The Pacific Ocean is the largest and deepest of the Earths oceanic divisions. It extends from the Arctic Ocean in the north to the Southern Ocean in the south and is bounded by Asia and Australia in the west, the Mariana Trench in the western North Pacific is the deepest point in the world, reaching a depth of 10,911 metres. Both the center of the Water Hemisphere and the Western Hemisphere are in the Pacific Ocean, the oceans current name was coined by Portuguese explorer Ferdinand Magellan during the Spanish circumnavigation of the world in 1521, as he encountered favourable winds on reaching the ocean. He called it Mar Pacífico, which in both Portuguese and Spanish means peaceful sea, important human migrations occurred in the Pacific in prehistoric times. Long-distance trade developed all along the coast from Mozambique to Japan and therefore knowledge, extended to the Indonesian islands but apparently not Australia. By at least 878 when there was a significant Islamic settlement in Canton much of trade was controlled by Arabs or Muslims.
In 219 BC Xu Fu sailed out into the Pacific searching for the elixir of immortality, from 1404 to 1433 Zheng He led expeditions into the Indian Ocean. The east side of the ocean was discovered by Spanish explorer Vasco Núñez de Balboa in 1513 after his expedition crossed the Isthmus of Panama and he named it Mar del Sur because the ocean was to the south of the coast of the isthmus where he first observed the Pacific. Later, Portuguese explorer Ferdinand Magellan sailed the Pacific East to West on a Castilian expedition of world circumnavigation starting in 1519, Magellan called the ocean Pacífico because, after sailing through the stormy seas off Cape Horn, the expedition found calm waters. The ocean was often called the Sea of Magellan in his honor until the eighteenth century, sailing around and east of the Moluccas, between 1525 and 1527, Portuguese expeditions discovered the Caroline Islands, the Aru Islands, and Papua New Guinea. In 1542–43 the Portuguese reached Japan, in 1564, five Spanish ships consisting of 379 explorers crossed the ocean from Mexico led by Miguel López de Legazpi and sailed to the Philippines and Mariana Islands.
The Manila galleons operated for two and a half centuries linking Manila and Acapulco, in one of the longest trade routes in history, Spanish expeditions discovered Tuvalu, the Marquesas, the Cook Islands, the Solomon Islands, and the Admiralty Islands in the South Pacific. In the 16th and 17th century Spain considered the Pacific Ocean a Mare clausum—a sea closed to other naval powers, as the only known entrance from the Atlantic the Strait of Magellan was at times patrolled by fleets sent to prevent entrance of non-Spanish ships. On the western end of the Pacific Ocean the Dutch threatened the Spanish Philippines, Spain sent expeditions to the Pacific Northwest reaching Vancouver Island in southern Canada, and Alaska. The French explored and settled Polynesia, and the British made three voyages with James Cook to the South Pacific and Australia and the North American Pacific Northwest, one of the earliest voyages of scientific exploration was organized by Spain in the Malaspina Expedition of 1789–1794.
It sailed vast areas of the Pacific, from Cape Horn to Alaska and the Philippines, New Zealand and the South Pacific. Growing imperialism during the 19th century resulted in the occupation of much of Oceania by other European powers, and later, Japan, in Oceania, France got a leading position as imperial power after making Tahiti and New Caledonia protectorates in 1842 and 1853 respectively. After navy visits to Easter Island in 1875 and 1887, Chilean navy officer Policarpo Toro managed to negotiate an incorporation of the island into Chile with native Rapanui in 1888, by occupying Easter Island, Chile joined the imperial nations
Body of water
A body of water or waterbody is any significant accumulation of water, generally on a planets surface. The term most often refers to oceans and lakes, a body of water does not have to be still or contained, streams and other geographical features where water moves from one place to another are considered bodies of water. Most are naturally occurring geographical features, but some are artificial, there are types that can be either. For example, most reservoirs are created by engineering dams, most harbors are naturally occurring bays, but some harbors have been created through construction. Bodies of water that are navigable are known as waterways, some bodies of water collect and move water, such as rivers and streams, and others primarily hold water, such as lakes and oceans. The term body of water can refer to a reservoir of water held by a plant, note that there are some geographical features involving water that are not bodies of water, for example waterfalls and rapids. Arm of the sea - sea arm, used to describe a sea loch, arroyo - a usually dry creek bed or gulch that temporarily fills with water after a heavy rain, or seasonally.
