Universal Pictures is an American film studio owned by Comcast through the Universal Filmed Entertainment Group division of its wholly owned subsidiary NBCUniversal. Founded in 1912 by Carl Laemmle, Mark Dintenfass, Charles O. Baumann, Adam Kessel, Pat Powers, William Swanson, David Horsley, Robert H. Cochrane, Jules Brulatour, it is the oldest surviving film studio in the United States, the world's fifth oldest after Gaumont, Pathé, Nordisk Film, the oldest member of Hollywood's "Big Five" studios in terms of the overall film market, its studios are located in Universal City and its corporate offices are located in New York City. Universal Pictures is a member of the Motion Picture Association of America, was one of the "Little Three" majors during Hollywood's golden age. Universal Studios was founded by Carl Laemmle, Mark Dintenfass, Charles O. Baumann, Adam Kessel, Pat Powers, William Swanson, David Horsley, Robert H. Cochrane and Jules Brulatour. One story has Laemmle watching a box office for hours, counting patrons and calculating the day's takings.
Within weeks of his Chicago trip, Laemmle gave up dry goods to buy the first several nickelodeons. For Laemmle and other such entrepreneurs, the creation in 1908 of the Edison-backed Motion Picture Trust meant that exhibitors were expected to pay fees for Trust-produced films they showed. Based on the Latham Loop used in cameras and projectors, along with other patents, the Trust collected fees on all aspects of movie production and exhibition, attempted to enforce a monopoly on distribution. Soon and other disgruntled nickelodeon owners decided to avoid paying Edison by producing their own pictures. In June 1909, Laemmle started the Yankee Film Company with partners Abe Julius Stern; that company evolved into the Independent Moving Pictures Company, with studios in Fort Lee, New Jersey, where many early films in America's first motion picture industry were produced in the early 20th century. Laemmle broke with Edison's custom of refusing to give screen credits to performers. By naming the movie stars, he attracted many of the leading players of the time, contributing to the creation of the star system.
In 1910, he promoted Florence Lawrence known as "The Biograph Girl", actor King Baggot, in what may be the first instance of a studio using stars in its marketing. The Universal Film Manufacturing Company was incorporated in New York on April 30, 1912. Laemmle, who emerged as president in July 1912, was the primary figure in the partnership with Dintenfass, Kessel, Swanson and Brulatour. All would be bought out by Laemmle; the new Universal studio was a vertically integrated company, with movie production and exhibition venues all linked in the same corporate entity, the central element of the Studio system era. Following the westward trend of the industry, by the end of 1912 the company was focusing its production efforts in the Hollywood area. On March 15, 1915, Laemmle opened the world's largest motion picture production facility, Universal City Studios, on a 230-acre converted farm just over the Cahuenga Pass from Hollywood. Studio management became the third facet of Universal's operations, with the studio incorporated as a distinct subsidiary organization.
Unlike other movie moguls, Laemmle opened his studio to tourists. Universal became the largest studio in Hollywood, remained so for a decade. However, it sought an audience in small towns, producing inexpensive melodramas and serials. In its early years Universal released three brands of feature films—Red Feather, low-budget programmers. Directors included Jack Conway, John Ford, Rex Ingram, Robert Z. Leonard, George Marshall and Lois Weber, one of the few women directing films in Hollywood. Despite Laemmle's role as an innovator, he was an cautious studio chief. Unlike rivals Adolph Zukor, William Fox, Marcus Loew, Laemmle chose not to develop a theater chain, he financed all of his own films, refusing to take on debt. This policy nearly bankrupted the studio when actor-director Erich von Stroheim insisted on excessively lavish production values for his films Blind Husbands and Foolish Wives, but Universal shrewdly gained a return on some of the expenditure by launching a sensational ad campaign that attracted moviegoers.
