The lumia is called the pear lemon, since its shape resembles a pear. It is called French lime and sometimes sweet lemon though it is not sweet. In German, the lumia is called Patriarch-Citrone, Süsse Limone or Birnenlumie. In Chinese it is called Lu mi, in Japanese Rumii, Chanh Pháp; the fruit resembles a pear in shape, has a thick peel and is not juicy. Like a citron, it can grow to a formidable size. There is variety of Lumia called Pomme D'Adammo or Adam's apple, is included under the name Citrus lumia, according to Risso & Poit, the variety name is pomum adami; the most known origin for the Lumia is from the Mediterranean basin. The Lumia is classified as Citrus limon var. lumia by Swingle which places it under the taxonomy of lemon, Citrus medica L. var. lumia, that suggests it is similar to citron. Lumias represent several distinct citrus hybrids. Lumias are referred to as a citron hybrid, because of its size, thick peel and dryness of pulp. Pomo d'Adamo was described by Johann Christoph Volkamer as a Cedrato, Italian for a citron hybrid, whilst Cedro refers to a true citron.
A recent genomic analysis of several species called'lemons' or'limes' revealed that the various individual lumias have different genetic backgrounds. The'Hybride Fourny' was found to be an F1 hybrid of a citron- pomelo cross, while the'Jaffa lemon' was a more complex cross between the two species an F2 hybrid; the Pomme d'Adam arose from a citron-micrantha cross, while two other lumias, the ‘Borneo’ and ‘Barum’ lemons, were found to be citron-pomelo-micrantha mixes. In The Citrus Industry, Hodgson would write of the lumias: According to a Japanese study of 1996, the albedo extract of the Lumia, was shown to possess the highest inhibitory activity against cyclooxygenase, among other citrus studied. Flavedo extract of ripe Lumia inhibited cyclooxygenase to the same degree as the albedo, more than the pulp extract. MADDI Taklit. Pérez-Román, E. Maiza-Benabdesselam, F. Khettal B. Talon M. Ibanez-Gonzalez V. 2018. New Citrus chloroplast haplotypes revealed by molecular markers using Algerian and Spanish accessions.
Genet Resour Crop Evol 65: 2199. Https://doi.org/10.1007/s10722-018-0685-7 Citrus Pages Citrus Variety Collection website USDA page Zitrusgarten Agrumes Baches Tintory Citrus Plants Good Photo of Lumia
Container gardening or pot gardening is the practice of growing plants, including edible plants in containers instead of planting them in the ground. A container in gardening is a small and portable object used for displaying live flowers or plants, it may take the form of a pot, tub, basket, barrel or hanging basket. Pots, traditionally made of terracotta but now more plastic, window boxes have been the most seen. Small pots are called flowerpots. In some cases, this method of growing is used for ornamental purposes; this method is useful in areas where the soil or climate is unsuitable for the plant or crop in question. Using a container is generally necessary for houseplants. Limited growing space, or growing space, paved over, can make this option appealing to the gardener. Additionally, this method is popular for urban horticulture on balconies of apartments and condominiums where gardeners lack the access to the ground for a traditional garden. Containers range from teacups to complex automatic-watering irrigation systems.
This flexibility in design is another reason container gardening. They can be found on porches, front steps, in urban locations, on rooftops. Sub-irrigated planters are a type of container. Potting material must be loose and allow drainage to offer proper aeration for roots to breathe, preventing root rot. Re-potting is the action of placing an potted plant into a larger or smaller pot. A pot that fits a plant's root system better is used. Plants are re-potted according to the size of their root system. Most plants need to be re-potted every few years because they become "pot-bound" or "root-bound". Plants' roots can sense its surroundings, including the size of the pot it is in, increasing the pot size allows plant size to increase proportionally. Many types of plants are suitable for the container, including decorative flowers, cacti and small trees. There are many advantages to growing plants in containers, namely: Less risk of soil-borne disease Virtually eliminate weed problems Mobile plants gives more control over moisture, sunlight & temperature Great addition to the interior of the house.
University of Illinois Container Gardening Guide Container Vegetable Gardening
Sapindales is an order of flowering plants. Well-known members of Sapindales include citrus; the APG III system of 2009 includes it in the clade malvids with the following nine families: Anacardiaceae Biebersteiniaceae Burseraceae Kirkiaceae Meliaceae Nitrariaceae Rutaceae Sapindaceae SimaroubaceaeThe APG II system of 2003 allowed the optional segregation of families now included in the Nitrariaceae. In the classification system of Dahlgren the Rutaceae were placed in the order Rutales, in the superorder Rutiflorae; the Cronquist system of 1981 used a somewhat different circumscription, including the following families: Staphyleaceae Melianthaceae Bretschneideraceae Akaniaceae Sapindaceae Hippocastanaceae Aceraceae Burseraceae Anacardiaceae Julianiaceae Simaroubaceae Cneoraceae Meliaceae Rutaceae ZygophyllaceaeThe difference from the APG III system is not as large as may appear, as the plants in the families Aceraceae and Hippocastanaceae stay in this order at APG III. The species now composing the family Nitrariaceae in APG III belonged to this order in the Cronquist system as part of the family Zygophyllaceae, while those now in the family Kirkiaceae were present as part of the family Simaroubaceae.