Artificial lake or artificial pond - see reservoir or impoundment, barachois - a lagoon separated from the ocean by a sand bar. Bay - an area of water bordered by land on three sides, similar to, but smaller than a gulf, bayou - a slow-moving stream or a marshy lake. Bight - a large and often only slightly receding bay, or a bend in any geographical feature, billabong - see Oxbow lake, a pond or still body of water created when a river changes course and some water becomes trapped. Boil - see Seep Brook - a small stream, canal - an artificial waterway, usually connected to existing lakes, rivers, or oceans. Channel - the physical confine of a river, slough or ocean consisting of a bed. See stream bed and strait, earth scientists generally use the term to describe a circular or round inlet with a narrow entrance, though colloquially the term is sometimes used to describe any sheltered bay. Basin - a region of land where water from rain or snowmelt drains downhill into another body of water, such as a river, creek - an inlet of the sea, narrower than a cove.
Delta - the location where a river flows into an ocean, estuary, distributary or distributary channel - a stream that branches off and flows away from a main stream channel. Draw - a usually dry creek bed or gulch that temporarily fills with water after a heavy rain, fjord - a submergent landform which has occurred due to glacial activity. Glacier - a large collection of ice or a river that moves slowly down a mountain. Glacial Pothole - see Kettle Gulf - a part of a lake or ocean that extends so that it is surrounded by land on three sides, similar to, but larger than a bay, headland - an area of water bordered by land on three sides
An inlet is an indentation of a shoreline, usually long and narrow, such as a small bay or arm, that often leads to an enclosed body of salt water, such as a sound, lagoon, or marsh. In sea coasts, an inlet usually refers to the connection between a bay and the ocean and is often called an entrance or a recession in the shore of a sea, lake. A certain kind of created by glaciation is a fjord, typically but not always in mountainous coastlines. Complexes of large inlets or fjords may be called sounds, e. g. Puget Sound, Howe Sound, Karmsund. Some fjord-type inlets are called canals, e. g. Portland Canal, Lynn Canal, Hood Canal, and some are channels, e. g. Dean Channel and Douglas Channel. Tidal amplitude, wave intensity, and wave direction are all factors that influence sediment flux in inlets Alaska Panhandle British Columbia Coast Calanque Inside Passage Ria Bruun, stability of Tidal Inlets and Engineering. Amsterdam, Elsevier Scientific Pub. Co. p.510, be pub co Coastal Inlets Research Program Hood Canal on Google Maps
Carlsbad is an affluent seaside resort city occupying a 7-mile stretch of Pacific coastline in northern San Diego County, California. The city is 87 miles south of Los Angeles and 35 miles north of downtown San Diego and is part of the San Diego-Carlsbad and it is bordered by Oceanside to the north and San Marcos to the east and Encinitas to the south. Referred to as The Village by the Sea by locals, Carlsbad is a tourist destination, the citys estimated 2014 population was 112,299. Nearly every reliable fresh water creek had at least one native village, the site is located just south of todays Agua Hedionda Lagoon. The first European land exploration of Alta California, the Spanish Portolà expedition of 1769, during the Mexican period, in 1842, the southern portion of Carlsbad, was granted as Rancho Agua Hedionda to Juan María Marrón. In the 1880s a former sailor named John Frazier dug a well in the area and he began offering his water at the train station and soon the whistle-stop became known as Fraziers Station.
The naming of the town followed soon after, along with a marketing campaign to attract visitors. The area experienced a period of growth, with homes and businesses sprouting up in the 1880s, agricultural development of citrus fruits and olives soon changed the landscape. By the end of 1887, land prices fell throughout San Diego County, the community survived on the back of its fertile agricultural lands. The site of John Fraziers original well can still be found at Alt Karlsbad, in 1952, Carlsbad was incorporated to avoid annexation by its neighbor, Oceanside. The single-runway Palomar Airport opened in 1959 after County of San Diego officials decided to replace the Del Mar Airport, the airport was annexed to the City of Carlsbad in 1978 and renamed McClellan-Palomar Airport in 1982 after a local civic leader, Gerald McClellan. The first modern skateboard park, Carlsbad Skatepark, was built in March 1976 and it was located on the grounds of Carlsbad Raceway and was designed and built by inventors Jack Graham and John OMalley.