Character actor Lon Chaney became a drawing card for Universal in the 1920s, appearing in dramas. His two biggest hits for Universal were The Phantom of the Opera. During this period Laemmle entrusted most of the production policy decisions to Irving Thalberg. Thalberg had been Laemmle's personal secretary, Laemmle was impressed by his cogent observations of how efficiently the studio could be operated. Promoted to studio chief, Thalberg was giving Universal's product a touch of class, but MGM's head of production Louis B. Mayer lured Thalberg away from Universal with a promise of better pay. Without his guidance Universal became a second-tier studio, would remain so for several decades. In 1926, Universal opened a production unit in Germany, Deutsche Universal-Film AG, under the direction of Joe Pasternak; this unit produced three to four films per year until 1936, migrating to Hungary and Austria in the face of Hitler's increasing domination of central Europe. With the advent of sound, these productions were made in the German language or Hungarian or Polish.
In the U. S. Universal Pictures did not distribute any of this subsidiary's films, but at least some of them were exhibited through othe
United States Army
The United States Army is the land warfare service branch of the United States Armed Forces. It is one of the seven uniformed services of the United States, is designated as the Army of the United States in the United States Constitution; as the oldest and most senior branch of the U. S. military in order of precedence, the modern U. S. Army has its roots in the Continental Army, formed to fight the American Revolutionary War —before the United States of America was established as a country. After the Revolutionary War, the Congress of the Confederation created the United States Army on 3 June 1784 to replace the disbanded Continental Army; the United States Army considers itself descended from the Continental Army, dates its institutional inception from the origin of that armed force in 1775. As a uniformed military service, the U. S. Army is part of the Department of the Army, one of the three military departments of the Department of Defense; the U. S. Army is headed by a civilian senior appointed civil servant, the Secretary of the Army and by a chief military officer, the Chief of Staff of the Army, a member of the Joint Chiefs of Staff.
It is the largest military branch, in the fiscal year 2017, the projected end strength for the Regular Army was 476,000 soldiers. S. Army was 1,018,000 soldiers; as a branch of the armed forces, the mission of the U. S. Army is "to fight and win our Nation's wars, by providing prompt, land dominance, across the full range of military operations and the spectrum of conflict, in support of combatant commanders"; the branch participates in conflicts worldwide and is the major ground-based offensive and defensive force of the United States. The United States Army serves as the land-based branch of the U. S. Armed Forces. Section 3062 of Title 10, U. S. Code defines the purpose of the army as: Preserving the peace and security and providing for the defense of the United States, the Commonwealths and possessions and any areas occupied by the United States Supporting the national policies Implementing the national objectives Overcoming any nations responsible for aggressive acts that imperil the peace and security of the United StatesIn 2018, the Army Strategy 2018 articulated an eight-point addendum to the Army Vision for 2028.
While the Army Mission remains constant, the Army Strategy builds upon the Army's Brigade Modernization by adding focus to Corps and Division-level echelons. Modernization, reform for high-intensity conflict, Joint multi-domain operations are added to the strategy, to be completed by 2028; the Continental Army was created on 14 June 1775 by the Second Continental Congress as a unified army for the colonies to fight Great Britain, with George Washington appointed as its commander. The army was led by men who had served in the British Army or colonial militias and who brought much of British military heritage with them; as the Revolutionary War progressed, French aid and military thinking helped shape the new army. A number of European soldiers came on their own to help, such as Friedrich Wilhelm von Steuben, who taught Prussian Army tactics and organizational skills; the army fought numerous pitched battles and in the South in 1780–1781, at times using the Fabian strategy and hit-and-run tactics, under the leadership of Major General Nathanael Greene, hit where the British were weakest to wear down their forces.
Washington led victories against the British at Trenton and Princeton, but lost a series of battles in the New York and New Jersey campaign in 1776 and the Philadelphia campaign in 1777. With a decisive victory at Yorktown and the help of the French, the Continental Army prevailed against the British. After the war, the Continental Army was given land certificates and disbanded in a reflection of the republican distrust of standing armies. State militias became the new nation's sole ground army, with the exception of a regiment to guard the Western Frontier and one battery of artillery guarding West Point's arsenal. However, because of continuing conflict with Native Americans, it was soon realized that it was necessary to field a trained standing army; the Regular Army was at first small and after General St. Clair's defeat at the Battle of the Wabash, the Regular Army was reorganized as the Legion of the United States, established in 1791 and renamed the United States Army in 1796; the War of 1812, the second and last war between the United States and Great Britain, had mixed results.