Pell, Susan Katherine. Molecular systematics of the cashew family. Department of Biological Sciences, Louisiana State University. Archived from the original on 2008-08-21
The juice vesicles of a citrus fruit are the membranous content of the fruit's endocarp. All fruits from the Citranae subtribe, subfamily Aurantioideae, family Rutaceae have juice vesicles; the vesicles appear shiny and baglike. Vesicles come in two shapes: the superior and inferior, these are distinct. Citrus fruit with more vesicles weighs more than those with less vesicles. Fruits with many segments, such as the grapefruit or pomelo, have more vesicles per segment than fruits with less segments, such as the kumquat and mandarin; each vesicle in a segment in citrus fruits has the same shape and weight. About 5% of the weight of an average orange is made up of the membranes of the juice vesicles. Juice vesicles of the endocarp contain the components that provide the aroma associated with citrus fruit; these components are found in the flavedo oil sacs. The vesicles and their inner juices contain many vitamins and minerals as well as the taste and sweet acid fragrance. Pulp cells have thin membranes, they are less regular in shape than other plant cells.
They are very large and protect the seeds of the fruit. The color of the pulp is variable, depending on the ripening stage, it has the color of the outer peel. Juice vesicles hold a lot of juice; the pulp is removed from the juice by filtering it out. The juiciness of the pulp depends on the species, variety and the tree on which it grew. Close to 90% of the citrus fruit juice solids are recovered with extractors. Pectic enzymes can sometimes be added to lessen the thickness of these solids; the juice along with these solids can be combined to increase primary juice yields or sold as bases for fruit beverages. The juice solids become opaque from the pulp washing process, resulting in a less expensive source of fruit solids for food labeling in comparison to regular juice; the juice solids can be pasteurized and sold, but appear dark brown in color if they have not been washed properly before drying. The solids can be stored frozen or sold to beverage manufacturers, they provide fruit beverages that are sold with a higher appeal to a consumer and improved texture in the juice.
These opaque juice solids are known as cloud. Drum drying or freezing are two processes for preserving juice solids; when product enzymes are deactivated through heat stabilization, they are frozen. Light and air are used for drum-drying, but this process decreases the flavor and color of the solids. One of the main uses for juice vesicles is for added substance to animal feed. Residue from juice vesicle extraction, once dried, can be added to cattle feed. Cattle feed contains citrus pulp; this pulp helps in the long term to preserve nutrition, improve color, create a more pleasant odor to the feed. Adding juice pulp provides cattle with a richer source of vitamins and minerals in addition to a more palatable taste; the green fodder used for cattle can be supplemented with this feed containing juice vesicles. The other common use for juice vesicles is for enhancing beverages or creating inexpensive beverage bases. Jams and jellies, pulp in juice-based drinks, whole juices, yogurt products contain extracted juice vesicle residue, dried.
Some juices, juice concentrates, drinks containing juice contain previously-frozen juice vesicles. The cloud resulting from the vesicles have sugar solids containing vitamin C; this cloud from vesicles is a popular alternative to brominated vegetable oil or glycerol ester of wood rosin, which are other clouding agents. The citrus in the vesicles is more used for cloud for shipping products overseas. In Japan, many yogurts and beverages include added enlarged citrus juice vesicles; these vesicles combined with enzymes are removed from fruit. This results from the heat of the enzymes; when eaten, teeth break the vesicles and provide a fresh squirt of citrus juice to the beverage or yogurt which can create a pleasurable drinking or eating experience
Succade is the candied peel of any of the citrus species from the citron or Citrus medica, distinct with its extra-thick peel. However, the term is occasionally applied to the peel, root, or entire fruit or vegetable like parsley and cucurbita which have a bitter taste and are boiled with sugar to get a special "sweet and sour" outcome. Fruits which are candied include dates, pineapple and the rind of watermelon; the word succade is most derived from the Latin succidus, but according to others the name may have originated from the Hebrew word sukkah, the temporary booth that Jews build on the holiday of Sukkot. The citron, known in Hebrew as an etrog, is one of the symbolic Four Species used on that holiday. After Sukkot, some Jews make marmalade from it. While the word Succade was used in German, today it is called Zitronat; the French called it fruit glacé or fruit confit, is known as candied fruit or crystallized fruit. It has been around since the 14th century; the citron fruits are halved, immersed in seawater or ordinary salt water to ferment for about 40 days, the brine being changed every two weeks.