The site of the original Carlsbad Skatepark and Carlsbad Raceway was demolished in 2005 and is now an Industrial Park, two skateparks have since been developed. In March 1999, Legoland California was opened and it was the first Legoland theme park outside of Europe and is currently operated by Merlin Entertainments. Merlin Entertainments owns 70 percent of the shares, and the remaining 30 percent is owned by the LEGO group, Carlsbad is home to the nations largest desalination plant. Construction of the $1 billion Carlsbad Desalination Plant at the Encina Power Plant was completed in December 2015, the northern area of the city is part of a tri-city area consisting of northern Carlsbad, southern Oceanside and western Vista. Carlsbad has a semi-arid Mediterranean climate and averages 263 sunny days per year, winters are mild with periodic rain. Frost is rare along the coast, but sometimes occurs in valleys in December
San Diego County, California
San Diego County is a county in the southwestern corner of the state of California, in the United States. As of the 2010 census, the population was 3,095,313, making it Californias second-most populous county and the fifth-most populous in the United States. Its county seat is San Diego, the eighth-most populous city in the United States and it is the south-westernmost county in the 48 contiguous United States. San Diego County comprises the San Diego-Carlsbad Metropolitan Statistical Area, San Diego is part of the San Diego–Tijuana metropolitan area, the largest metropolitan area shared between the United States and Mexico. Greater San Diego ranks as the 38th largest metropolitan area in the Americas, San Diego County has 70 miles of coastline. Most of the county has a mild Mediterranean climate to climate, though there are mountains that receive frost. There are 16 naval and military installations of the U. S. Navy, U. S. Marine Corps, and these include the Naval Base San Diego, Marine Corps Base Camp Pendleton, Marine Corps Air Station Miramar, and Naval Air Station North Island.
From north to south, San Diego County extends from the borders of Orange County and Riverside County to the Mexico–United States border. From west to east, San Diego County stretches from the Pacific Ocean to its boundary with Imperial County, the area which is now San Diego County has been inhabited for more than 10,000 years by Kumeyaay, Luiseño, Cupeño and Cahuilla Indians. In 1542, the Portuguese-born explorer Juan Rodríguez Cabrillo, sailing for Spain, claimed San Diego Bay for the Spanish Empire, and he named the site San Miguel. In November 1602, Sebastián Vizcaíno surveyed the harbor and what are now Mission Bay and Point Loma and named the area for Saint Didacus, a Spaniard more commonly known as San Diego. European settlement in what is now San Diego County began with the founding of the San Diego Presidio and Mission San Diego de Alcalá by Spanish soldiers and this county was part of Alta California under the Viceroyalty of New Spain until the Mexican declaration of independence.
From 1821 through 1848 this area was part of Mexico, San Diego County became part of the United States as a result of the Treaty of Guadalupe Hidalgo in 1848, ending the U. S. -Mexican War. San Diego County was one of the counties of California. At the time of its establishment in 1850, San Diego County was relatively large, as such it included areas of what are now Inyo County and San Bernardino County, as well as all of what is now Riverside County and Imperial County. During the part of the 19th century, there were changes in the boundaries of San Diego County. The most recent changes were the establishments of Riverside County in 1893, according to the U. S. Census Bureau, the county has an area of 4,526 square miles, of which 4,207 square miles is land and 319 square miles is water. The county is larger in area than the states of Rhode Island
California Department of Fish and Wildlife
The California Department of Fish and Wildlife, formerly known as the California Department of Fish and Game, is a state agency under the California Natural Resources Agency. The Department of Fish and Wildlife manages and protects the fish, plant. It is responsible for related recreational, scientific, and it works to prevent illegal poaching. The Game Act was passed in 1852 by the California State Legislature, the Game Act closed seasons in 12 counties for quail, partridge and wood ducks, elk and antelope. A second legislative action enacted the same year protected salmon runs, in 1854, the Legislature extended the act to include all counties of California. In 1860, protection controls were extended for trout, Lake Merritt was made the first game refuge of California in 1869, believed to be the first in the United States. In 1870, the Legislature, with the support of Governor Henry Huntly Haight, the Board stipulated that fish ladders were now required at state dams. The Board outlawed explosives or other substances, and created a $500 fine for violations.