The U. S. Army did not conquer Canada but it did destroy Native American resistance to expansion in the Old Northwest and it validated its independence by stopping two major British invasions in 1814 and 1815. After taking control of Lake Erie in 1813, the U. S. Army seized parts of western Upper Canada, burned York and defeated Tecumseh, which caused his Western Confederacy to collapse. Following U. S. victories in the Canadian province of Upper Canada, British troops who had dubbed the U. S. Army "Regulars, by God!", were able to capture and burn Washington, defended by militia, in 1814. The regular army, however proved they were professional and capable of defeating the British army during the invasions of Plattsburgh and Baltimore, prompting British agreement on the rejected terms of a status quo ante bellum. Two weeks after a treaty was signed, Andrew Jackson defeated the British in the Battle of New Orleans and Siege of Fort St. Philip, became a national hero. U. S. troops and sailors captured HMS Cyane and Penguin in the final engagements of the war.
Per the treaty, both sides (the United S
What's My Line?
What's My Line? is a panel game show that ran in the United States on the CBS Television Network from 1950 to 1967, with several international versions and subsequent U. S. revivals. The game requires celebrity panelists to question a contestant in order to determine his or her employment, i.e. "line," with panelists being called on to identify a weekly celebrity "mystery guest" while blindfolded. It is the longest-running U. S. primetime network television game-show. Moderated by John Charles Daly and with regular panelists Dorothy Kilgallen, Arlene Francis, Bennett Cerf, What's My Line? won three Emmy Awards for "Best Quiz or Audience Participation Show" in 1952, 1953, 1958 and the Golden Globe for Best TV Show in 1962. After its nullification by CBS in 1967, it returned in syndication as a daily production, moderated by Wally Bruner and by Larry Blyden, which ran from 1968 to 1975. There have been several international versions, radio versions, a live stage version. In 2013, TV Guide ranked it #9 in its list of the 60 greatest game shows ever.
Produced by Mark Goodson and Bill Todman for CBS Television, the show was called Occupation Unknown before deciding on the name What's My Line? The original series, broadcast live, debuted on Thursday, February 2, 1950, at 8:00 p.m. ET. After airing alternate Wednesdays alternate Thursdays on October 1, 1950, it had settled into its weekly Sunday 10:30 p.m. ET slot where it would remain until the end of its network run on September 3, 1967. Starting in July 1959 and continuing for 8 straight years, until July 1967, when John Daly was due to appear in Moscow, the show would record episodes onto Quadruplex videotape for playback at a future date; this was state-of-the-art technology, Daly praised it upon his return from Moscow. In such instances, there would be two shows a day; the cast and crew began taking "Summer breaks" from the show in July 1961, through July 1967. The host called the moderator, was veteran radio and television newsman John Charles Daly. Clifton Fadiman, Eamonn Andrews, Random House co-founding publisher and panelist Bennett Cerf substituted on the four occasions when Daly was unavailable.
The show featured a panel of four celebrities. On the initial program of February 2, 1950, the panel was former New Jersey governor Harold Hoffman, columnist Dorothy Kilgallen, poet Louis Untermeyer, psychiatrist Richard Hoffmann; the panel varied somewhat in the following weeks, but after the first few broadcasts, during the show's earliest period the panel consisted of Kilgallen, actress Arlene Francis and comedy writer Hal Block. At various times, a regular panelist might take a vacation or be absent from an episode due to outside commitments. On these occasions, a guest panelist would take their spot; the most frequent guest panelist was Arlene Francis's husband Martin Gabel, who appeared 112 times over the years. Publisher Bennett Cerf replaced Untermeyer as a regular panelist in 1951, comedian Steve Allen replaced Block in 1953. Allen left in 1954 to launch The Tonight Show, he was replaced by comedian Fred Allen, who remained on the panel until his death in 1956. Following Fred Allen's death, he was not replaced on a permanent basis.