After partial de-salting and boiling to soften the peel, it is candied in a strong sugar solution. The candied peel put up in jars for future use. Candying is traditionally done in Livorno, where they gathered the Corsican citrons from Corsica, the Diamante citrons from Liguria, Naples and Sicily, the Greek citron from Greece through Trieste; the continual process of drenching the fruit in syrup causes the fruit to become saturated with sugar, thereby preventing the growth of spoilage microorganisms. In the Eastern Bloc, ersatz succade and orangeat were prepared from unripe tomatoes and carrots as citrus fruits were scarce goods that could not be produced domestically. Succade is sometimes used in cakes, as a filling for pound cake, plum pudding, sfogliatelle, fruitcake or ontbijtkoek, it is added to raisin bread. Succade is combined with currants, raisins and hazelnuts. Candied citron peel is coated in chocolate and eaten as confectionery. Chopped succade is used in cannoli. Recipes vary from region to region, but the general principle is to boil the fruit, steep it in strong sugar solutions for a number of weeks, dry off any remaining water.
The high sugar content of finished glacé fruits inhibits the growth of microorganisms, glacé fruits will keep for a number of years without any additional methods of preservation. Fruits that hold up well to being preserved in this manner include cherries, peaches, pears, pineapple, oranges, lemons and clementines. Angelica is seen in Western cooking except as a glacé fruit. Candied fruit Chenpi Fruit anatomy Mincemeat Orangeat Historic Food
Zest is a food ingredient, prepared by scraping or cutting from the outer, colorful skin of unwaxed citrus fruits such as lemon, orange and lime. Zest is used to add flavor to foods. In terms of fruit anatomy, the zest is obtained from the flavedo, referred to as zest; the flavedo and white pith of a citrus fruit together makes up its peel. The amounts of both flavedo and pith are variable among citrus fruits, may be adjusted by the manner in which they are prepared. Citrus peel may be used fresh, candied, or pickled in salt. For culinary use, a zester, vegetable peeler, paring knife, or a surform tool is used to scrape or cut zest from the fruit. Alternatively, the peel is sliced excess pith cut away; the white portion of the peel under the zest may be unpleasantly bitter and is avoided by limiting the peeling depth. Some citrus fruits have so little white mesocarp; the zest and mesocarp vary with the genetics of the fruit. Fruit with peels that are all flavedo are mandarines; the mesocarp of pummelo relatives is more bitter.
The lemon is a hybrid of pummelo and mandarin. The mesocarp is edible, is used to make succade. Zest is used to add flavor to different pastries and sweets, such as pies, cookies, puddings, confectionery and chocolate. Zest is added to certain dishes, sauces and salads. Zest is a key ingredient in a variety of sweet and sour condiments, including lemon pickle, lime chutney, marmalade. Lemon liqueurs and liquors such as Licor de oro require zest. Zest is used in some cocktails not only for flavor and aroma but for color as a garnish. For use as a cocktail garnish, zest is cut in a long spiral called a twist. Cocktails featuring a twist include Horse's Neck. For maximum flavor and aroma, as in mulled wine, zest is cut from the fruit with a knife; the fungicide enilconazole is a known carcinogen used to grow citrus crops. An exposure standard governing the outer skin of a citrus fruit would differ from an exposure standard governing the fruit pulp. Depending on the chemical present and the degree of concern, a consumer might wish to wash or scrub an item of citrus fruit prior to zesting the peel.
The Corsican citron is a citron variety that contains a non-acidic pulp. The name is from its most original cultivation center, today, at the French Island of Corsica or Corse, it is said to be one of the first citrus fruit to reach the Corsican soil. Traditionally, it was one of the most important varieties employed in Succade production; the fruit used to be shipped to Genoa, where it was de-pulped in the large centers in Livorno, hence its name the Citron of Commerce. With 45,000 tons per year, Corsica was once the world’s leading producer of citron; the historian Laurence Pinelli explains: For a short period of time Genoese merchants, who always supplied fruit for the Jewish ritual of Etrog, used to ship some amount of this Corsican variety, while there was not enough available from Diamante. This tradition terminated due to competition with the Greek citron, considered to be of extraordinary beauty. Today, the citron is cooked with sugar to produce a jam; this slow-growing tree reaches a height of about 3 to 4 meters and spreading, rather small according to different varieties.
Medium-thorny with some large, stout spines. The fragrant blossom appears in March–April and lasts until September, producing good honey with honey bees. Flowers and new growth are not purple-tinted; the tree produces large fruit, ellipsoid to slightly obovate. Color lemon-yellow. Rind thick and fleshy, sweet with some bitter after-taste. Flesh crisp and solid. Seeds white yellowish; this giant citron can weigh up to 4 kg. Citrons and their hybrids U. C. Riverside Citrus medica Purdue University Alimea Citrons Citrus Pages Citrus medica Home Citrus Growers Plant Immigrants The Cultivated Oranges and Lemons The Pharmaceutical Journal-Consular report Citron Leaves book, the trade of Corsican citrons through Leghorn and/or the United States The Gardeners Chronicle Biennial Report Report Google Books Parliamentary Papers The Dublin REview Monthly Consular Bulletin Victoria Science