In 1870, the first fish ladder in the state was built on a tributary of the Truckee River, over the next 30 years, the Board of Fish Commissioners were given authority over game in the state as well as establishing hunting and fishing licenses. In 1909, the Board of Fish Commissioners changed its name to the Fish, the Division of Fish and Game was established in 1927, set up within the Department of Natural Resources. In 1951, the Reorganization Act elevated the Division of Fish and Game to the Department of Fish, California Fish and Game collaborated with the indigenous Native American Tribes to ensure their proper fishing rights. The Yurok tribe has collaborated with them as recently as 2011, the Department helped figure out the official count of fish killed in the 2002 Fish Kill on the Klamath River. The Klamath river is important to the tribes that live along that river. By 2012, California was one of only 13 states still using Game in the title of their wildlife agency, the State Legislature changed the Departments name to Fish and Wildlife on January 1,2013.
The legislation followed recommendations of a 51-member stakeholder advisory group,18 other states use the term wildlife, while the others generally use natural resources or conservation, in the titles of their Departments. This change reflects the trend toward expansion of the Agencies missions from sport fishing and hunting alone, to protection of non-game wildlife, in June 2015, the CDFW phased out lead ammunition for hunting on state land in order to keep lead out of backcountry ecosystems. The Department of Fish and Wildlife divides the State of California into seven management regions whose boundaries mostly correspond to county borders, northern Region, Del Norte, Lassen, Modoc, Siskiyou and Trinity counties. North Central Region, Amador, Calaveras, Colusa, El Dorado, Lake, Placer, Sacramento, San Joaquin, Sutter and Yuba counties
North County (San Diego area)
North County is a region in the northern area of San Diego County, California. It is the second-most populous region in the county, with a population of 826,985. Beach culture is prominent in the area, and many of the regions beaches. The name dates to at least the 1970s, when many of the communities in the area were yet to become incorporated cities, in modern times, North County continues to grow as a highly influential region of Greater San Diego. The top twenty-five employers in San Diego County are closer to the North County city of Carlsbad than San Diego proper, both coastal and inland North County contain two types of topography. In North County Coastal, the land is flat with low rolling hills. The beaches are sandy with occasional tidepools and rocky reefs, in some cases the coast is dominated by bluff type geography, where the land meeting the ocean sharply drops into the sea with a short beach. In some cases, such as in Encinitas, a city is bisected by a coastal foothill ridge. The foothills of mountains soon become visible as one travels further inland, such peaks include San Marcos Mountain, Palomar Mountain, Twin Peaks in Poway, Mount Woodson in Ramona, and Iron Mountain in unincorporated territory between the two cities.
The coastal area becomes more rugged to the north, where the Santa Margarita Mountains dominate the area within the Marine Corps Base Camp Pendleton and creeks that flow west from the mountains farther inland mostly end up draining into the regions four main lagoons. Throughout their course these rivers are interrupted by lakes and reservoirs which support an array of native species. Definitions vary, but almost always include the communities and cities along Interstate 5 north of Carmel Valley Road and its has made notable efforts to preserve many marine environments, including lagoons and tidal wetlands, many of those being the final few on the South Coast. Unlike developments in many Orange County coastal cities, the lagoons, Major lagoons and inlets lining the coast from north to south include, Oceanside Harbor, Buena Vista Lagoon, Agua Hedionda Lagoon, Batiquitos Lagoon and San Elijo Lagoon. The lagoons provide valuable habitat for many birds, fish. The waters off the coast are very rich in species diversity, supporting large kelp forests.