For the majority of the show's network run, between 1956 and 1965, the panel therefore consisted of Kilgallen, Francis and a fourth guest panelist. After Kilgallen's death in 1965, she was not replaced with a permanent panelist. For the show's final two years, the panel consisted of Cerf and two guests. Regular announcers included Lee Vines, who served from 1950 to 1955, Hal Simms, who served from 1955 to 1961, Ralph Paul, whose tenure was confined to 1961, Johnny Olson the best known of Goodson-Todman's television announcers, whose tenure began in 1961 and ran till 1967. What's My Line? was a guessing game in which the four panelists attempted to determine the occupation of a guest. In the case of the famous mystery guest each week, the panel sought to determine the identity of the contestant. Panelists were required to probe by asking only yes-no questions. A typical episode featured two standard rounds plus one mystery guest round. On the occasions on which there were two mystery guests, the first would appear as the first contestant.
For the first few seasons, the contestant would first meet the panel up close, for a casual inspection, the panel was allowed one initial guess. Beginning in 1955 Daly greeted and seated the contestant, who met the panel at the end of the game. Additionally, starting April 17, 1955, the panel stopped taking initial guesses; the contestant's line was revealed to the studio and home audiences, Daly would tell the panel whether the contestant was salaried or self-employed, from 1960 on, dealt in a product or a service. A panelist chosen by Daly would begin the game. If his question elicited a yes answer, he continued questioning; when a question was answered no, questioning passed to the next panelist and $5 was added to the prize. The amount of the prize was tallied by Daly. A contestant won the top prize of $50 by giving ten no answers, or if time ran out, with Daly flipping all the cards; as Daly noted, "Ten flips and they are a flop!" Daly explained, after the show had finished its run on CBS, the maximum payout of $50 was to ensure the game was played only for enjoyment, that there could never be the appearance of impropriet
Louis Francis Cristillo, professionally known as Lou Costello, was an American actor, best known for his film comedy double act with straight man Bud Abbott. Costello had started as an athlete, before working in burlesque on Broadway, where he stood-in for Abbott’s partner who had failed to show up, they formally teamed up in 1935. Their signature routine, "Who's on First?", was carried through to radio and to their film debut One Night in the Tropics and Buck Privates. The duo would go on to make 36 films. During World War II, they were among the most popular entertainers in the world, sold $85 million in war bonds. A winter tour of army bases caused a recurrence of the rheumatic fever which Costello had contracted in childhood, his health was badly affected from on, worsened by the death of his infant son, they launched their own long-running radio show in 1942, a live TV show. But by 1955, they were felt to be overexposed, their film contract was terminated, the partnership split soon afterwards.
Louis Francis Cristillo was born on March 6, 1906, in Paterson, New Jersey, the son of Helen Rege and Sebastiano Cristillo. His father was Italian and his mother was an American of French and Italian ancestry, he was considered a gifted athlete. He excelled in basketball and was once the New Jersey state free throw champion, he fought as a boxer under the name "Lou King". He took his professional name from actress Helene Costello. On January 30, 1934, Costello married a burlesque dancer, their first child, Patricia "Paddy" Costello, was born in 1936, followed by Carole on December 23, 1938, Lou Jr. on November 6, 1942. On August 15, 1947, their last child, was born; as a young man, Costello was a great admirer of silent movie comedian Charlie Chaplin. In 1927, Costello hitchhiked to Hollywood to become an actor, but could only find work as a laborer or extra at Metro-Goldwyn-Mayer and Warner Bros, his athletic skill brought him occasional work as a stunt man, notably in The Trail of'98. He can be spotted sitting ringside in the Laurel and Hardy film The Battle of the Century.
