Buddhist socialism is a political ideology which advocates socialism based on the principles of Buddhism. Both Buddhism and socialism seek to provide an end to suffering by analyzing its conditions and removing its main causes through praxis. Both seek to provide a transformation of personal consciousness to bring an end to human alienation and selfishness. People who have been described as Buddhist socialists include Buddhadasa Bhikkhu, B. R. Ambedkar S. W. R. D. Bandaranaike, Han Yong-un, Seno’o Girō, U Nu, Uchiyama Gudō, Norodom Sihanouk. Bhikkhu Buddhadasa coined the phrase "Dhammic socialism", he believed. Look at the birds: we will see that they eat only as much food as their stomachs can hold, they cannot take more than that. Look down at the ants and insects:, all they can do. Look at the trees: trees imbibe only as much nourishment and water as the trunk can hold, cannot take in any more than that; therefore a system in which people cannot encroach on each other’s rights or plunder their possessions is in accordance with nature and occurs and, how it has become a society continued to be one, until trees became abundant, animals became abundant, human beings became abundant in the world.
The freedom to hoard was controlled by nature in the form of natural socialism. Han Yong-un felt. In an interview published in 1931, Yong-un spoke of his desire to explore Buddhist Socialism. I am planning to write about Buddhist socialism. Just like there is Christian socialism as a system of ideas in Christianity, there must be Buddhist socialism in Buddhism. Tenzin Gyatso, the Fourteenth Dalai Lama of Tibet has said that: Buddhist economics Engaged Buddhism Religious socialism Komeito Dhammic Socialism, a Buddhist response to social suffering
Gabaculine is a occurring neurotoxin first isolated from the bacteria Streptomyces toyacaensis, which acts as a potent and irreversible GABA transaminase inhibitor, a GABA reuptake inhibitor. Gabaculine is known as 3-amino-2,3-dihydrobenzoic acid hydrochloride and 5-amino cyclohexa-1,3 dienyl carboxylic acid. Gabaculine had an effect on convulsivity in mice. Gabaculine includes a comparable structure to a dihydrobenzene ring; this comparable GABA structure is used in order to be able to take the place of GABA during the first steps of transamination, including transaldimination and 1,3-prototrophic shift to the pyridoxamine imine. Following this, a proton from the dihydrobenzene ring is abstracted by an enzymatic base, thus causing the ring to become aromatic; the aromatic stabilization energy of the aromatic ring is what causes this reaction to be irreversible, thus causing the complex not to react further. Animal studies to determine the effect of gabaculine on GABA levels in the brain were conducted around the 1970s.
These in vivo studies involved the use of mice that underwent intravenous administration of this drug. Each of these studies concluded that gabaculine has a great potential to increase the GABA levels in the brain of these mice in a time dependent manner. Along with determining the effect of GABA levels, in vivo studies were conducted to investigate the ability of gabaculine to inhibit convulsions in mice. Results indicated that gabaculine provided a clear anticonvulsant effect against seizures induced by high doses of chemoconvulsants or electroshock; the toxicity of this compound was investigated using animal mouse models. This study showed that at anticonvulsant doses, gabaculine is potent and toxic when compared to other GABA transaminase inhibitors, with an ED50 of 35 mg/kg and LD50 of 86 mg/kg; because of this potential lethal effect, gabaculine was proved to be too toxic for use as a drug however, it can still be used as a compound to alter GABA levels in studies of experimental epilepsy.
Gabaculine has not been approved by the FDA as a pharmaceutical entity. This compound is not considered a hazardous substance according to OSHA 29 CFR 1910.1200
The Kallawaya are an itinerant group of traditional healers living in the Andes of Bolivia. They live in a mountainous area north of La Paz, they are direct descendants of Tiwanaku culture. According to the UNESCO Safeguarding Project, the Kallawaya can be traced to the pre-Inca period; the Kallawaya performed brain surgery as early as 700 CE and knew how to prevent and treat malaria with quinine before the Europeans. They helped to save thousands of lives during the construction of the Panama Canal. According to Enrique Oblitas Poblete, a Bolivian ethnobotanical specialist, Kallawaya may be a corruption of khalla-wayai or k'alla or k'alli wayai. Kallawaya doctors, are known as the naturopathic healers of Inca kings, as keepers of science knowledge, principally the pharmaceutical properties of vegetables and minerals. Most Kallawaya healers understand how to use 300 herbs, while specialists are familiar with 600 herbs. Kallawaya women are midwives, treat gynecological disorders, pediatric patients.
Kallawaya healers travel through northwestern Bolivia and parts of Argentina, Ecuador and Peru. They are on foot, walking ancient Inca trails, through the tropics, mountain valleys and highland plateaus, while looking for traditional herbs. Prior to leaving their homes to heal the sick, the Kallawayas perform a ceremonial dance; the dance and regalia are expressed as the yatiri. The choreography is noted for the llantucha of suri, clothing made of rhea feathers and used as protection against the elements while they travel to their patients, carrying khapchos that contain herbs and talismans. Groups of musicians perform Kantu, playing drums and pan flutes during the ritual ceremonies to establish contact with the spirit world before the healer visits patients; the language of their trade is the Kallawaya language, a language based on Quechua grammar but retaining an esoteric vocabulary for terms reflecting medicinal knowledge, which appears to be a remnant of the vocabulary of the now extinct Puquina language.
For general conversation, they speak the more common Quechua language. Abdel-Malek, S, et al. 1995. Drug Leads from the Kallawaya Herbalists of Bolivia. 1. Background, Rationale and Anti-HIV Activity. Journal of Ethnopharmacology. 50, no. 3: 157. Bastien, Joseph William. Healers of the Andes: Kallawaya Herbalists and Their Medicinal Plants. Salt Lake City: University of Utah Press, 1987. ISBN 0-87480-278-4 Janni, Kevin D, Joseph W Bastien. 2004. Special Section on Medicinal Plants – Exotic Botanicals in the Kallawaya Pharmacopoeia. Economic Botany. 58: S274. Krippner, S. and E. S. Glenney. 1997. The Kallawaya Healers of the Andes; the Humanistic Psychologist: Bulletin of the Division of Humanistic Psychology, Division 32 of the American Psychological Association. 25, no. 2: 212. Articles list, various authors, prepared by Dr. K. David Harrison, Swarthmore University Encyclopædia Britannica on Kallawaya people Encyclopædia Britannica Photo of Kallawaya near Charazani, Bolivia Kallawaya by Living Tongues Institute for Endangered Languages