Fish species included the tidewater goby, striped mullet, leopard sharks forage near the lagoons, and their pups frequent the shallow rocky reefs off the coast. Bird species included the blue heron, snowy plover, Ridgways rail. The lagoons support various species of shorebirds, wading birds, raptors, North County is known for its beaches, which stretch about thirty miles from Del Mar to San Onofre
Oceanside is a coastal city located on Californias South Coast. It is the third-largest city in San Diego County, the city had a population of 167,086 at the 2010 census. Together with Carlsbad and Vista, it forms a tri-city area, Oceanside is located just south of Marine Corps Base Camp Pendleton. Originally inhabited by Native Americans, the first European explorers arrived in 1769, Spanish missionaries under Father Junipero Serra founded Mission San Luis Rey de Francia on a former site of a Luiseño Indian village on the banks of the San Luis Rey River. In the early 19th century, the introduction of farming and grazing changed the landscape of what would become Oceanside, the area—like all of California—was under Spanish, in 1821 under Mexican rule, and the U. S. in 1848. In the late 1850s, Andrew Jackson Myers lived in San Joaquin County, a native of LaSalle County, Illinois, he returned in the late 1880s and lived in San Luis Rey. In 1882 Myers moved on the land that was the town site for Oceanside.
A patent for the land was issued in 1883 by the federal government and it was incorporated on July 3,1888. The city hall as of the early 21st century stands on the former Myers homestead, the town post office contains an oil-on-canvas mural, Air Mail, painted in 1937 by Elsie Seeds. Federally commissioned murals were produced from 1934 to 1943 in the United States through the Section of Painting and Sculpture, called the Section of Fine Arts, in the 20th century, Oceanside was a beach town devoted to activities on a 6-mile stretch of beaches. Residential areas like downtown, South Oceanside, and developments east of Interstate 5 are preserved and remodeled when these houses are considered to have historical value. In 1970, the Census Bureau reported citys population as 91. 0% white,5. 1% black and 1. 7% Asian, after 1970, the main focus of Oceanside was suburban development and a choice for newcomers to move into relatively affordable housing. Oceanside continues to be known for the value and appreciation as a home market.
According to the United States Census Bureau, the city has an area of 42.2 square miles. Traveling north on Interstate 5, Oceanside is the last city before Orange County, as the crow flies, it is roughly the same distance from Aliso Viejo as it is to downtown San Diego. Oceanside experiences a climate that is significantly tempered by maritime winds. The average high temperatures range from 64 °F to 77 °F, the 2010 United States Census reported that Oceanside had a population of 167,086. The population density was 3,961.8 people per square mile
San Diego Zoo
The San Diego Zoo is a zoo in Balboa Park, San Diego, housing over 3,700 animals of more than 650 species and subspecies. The San Diego Zoo was a pioneer in the concept of open-air and it is one of the few zoos in the world that houses and successfully breeds the giant panda. In 2013, the zoo added a new Koalafornia Adventure exhibit,2017 will see the opening of Africa Rocks. San Diego Zoo Global operates the San Diego Zoo Safari Park, the San Diego Zoo grew out of exotic animal exhibitions abandoned after the 1915 Panama-California Exposition. Dr. Harry M. Wegeforth founded the Zoological Society of San Diego, meeting October 2,1916 and he served as president of the society until 1941. A permanent tract of land in Balboa Park was set aside in August 1921, on the advice of the city attorney, it was agreed that the city would own all the animals, the zoo began to move in the following year. In addition to the animals from the Exposition, the zoo acquired a menagerie from the defunct Wonderland Amusement Park, ellen Browning Scripps financed a fence around the zoo so that it could begin charging an entrance fee to offset costs.
The publication ZooNooz commenced in early 1925, Animal collector Frank Buck went to work as director for the San Diego Zoo on June 13,1923, signed to a three-year contract by Wegeforth. William T. Hornaday, director of the Bronx Zoo, had recommended Buck for the job, but Buck quickly clashed with the strong-willed Wegeforth and left the zoo after three months to return to animal collecting. She served as zoo director from 1925 until 1953, for most of that time she was the only female zoo director in the world. She was succeeded as director by Dr. Charles Schroeder, the San Diego Zoo was a pioneer in building cageless exhibits. Wegeforth was determined to create moated exhibits from the start, until the 1960s, admission for children under 16 was free regardless of whether they were accompanied by a paying adult. The zoos Center for Reproduction of Endangered Species was founded in 1975 at the urging of Kurt Benirschke, CRES was renamed the division of Conservation and Research for Endangered Species in 2005 to better reflect its mission.