In 1929, with the advent of talking pictures, he headed back east intending to get the requisite stage experience. He stopped in St. Joseph and convinced a local burlesque producer to hire him as a Dutch comic. By the end of the year he was back in New York and soon began working in burlesque on the Mutual Burlesque wheel during the Great Depression. After the Mutual Wheel collapsed, Costello went to work for the Minskys, where he crossed paths with a talented producer and straight man named Bud Abbott. In 1935, they first worked together at the Eltinge Theatre on 42nd Street in New York City when Abbott's partner failed to show. Abbott and Costello formally teamed up in 1936, their first disagreement was over a booking in a minstrel show at the Steel Pier in Atlantic City, New Jersey. Costello wanted to take the gig. Costello offered to give Abbott a larger split of their salary, Abbott agreed. Abbott and Costello were signed by the William Morris talent agency, which succeeded in landing them featured roles and national exposure on The Kate Smith Hour, a popular variety show, in 1938.
The team's signature routine, "Who's on First?", made its radio debut on Smith's show that year. Many of the team's sketches were further polished by John Grant, hired soon after the team joined the radio show, they had their own program, The Abbott and Costello Show, on radio from 1942 to 1949. Their success on the Smith program led to their appearance in a Broadway musical in 1939, The Streets of Paris; the following year they were signed to a movie contract with Universal Pictures. They only had supporting roles in their first picture, One Night in the Tropics, but stole the film with their classic routines, including a much-shortened version of "Who's On First?". The team's breakthrough picture, was Buck Privates, released early in 1941, they became the No. 3 Box Office Stars of 1941. The duo made 36 films from 1940 to 1956, were among the most popular and highest-paid entertainers in the world during World War II. Among their most popular films are Buck Privates, Hold That Ghost, Who Done It?, Pardon My Sarong, The Time of Their Lives, Buck Privates Come Home and Costello Meet Frankenstein and Abbott and Costello Meet the Invisible Man.
The team appeared on radio throughout the 1940s. On October 8, 1942, they launched their own weekly show on NBC, sponsored by Camel cigarettes. In the summer of 1942, the team went on a 35-day cross-country tour to sell War Bonds; the Treasury Department credited them with the sale of $85 million in bonds. In March 1943, after completing a winter tour of army bases, Costello had an attack of rheumatic fever and was unable to work for six months. On November 4 of that year, he returned to the team's popular radio show, but upon arriving at the NBC studio, Costello received word that his infant son, Lou Jr. had accidentally drowned in the family pool. During an afternoon nap, the baby worked loose one of the slats on his crib, climbed out and fell into the pool, unnoticed by the nanny; the baby was just two days short of his first birthday. Lou had asked his wife to keep Butch up that night so the boy could hear his father on the radio fo
Abbott and Costello
Abbott and Costello were an American comedy duo composed of Bud Abbott and Lou Costello, whose work on radio and in film and television made them the most popular comedy team of the 1940s and early 1950s. Their patter routine "Who's on First?" is one of the best-known comedy routines of all time in the world, set the framework for many of their best-known comedy bits. While they had crossed paths a few times the two comedians first worked together in 1935 at the Eltinge Burlesque Theater on 42nd Street in New York City, now the lobby of an AMC Theatres movie complex, their first performance resulted from Abbott's regular partner becoming ill. Decades when AMC moved the old theater 168 ft further west on 42nd Street to its current location, giant balloons of Abbott and Costello were rigged to appear to pull it. Other performers in the show, including Abbott's wife, encouraged a permanent pairing; the duo built an act by refining and reworking numerous burlesque sketches with Abbott as the devious straight man and Costello as the dimwitted comic.
The team's first known radio broadcast was on The Kate Smith Hour on February 3, 1938. At first, the similarities between their voices made it difficult for radio listeners to tell them apart during their rapid-fire repartee; as a result, Costello affected a childish voice. "Who's on First?" was first performed for a national radio audience the following month. They performed on the program as regulars for two years, while landing roles in a Broadway revue, The Streets of Paris, in 1939. After debuting their own program, The Abbott and Costello Show, as Fred Allen's summer replacement in 1940, Abbott and Costello joined Edgar Bergen and Charlie McCarthy on The Chase and Sanborn Hour in 1941. Two of their films were adapted for Lux Radio Theater that year, their program returned in its own weekly time slot starting on October 8, 1942 and Camel cigarettes as sponsor. The Abbott and Costello Show mixed comedy with musical interludes. Regulars and semi-regulars on the show included Artie Auerbach, Elvia Allman, Iris Adrian, Mel Blanc, Wally Brown, Sharon Douglas, Verna Felton, Sidney Fields, Frank Nelson, Martha Wentworth and Benay Venuta.
