium BCE became over 18 Buddhist sub-schools of thought, each with its own basket of texts containing different interpretations and authentic teachings of the Buddha.
The Four Truths express the basic orientation of Buddhism: we crave and cling to impermanent states and things, dukkha, "incapable of satisfying" and painful. This keeps us caught in saṃsāra, the endless cycle of repeated rebirth and dying again, but there is a way to liberation from this endless cycle to the state of nirvana, namely following the Noble Eightfold Path. The truth of dukkha is the basic insight that life in this mundane world, with its clinging and craving to impermanent states and things is dukkha, unsatisfactory. Dukkha can be translated as "incapable of satisfying," "the unsatisfactory nature and the general insecurity of all conditioned phenomena". Dukkha is most translated as "suffering," but this is inaccurate, since it refers not to episodic suffering, but to the intrinsically unsat