In 2009 CRES was significantly expanded to become the Institute for Conservation Research, an orangutan named Ken Allen was reported in several newspapers in the summer of 1985 for repeatedly escaping from the supposedly escape-proof orangutan enclosure. The worlds only albino koala in a facility was born September 1,1997, at the San Diego Zoo and was named Onya-Birri. The San Diego Zoo has the largest number of koalas outside of Australia, in 2014, a colony of African penguins arrived for the first time in the zoo since 1979. They will be moved into Africa Rocks when it opens sometime in 2017, in 2016, the last pangolin on display in North America, died at the zoo. In early 2015, two Wolf guenons monkeyed around outside of their Ituri Forest enclosure, one of the monkeys neared a fence line off of Route 163, but was brought back to safety without injury
Flamingos or flamingoes /fləˈmɪŋɡoʊz/ are a type of wading bird in the family Phoenicopteridae, the only family in the order Phoenicopteriformes. There are four species in the Americas and two species in the Old World. A similar etymology has the Latinate Greek term Phoenicopterus, literally blood red-feathered. ]Traditionally, the long-legged Ciconiiformes, probably a paraphyletic assemblage, have considered the flamingos closest relatives. Usually the ibises and spoonbills of the Threskiornithidae were considered their closest relatives within this order, earlier genetic studies, such as those of Charles Sibley and colleagues, supported this relationship. Relationships to the waterfowl were considered as well, especially as flamingos are parasitized by feather lice of the genus Anaticola, the peculiar presbyornithids were used to argue for a close relationship between flamingos and waders. Living flamingoes based on the work by John Boyd, six extant flamingo species are recognized by most sources, and were formerly placed in one genus, Phoenicopterus.
As a result of a 2014 publication, the family was reclassified into three genera, prehistoric species of flamingo, Phoenicopterus floridanus Brodkorb 1953 Phoenicopterus stocki Phoenicopterus siamensis Cheneval et al. They hold at least eleven morphological traits in common, which are not found in other birds, many of these characteristics have been previously identified on flamingos, but not on grebes. The fossil palaelodids can be considered evolutionarily, and ecologically, intermediate between flamingos and grebes, for the grebe-flamingo clade, the taxon Mirandornithes has been proposed. Alternatively, they could be placed in one order, with Phoenocopteriformes taking priority, flamingos usually stand on one leg while the other is tucked beneath their body. The reason for this behaviour is not fully understood, recent research indicates that standing on one leg may allow the birds to conserve more body heat, given that they spend a significant amount of time wading in cold water. However, the behaviour takes place in warm water, as well as standing in the water, flamingos may stamp their webbed feet in the mud to stir up food from the bottom.
Young flamingos hatch with greyish reddish plumage, but adults range from pink to bright red due to aqueous bacteria. A well-fed, healthy flamingo is more vibrantly colored and thus a more desirable mate, captive flamingos are a notable exception, many turn a pale pink as they are not fed carotene at levels comparable to the wild. Flamingos filter-feed on brine shrimp and blue-green algae and their bills are specially adapted to separate mud and silt from the food they eat, and are uniquely used upside-down. The filtering of food items is assisted by hairy structures called lamellae which line the mandibles, the pink or reddish color of flamingos comes from carotenoids in their diet of animal and plant plankton. These carotenoids are broken down into pigments by liver enzymes, the source of this varies by species, and affects the saturation of color. Flamingos whose sole diet is blue-green algae are darker in color compared to those who get it second hand, flamingos are very social birds, they live in colonies whose population can number in the thousands
United States Geological Survey
The United States Geological Survey is a scientific agency of the United States government. The scientists of the USGS study the landscape of the United States, its resources. The organization has four science disciplines, concerning biology, geology. The USGS is a research organization with no regulatory responsibility. The USGS is a bureau of the United States Department of the Interior, the USGS employs approximately 8,670 people and is headquartered in Reston, Virginia. The USGS has major offices near Lakewood, Colorado, at the Denver Federal Center, the current motto of the USGS, in use since August 1997, is science for a changing world. The agencys previous slogan, adopted on the occasion of its anniversary, was Earth Science in the Public Service. Prompted by a report from the National Academy of Sciences, the USGS was created, by a last-minute amendment and it was charged with the classification of the public lands, and examination of the geological structure, mineral resources, and products of the national domain.