Ken Niles was the show's longtime announcer, doubling as an exasperated foil to Costello, who insulted his on-air wife. Niles was succeeded by Michael Roy, alternating over the years with Jim Doyle; the show went through several orchestras, including those of Ennis, Charles Hoff, Matty Matlock, Matty Malneck, Jack Meakin, Will Osborne, Fred Rich, Leith Stevens and Peter van Steeden. The show's writers included Howard Harris, Hal Fimberg, Parke Levy, Don Prindle, Eddie Cherkose, Leonard B. Stern, Martin Ragaway, Paul Conlan and Eddie Forman, as well as producer Martin Gosch. Sound effects were handled by Floyd Caton. Guest stars included Frank Sinatra, The Andrews Sisters and Lucille Ball. In 1947 the show moved to ABC. During their time on ABC the duo hosted a 30-minute children's radio program on Saturday mornings; the program featured child announcer Johnny McGovern. It finished its run in 1949. In 1940, Universal Studios signed them for One Night in the Tropics. Cast in supporting roles, they stole the show with several classic routines, including the "Who's on First?" routine.
Universal signed them to a two-picture contract. Their second film, Buck Privates, directed by Arthur Lubin and co-starring The Andrews Sisters, was a massive hit, earning $4 million at the box office and launching Abbott and Costello as stars, their next film was a haunted house comedy, Oh, Charlie!. However Buck Privates was so successful that the studio decided to delay its release so the team could hastily make and release a second service comedy, In The Navy, co-starring crooner Dick Powell and the Andrews Sisters; this film out-grossed Buck Privates. Loew's Criterion in Manhattan was open until 5 a.m. to oblige over 49,000 customers during the film's first week. Oh, Charlie was put back into production to add music featuring the Andrews Ted Lewis; the film was released as Hold That Ghost. The duo next made Ride'Em Cowboy, with Dick Foran, but its release was delayed so they could appear in a third service comedy, Keep'Em Flying; this was their last film with Arthur Lubin. All of these films were big hits, Abbott and Costello were voted the third biggest box office attraction in the country in 1941.
Universal loaned the team to Metro-Goldwyn-Mayer for Rio Rita. During filming, on December 8, 1941, a day after the attack on Pearl Harbor and Costello had their hand and foot prints set in concrete at what was "Grauman's Chinese Theatre". Back at Universal they made a spoof of South Sea Island movies. In 1942 exhibitors voted them the top box office stars in the country, their earnings for the fiscal year were $789,026.) The team did a 35-day tour during the summer of 1942 to sell War Bonds. The Treasury Department credited them with $85 million in sales. After the tour the team made It Ain't Hay, from a story by Damon Runyon. Costello was stricken with rheumatic fever upon his return from a winter tour of army bases in March 1943 and was bedridden for six months. On November 4, 1943, the same day that Costel
Broadway theatre known as Broadway, refers to the theatrical performances presented in the 41 professional theatres, each with 500 or more seats located in the Theater District and Lincoln Center along Broadway, in Midtown Manhattan, New York City. Along with London's West End theatre, Broadway theatre is considered to represent the highest level of commercial theatre in the English-speaking world; the Theater District is a popular tourist attraction in New York City. According to The Broadway League, for the 2017–2018 season total attendance was 13,792,614 and Broadway shows had US$1,697,458,795 in grosses, with attendance up 3.9%, grosses up 17.1%, playing weeks up 2.8%. The majority of Broadway shows are musicals. Historian Martin Shefter argues that "'Broadway musicals', culminating in the productions of Richard Rodgers and Oscar Hammerstein, became enormously influential forms of American popular culture" and contributed to making New York City the cultural capital of the Western Hemisphere.
New York did not have a significant theatre presence until about 1750, when actor-managers Walter Murray and Thomas Kean established a resident theatre company at the Theatre on Nassau Street, which held about 280 people. They presented Shakespeare ballad operas such as The Beggar's Opera. In 1752, William Hallam sent a company of twelve actors from Britain to the colonies with his brother Lewis as their manager, they established a theatre in Williamsburg and opened with The Merchant of Venice and The Anatomist. The company moved to New York in the summer of 1753, performing ballad operas and ballad-farces like Damon and Phillida; the Revolutionary War suspended theatre in New York, but thereafter theatre resumed in 1798, the year the 2,000-seat Park Theatre was built on Chatham Street. The Bowery Theatre opened followed by others. By the 1840s, P. T. Barnum was operating an entertainment complex in Lower Manhattan. In 1829, at Broadway and Prince Street, Niblo's Garden opened and soon became one of New York's premiere nightspots.
The 3,000-seat theatre presented all sorts of non-musical entertainments. In 1844, Palmo's Opera House opened and presented opera for only four seasons before bankruptcy led to its rebranding as a venue for plays under the name Burton's Theatre; the Astor Opera House opened in 1847. A riot broke out in 1849 when the lower-class patrons of the Bowery objected to what they perceived as snobbery by the upper class audiences at Astor Place: "After the Astor Place Riot of 1849, entertainment in New York City was divided along class lines: opera was chiefly for the upper middle and upper classes, minstrel shows and melodramas for the middle class, variety shows in concert saloons for men of the working class and the slumming middle class."The plays of William Shakespeare were performed on the Broadway stage during the period, most notably by American actor Edwin Booth, internationally known for his performance as Hamlet. Booth played the role for a famous 100 consecutive performances at the Winter Garden Theatre in 1865, would revive the role at his own Booth's Theatre.
Other renowned Shakespeareans who appeared in New York in this era were Henry Irving, Tommaso Salvini, Fanny Davenport, Charles Fechter. Theatre in New York moved from downtown to midtown beginning around 1850, seeking less expensive real estate. In the beginning of the 19th century, the area that now comprises the Theater District was owned by a handful of families and comprised a few farms. In 1836, Mayor Cornelius Lawrence opened 42nd Street and invited Manhattanites to "enjoy the pure clean air." Close to 60 years theatrical entrepreneur Oscar Hammerstein I built the iconic Victoria Theater on West 42nd Street. Broadway's first "long-run" musical was a 50-performance hit called The Elves in 1857. In 1870, the heart of Broadway was in Union Square, by the end of the century, many theatres were near Madison Square. Theatres did not arrive in the Times Square area until the early 1900s, the Broadway theatres did not consolidate there until a large number of theatres were built around the square in the 1920s and 1930s.
New York runs continued to lag far behind those in London, but Laura Keene's "musical burletta" The Seven Sisters shattered previous New York records with a run of 253 performances. It was at a performance by Keene's troupe of Our American Cousin in Washington, D. C. that Abraham Lincoln was shot. The first theatre piece that conforms to the modern conception of a musical, adding dance and original music that helped to tell the story, is considered to be The Black Crook, which premiered in New York on September 12, 1866; the production was five-and-a-half hours long, but despite its length, it ran for a record-breaking 474 performances. The same year, The Black Domino/Between You, Me and the Post was the first show to call itself a "musical comedy". Tony Pastor opened the first vaudeville theatre one block east of Union Square in 1881, where Lillian Russell performed. Comedians Edward Harrigan and Tony Hart produced and starred in musicals on Broadway between 1878 and 1890, with book and lyrics by Harrigan and music by his father-in-law David Braham.
These musical comedies featured characters and situations taken from the everyday life of New York's lower classes and represented a significant step forward from vaudeville and burlesque, towards a more literate form. They starred high quality singers, instead of the women of questionable repute who had starred in earlier m
The Catskill Mountains known as the Catskills, are a physiographic province of the larger Appalachian Mountains, located in southeastern New York. As a cultural and geographic region, the Catskills are defined as those areas close to or within the borders of the Catskill Park, a 700,000-acre forest preserve forever protected from many forms of development under New York state law. Geologically, the Catskills are a mature dissected plateau, a once-flat region subsequently uplifted and eroded into sharp relief by watercourses; the Catskills form the northeastern end of the Allegheny Plateau. The Catskills are well known in American culture, both as the setting for films and works of art, including many 19th-century Hudson River School paintings, as well as for being a favored destination for vacationers from New York City in the mid-20th century; the region's many large resorts gave countless young stand-up comedians an opportunity to hone their craft. In addition, the Catskills have long been a haven for artists and writers in and around the towns of Phoenicia and Woodstock.