This task was driven by the need to inventory the vast lands added to the United States by the Louisiana Purchase in 1803, the legislation provided that the Hayden and Wheeler surveys be discontinued as of June 30,1879. Clarence King, the first director of USGS, assembled the new organization from disparate regional survey agencies, after a short tenure, King was succeeded in the directors chair by John Wesley Powell. Administratively, it is divided into a Headquarters unit and six Regional Units, Other specific programs include, Earthquake Hazards Program monitors earthquake activity worldwide. The National Earthquake Information Center in Golden, Colorado on the campus of the Colorado School of Mines detects the location, the USGS runs or supports several regional monitoring networks in the United States under the umbrella of the Advanced National Seismic System. The USGS informs authorities, emergency responders, the media, and it maintains long-term archives of earthquake data for scientific and engineering research.
It conducts and supports research on long-term seismic hazards, USGS has released the UCERF California earthquake forecast. The USGS National Geomagnetism Program monitors the magnetic field at magnetic observatories and distributes magnetometer data in real time, the USGS operates the streamgaging network for the United States, with over 7400 streamgages. Real-time streamflow data are available online, since 1962, the Astrogeology Research Program has been involved in global and planetary exploration and mapping. USGS operates a number of related programs, notably the National Streamflow Information Program. USGS Water data is available from their National Water Information System database
Southern California, often abbreviated as SoCal, is a geographic and cultural region that generally comprises Californias 10 southernmost counties. The region is described as eight counties, based on demographics and economic ties, Los Angeles, Riverside, San Bernardino, San Diego, Santa Barbara. The more extensive 10-county definition, which includes Kern and San Luis Obispo counties, is used and is based on historical political divisions. Southern California is an economic center for the state of California. The 8-county and 10-county definitions are not used for the greater Southern California Megaregion, the megaregions area is more expansive, extending east into Las Vegas and south across the Mexican border into Tijuana.5 million people. With over 22 million people, Southern California contains roughly 60 percent of Californias population, located east of Southern California is the Colorado Desert and the Colorado River at the border with Arizona. The Mojave Desert is located at the border with the state of Nevada while towards the south is the Mexico–United States border, within Southern California are two major cities, Los Angeles and San Diego, as well as three of the countrys largest metropolitan areas.
With a population of 3,792,621, Los Angeles is the most populous city in California and the second most populous in the United States. South of Los Angeles and with a population of 1,307,402 is San Diego, the second most populous city in the state and the eighth most populous in the nation. The counties of Los Angeles, San Diego, San Bernardino, and Riverside are the five most populous in the state, the motion picture and music industry are centered in the Los Angeles area in Southern California. Hollywood, a district within Los Angeles, gives its name to the American motion picture industry, headquartered in Southern California are The Walt Disney Company, Sony Pictures, Universal, MGM, Paramount Pictures, 20th Century Fox, and Warner Brothers. Universal, Warner Brothers, and Sony run major record companies, Southern California is home to a large homegrown surf and skateboard culture. Companies such as Vans, Quiksilver, No Fear, RVCA, some of the worlds biggest action sports events, including the X Games, Boost Mobile Pro, and the U. S.
Open of Surfing, are all held in Southern California. Southern California is important to the world of yachting, the annual Transpacific Yacht Race, or Transpac, from Los Angeles to Hawaii, is one of yachtings premier events. The San Diego Yacht Club held the Americas Cup, the most prestigious prize in yachting, from 1988 to 1995, Southern California is home to many sports franchises and sports networks such as Fox Sports Net. Many locals and tourists frequent the Southern California coast for its popular beaches, the desert city of Palm Springs is popular for its resort feel and nearby open spaces. Southern California is not a geographic designation and definitions of what constitutes Southern California vary. Geographically, Californias North-South midway point lies at exactly 37°958.23 latitude, around 11 miles south of San Jose, when the state is divided into two areas, the term Southern California usually refers to the 10 southernmost counties of the state