Nicolaes Visscher I's 1656 map of New Netherland located the Landt van Kats Kill at the mouth of Catskill creek. The region to the south is identified as Hooge Landt van Esopus, a reference to a local band of northern Lenape Native Americans who inhabited the banks of the Hudson and hunted in the highlands along the Esopus Creek. While the meaning of the name and the namer are settled matters and why the area is named "Catskills" is a mystery. Mountain lions were known to have been in the area when the Dutch arrived in the 17th century and may have been a reason for the name; the confusion over the origins of the name led over the years to variant spellings such as Kaatskill and Kaaterskill, both of which are still used: the former in the regional magazine Kaatskill Life, the latter as the name of a mountain peak and a waterfall. The supposed Indian name for the range, was created by a white man in the mid-19th century to drum up business for a resort. It, persists today as the name of a school district and as the name of a Boy Scout summer camp.
The Catskills are located 100 miles north-northwest of New York City and 40 miles southwest of Albany, starting west of the Hudson River. The Catskills occupy much or all of five counties:, with some areas falling into the boundaries of southwestern Albany, eastern Broome, northwestern Orange, southern Otsego counties. Foothills are found in southeastern Chenango, southern Montgomery, northern Otsego, western Schenectady counties. At the eastern end of the range, the mountains begin quite with the Catskill Escarpment rising up from the Hudson Valley; the western boundary is far less certain, as the mountains decline in height and grade into the rest of the Allegheny Plateau. Nor is there a consensus on where the Catskills end to the north or south; the Pocono Mountains, to the immediate southwest in Pennsylvania, are a part of the Allegheny Plateau. The Catskills contain more than 30 peaks above 3,500 parts of six important rivers; the Catskill Mountain 3500 Club is an organization whose members have climbed all the peaks in the Catskills over 3,500 feet.
The highest mountain, Slide Mountain in Ulster County, has an elevation of 4,180 feet. Climatically, the Catskills lie within the Allegheny Highlands forests ecoregion. Although the Catskills are sometimes compared with the Adirondack Mountains farther north, the two mountain ranges are not geologically related, as the Adirondacks are a continuation of the Canadian Shield; the Shawangunk Ridge, which forms the southeastern edge of the Catskills, is part of the geologically distinct Ridge-and-Valley province and is a continuation of the same ridge known as Kittatinny Mountain in New Jersey and Blue Mountain in Pennsylvania. The Catskill Mountains are more of a dissected plateau than a series of mountain ranges; the sediments that make up the rocks in the Catskills were deposited when the ancient Acadian Mountains in the east were rising and subsequently eroding. The sediments traveled westward and formed a great delta into the sea, in the area at that time; the escarpment of the Catskill Mountains is near the former edge of this delta, as the sediments deposited in the northeastern areas along the escarpment were deposited above sea level by moving rivers, the Acadian Mountains were located where the Taconic Mountains are located today.
Finer sediment was deposited further westward, thus the rocks change from gravel conglomerates to sandstone and shale. Further west, these fresh water deposits intermingle with shallow marine sandstone and shale until the end, in deeper water limestone; the uplift and erosion of the Acadian Mountains was occurring during the Devonian and early Mississippian period. Over that time, thousands of feet of these sediments built up moving the Devonian seashore further west. A meteor impact occurred in the shallow sea 375 mya, creating a 10 km diameter crater; this crater filled with sediments and became Panther Mountain through the process of uplift and erosion. By the middle of the Mississippian period, the uplift stopped, the Acadian Mountains had been eroded so much that sediments no longer flowed across the Catskill Delta. Over time, the sediments were buried by more sediments from other areas, until the original Devonian and Mi